Level-4 Honours Option:
Comparative Immunology
       2006-2007
Timetable
General Information................................................................................................
General Information
The course traces the evolution of the vertebrate immune system by an examination of the defence syste...
Timetable
Date         Session    Staff             Subject

12/02/07         1      Mary Tatner       Introduction: Plant...
Session Summaries

Session 1: Introduction. Defence system of plants and invertebrates

Lecturer: Mary Tatner

Synopsis
Th...
Session 3: The amphibian defence system

Lecturer: Mary Tatner

Synopsis
The amphibians were the first vertebrate group to...
Session 5: Evolutionary aspects

Lecturer: Mary Tatner

Synopsis
This session will trace the evolutionary appearance of th...
Fehlbaum, P. et al. (1994) Insect immunity. Septic injury of Drosophila induces the synthesis of a potent antifungal pepti...
Session 10: Applied Fish Immunology: Immunoprophylaxis

Lecturer: Mary Tatner

Synopsis
The session will include a brief h...
Compare and contrast the manner in which immunoglobulin is passively transferred to the foetus/neonate amongst the
mammals...
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Division of Infection and Immunity

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Transcript of "Division of Infection and Immunity"

  1. 1. Level-4 Honours Option: Comparative Immunology 2006-2007
  2. 2. Timetable General Information....................................................................................................................................... 3 Venue................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Assessment ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Your opinion of the course ............................................................................................................................ 3 Timetable ......................................................................................................................................................... 4 Teaching Staff .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Recommended Reading................................................................................................................................. 4 Session Summaries ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Session 1: Introduction. Defence system of plants and invertebrates................................................................. 5 Session 2: The fish defence system .......................................................................................................................... 5 Session 3: The amphibian defence system.............................................................................................................. 6 Session 4: The reptilian and avian defence systems.............................................................................................. 6 Session 5: Evolutionary aspects................................................................................................................................ 7 Session 6: Evolutionary Aspects............................................................................................................................... 7 Session 7: Antimicrobial peptides in phylogeny ................................................................................................... 7 Session 8: Immune consequences of major evolutionary events......................................................................... 8 Session 9: Immune consequences of different modes of reproduction .............................................................. 8 Session 10: Applied Fish Immunology: Immunoprophylaxis ............................................................................. 9 Session 11: Contribution of unusual animal models to answering key questions in immunology ............... 9 Session 12: Mammalian antibody diversity............................................................................................................ 9 Session 13: New disciplines .................................................................................................................................... 10 Session 14: Construction of An Immunological Evolutionary tree/Consolidation session ........................... 10 The information in this document was believed to be correct and accurate when the document went to press. You will be notified of any necessary changes. Check the notice board and your e-mail messages regularly. 2
  3. 3. General Information The course traces the evolution of the vertebrate immune system by an examination of the defence systems in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. Key immunological events, such as the appearance of the lymphocyte, immune memory and the development of the MHC will be traced through phylogeny. The immune systems of the major groups of animals will be considered in the context of their overall morphology, physiology and life styles. The applied uses of comparative immunology will be considered, in particular, vaccine development for use in aquaculture and antimicrobial compounds from invertebrates. Topics will include: the morphological and functional characteristics of the defence systems in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals; the evolutionary emergence of a distinct thymus, phagocytic cells, complement, cytokines, cytotoxic cells, lymphocyte heterogeneity, immune memory, germinal centres, different Ig classes, the MHC and their immunological consequences; and the immune consequences of the emergence onto land, metamorphosis, ectothermy vs endothermy, different methods of reproduction and the passive transfer of immunity. Varied teaching methods will be employed: lectures, student presentations of key papers, student-led discussions, preparation of reports and posters. In the last session, an evolutionary tree of key immunological events will be constructed. The course includes sessions by an external guest lecturers, with the rest of the course being taught by staff from the Division of Infection and Immunity. Venue Sessions will be held on Monday, Wednesday and Friday mornings from 10am to 12.00 noon in weeks 6 – 10 of Term 2 and will be in the Joseph Black Building, Room A2-33b. Any changes to these arrangements will be posted on the Parasitology L4 notice board in the Joseph Black Building and communicated to students by e-mail. Assessment This option will be examined in a three hour paper in May. You will be required to answer 3 (out of a choice of 6) essay- type questions. Any changes to this format will be posted on the L4 Parasitology notice board in the Joseph Black Building, and the posted version is to be taken as the definitive version. Your opinion of the course At the end of the course you will be asked to complete a web-based questionnaire in which you can express your opinion of the sessions and how the course was run. We would be most grateful if you could help us by completing the questionnaire. 3
