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DNA VACCINES

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  • 1. NEERAJ KUMAR ,AVTAR , (students) JITENDER MEHLA (Research Scholar) ,NDRI and Dr. S.K. Sood , Senior scientist,NDRI,Karnal DNA VACCINES
  • 2. CONTENTS
    • Introduction
    • History
    • DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines
    • How DNA vaccine is made
    • Methods of delivery
    • How DNA vaccine works
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
    • Current clinical trials
    • Safety issues
    • Future of DNA vaccines
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • DNA vaccine is DNA sequence used as a vaccine.
    • This DNA Sequence code for antigenic protein of pathogen.
    • As this DNA inserted into cells it is translated to form antigenic protein. As this protein is foreign to cells , so immune response raised against this protein.
    • In this way ,DNA vaccine provide immunity against that pathogen.
  • 4. HISTORY
    • In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in mice.
    • In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr. Margaret Liu found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenzae virus into mice produced complete immune response
    • In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenzae & herpes simplex virus were started
  • 5. DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines
    • Uses only the DNA from infectious organisms.
    • Avoid the risk of using actual infectious organism.
    • Provide both Humoral & Cell mediated immunity
    • Refrigeration is not required
    • Uses weakened or killed form of infectious organism.
    • Create possible risk of the vaccine being fatal.
    • Provide primarily Humoral immunity
    • Usually requires Refrigeration.
    DNA vaccines Traditional vaccines
  • 6. HOW DNA VACCINE IS MADE Viral gene Expression plasmid Plasmid with foreign gene Recombinant DNA Technology
  • 7. Bacterial cell Transform into bacterial cell Plasmid DNA
  • 8. Plasmid DNA get Amplified
  • 9. Plasmid DNA Purified Ready to use
  • 10. METHODS OF DELIVERY
    • Syringe delivery:-
    Either intramuscularly or Intradermally
  • 11. Contd..
    • Gene gun delivery:-
    • Adsorbed plasmid DNA
    • into gold particles
    • Ballastically accelerated
    • into body with gene gun.
  • 12. HOW DNA VACCINE WORKS BY TWO PATHWAYS ENDOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is presented by cell in which it is produced EXOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is formed in one cell but presented by different cell
  • 13. HOW DNA VACCINES WORK Muscle Cells Plasmid DNA +
  • 14. mRNA Antigenic Protein Antigenic Peptides MHC-I Plasmid DNA Nucleus ENDOGENOUS PATHWAY
  • 15. Multiply Memory T cells T- Helper Cell
  • 16. EXOGENOUS PATHWAY Antigenic Protein come outside
  • 17. Phagocytosed Antigen Presenting Cell Antigenic Peptides T- Helper Cell Cytokines Activated B-Cell Memory B-Cell Plasma B-Cell Memory Antibodies MHC-II
  • 18. WHEN VIRUS ENTER IN THE BODY Viral Protein Memory T-Cell Antibodies
  • 19. ADVANTAGES
    • Elicit both Humoral & cell mediated immunity
    • Focused on Antigen of interest
    • Long term immunity
    • Refrigeration is not required
    • Stable for storage
  • 20. DISADVANTAGES
    • Limited to protein immunogen only
    • Extended immunostimulation leads to chronic inflammation
    • Some antigen require processing which sometime does not occur
  • 21. CURRENT CLINICAL TRIALS
    • June 2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse
    • Horse acquired immunity against west
    • nile viruses
    • August 2007,DNA vaccination against multiple Sclerosis was reported as being effective
  • 22. Safety Issues
  • 23. Genetic Toxicity Integration of DNA vaccine into host Genome Insertional mutagenesis Chromosome instability Turn ON Oncogenes Turn OFF Tumor suppressor genes
  • 24. Over Expression of DNA vaccine Acute or chronic inflammatory responses Destruction of normal tisues
  • 25. Generation of Autoimmune diseases Anti DNA Antibodies Autoimmune diseases Autoimmune Myositis
  • 26. Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid used is resistance to antibiotics for selection Raise the resistance to same antibiotic in the host
  • 27. FUTURE PROSPECTS
    • Plasmid with multiple genes provide immunity against many diseases in one booster
    • DNA vaccines against infectious diseases such as AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be available
  • 28. CONCLUSION
    • DNA vaccines are in their early phase.
    • There are no DNA vaccines in market at
    • present.
    • But this just the beginning .
    • DNA vaccines are going to be the vaccines of
    • next generation.
  • 29. References
    • www.medscape.com
    • www.wikipedia.org
    • www.sciencedirect.com
    • www.nature.com
    • www.biokenyon.com
    • www.biolife.com
    • Immunology by Kuby 6 th Edition
    • Immunology by Tizard 4 th Edition
  • 30. THANK YOU
  • 31. Queries ?

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