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  1. 1. NEERAJ KUMAR ,AVTAR , (students) JITENDER MEHLA (Research Scholar) ,NDRI and Dr. S.K. Sood , Senior scientist,NDRI,Karnal DNA VACCINES
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>How DNA vaccine is made </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of delivery </li></ul><ul><li>How DNA vaccine works </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Current clinical trials </li></ul><ul><li>Safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>Future of DNA vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>DNA vaccine is DNA sequence used as a vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>This DNA Sequence code for antigenic protein of pathogen. </li></ul><ul><li>As this DNA inserted into cells it is translated to form antigenic protein. As this protein is foreign to cells , so immune response raised against this protein. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way ,DNA vaccine provide immunity against that pathogen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY <ul><li>In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in mice. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr. Margaret Liu found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenzae virus into mice produced complete immune response </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenzae & herpes simplex virus were started </li></ul>
  5. 5. DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines <ul><li>Uses only the DNA from infectious organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the risk of using actual infectious organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide both Humoral & Cell mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration is not required </li></ul><ul><li>Uses weakened or killed form of infectious organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Create possible risk of the vaccine being fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide primarily Humoral immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires Refrigeration. </li></ul>DNA vaccines Traditional vaccines
  6. 6. HOW DNA VACCINE IS MADE Viral gene Expression plasmid Plasmid with foreign gene Recombinant DNA Technology
  7. 7. Bacterial cell Transform into bacterial cell Plasmid DNA
  8. 8. Plasmid DNA get Amplified
  9. 9. Plasmid DNA Purified Ready to use
  10. 10. METHODS OF DELIVERY <ul><li>Syringe delivery:- </li></ul>Either intramuscularly or Intradermally
  11. 11. Contd.. <ul><li>Gene gun delivery:- </li></ul><ul><li>Adsorbed plasmid DNA </li></ul><ul><li>into gold particles </li></ul><ul><li>Ballastically accelerated </li></ul><ul><li>into body with gene gun. </li></ul>
  12. 12. HOW DNA VACCINE WORKS BY TWO PATHWAYS ENDOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is presented by cell in which it is produced EXOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is formed in one cell but presented by different cell
  13. 13. HOW DNA VACCINES WORK Muscle Cells Plasmid DNA +
  14. 14. mRNA Antigenic Protein Antigenic Peptides MHC-I Plasmid DNA Nucleus ENDOGENOUS PATHWAY
  15. 15. Multiply Memory T cells T- Helper Cell
  16. 16. EXOGENOUS PATHWAY Antigenic Protein come outside
  17. 17. Phagocytosed Antigen Presenting Cell Antigenic Peptides T- Helper Cell Cytokines Activated B-Cell Memory B-Cell Plasma B-Cell Memory Antibodies MHC-II
  18. 18. WHEN VIRUS ENTER IN THE BODY Viral Protein Memory T-Cell Antibodies
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Elicit both Humoral & cell mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on Antigen of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Long term immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration is not required </li></ul><ul><li>Stable for storage </li></ul>
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Limited to protein immunogen only </li></ul><ul><li>Extended immunostimulation leads to chronic inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Some antigen require processing which sometime does not occur </li></ul>
  21. 21. CURRENT CLINICAL TRIALS <ul><li>June 2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse </li></ul><ul><li>Horse acquired immunity against west </li></ul><ul><li>nile viruses </li></ul><ul><li>August 2007,DNA vaccination against multiple Sclerosis was reported as being effective </li></ul>
  22. 22. Safety Issues
  23. 23. Genetic Toxicity Integration of DNA vaccine into host Genome Insertional mutagenesis Chromosome instability Turn ON Oncogenes Turn OFF Tumor suppressor genes
  24. 24. Over Expression of DNA vaccine Acute or chronic inflammatory responses Destruction of normal tisues
  25. 25. Generation of Autoimmune diseases Anti DNA Antibodies Autoimmune diseases Autoimmune Myositis
  26. 26. Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid used is resistance to antibiotics for selection Raise the resistance to same antibiotic in the host
  27. 27. FUTURE PROSPECTS <ul><li>Plasmid with multiple genes provide immunity against many diseases in one booster </li></ul><ul><li>DNA vaccines against infectious diseases such as AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be available </li></ul>
  28. 28. CONCLUSION <ul><li>DNA vaccines are in their early phase. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no DNA vaccines in market at </li></ul><ul><li>present. </li></ul><ul><li>But this just the beginning . </li></ul><ul><li>DNA vaccines are going to be the vaccines of </li></ul><ul><li>next generation. </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>www.medscape.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.sciencedirect.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.nature.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.biokenyon.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.biolife.com </li></ul><ul><li>Immunology by Kuby 6 th Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Immunology by Tizard 4 th Edition </li></ul>
  30. 30. THANK YOU
  31. 31. Queries ?