  4. 4. Timetable Date Session Staff Subject 12/02/07 1 Mary Tatner Introduction: Plant and Invertebrate defence systems 14/02/07 2 Mary Tatner Fish defence system 16/02/07 3 Mary Tatner Amphibian defence system 19/02/07 4 Mary Tatner Reptilian/Avian defence system 21/02/07 5 Mary Tatner Evolutionary appearance of: The thymus (MT), Phagocytes (Student), Lymphocyte (Student), heterogeneity (Student) 23/02/07 6 Mary Tatner Evolutionary appearance of: MHC (MT), Cytotoxic cells (Student), Cytokines (Student) 26/02/07 7 Malcolm Antibacterial compounds Kennedy 28/02/07 8 Mary Tatner Immune consequences of: Emergence onto land (MT), Ectothermy vs endothermy (Student), Metamorphosis (Student) 02/03/07 9 Mary Tatner Immune consequences of: Modes of reproduction (MT), Passive transfer of immunity (Student), Complement (Student) 05/03/07 10 Mary Tatner Fish Vaccination 07/03/07 11 Mary Tatner Unusual animal models Immunological Memory (Student), Germinal Centres (Student) 09/03/07 12 Rob Aitken Mammalian antibody diversity 12/03/07 13 Mary Tatner New disciplines 14/03/07 14 Mary Tatner Evolutionary tree/Consolidation Teaching Staff Name Location Ext. Email Mary Tatner Division of Infection and Immunity, Joseph Black 6246 m.tatner@bio.gla.ac.uk (Option Organiser) Building, University of Glasgow Rob Aitken Division of Infection and Immunity, Joseph Black 6659 r.aitken@bio.gla.ac.uk Building, University of Glasgow Malcolm Kennedy Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, 5819 m.kennedy@bio.gla.ac.uk Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow Recommended Reading Each session has recommended reading associated with it, but a good overall text for the course is: Immunology - A Comparative Approach (1994) Ed. R.J.Turner John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester ISBN 0 471 944009. There are 2 copies of this in the Main Library (Microbiol M8 1994-1) which are on Short Loan, and one in the James Herriot (Vet) Library. At the end of the CID is a list of general references on the evolution of immunity. Dr Tatner has copies of these, the papers for the student presentations, and the textbook cited, and you can borrow them from her on an overnight loan system. 4
  5. 5. Session Summaries Session 1: Introduction. Defence system of plants and invertebrates Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The session will include a broad outline of the various levels of immune capability exhibited by plants and by invertebrates from deuterostomes to acoelomates. Comparisons will be drawn between groups, considering differences in the light of anatomy, lifestyle and ecology. Learning objectives To acquire an appreciation of the defence system of plants To acquire an appreciation of the types of immune strategies shown by invertbrates To be aware of the major differences (and similarities) between the immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates Suggested reading Bayne, C.J. (1990) Phagocytosis and non-self recognition in invertebrates. Bioscience, 40, 723-731 Beck, G. and Habicht, G.S. (1996) Immunity and the invertebrates. Scientific American, 275, 42-46 Humphreys, T. and Reinherz, E. (1994) Invertebrate immune recognition, natural immunity and the evolution of positive selection. Immunology Today, 15, 316-320. Session 2: The fish defence system Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The structure and function of the immune system of teleosts will be described. Both the non-specific and specific immune reactions will be outlined, and emphasis placed on the ontogeny of these responses and the effect of temperature on them. The extent of, and level of sophistication of the defence mechanisms will be noted. Learning objectives To know the range and extent of immune responses possessed by fish To appreciate the structure of their lymphoid organs To appreciate the special importance of the non-specific immune response To understand how the responses develop in ontogeny, and the effects of temperature Suggested reading The Fish Immune System (1996) Editors G. Iwama and T.Nakanishi Volume 15 Fish Physiology Series, Eds. Hoar, W.S., Randall, D.J. and Farrell, A.P. Academic Press, USA Bly, J.E. and Clem, L.W. (1992) Temperature and teleost immune functions. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2, 159-172. Santarem, M., Novoa, B. and Figueras, A. (1997) Effects of beta-glucans on the non-specific immune response of turbot (Scopthalmus maximus L.) Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 7, 429-437. 5
  6. 6. Session 3: The amphibian defence system Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The amphibians were the first vertebrate group to emerge onto land, and this was accompanied by significant advances in the range and extent of their lymphoid structures and functions. These will be reviewed, and the particular value of amphibians for ontogenetic studies will be explored. The phenomenon of metamorphosis will be mentioned from the immunological viewpoint. Learning objectives To learn the major lymphoid structures and functions shown by amphibians To appreciate their usefulness as models for ontogenetic studies To understand the immunological consequences of metamorphosis Suggested reading Du Pasquier, L., Schwager, J. and Flajnik, M.F. (1989) The immune system of Xenopus. Annual Review of Immunology, 7, 251-275. Horton, J.D. (1988) Xenopus and developmental immunobiology: a review. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 12, 219-229. Ruben, L.N. et al. (1989) Amphibian metamorphosis: an immunologic opportunity. Bioessays, 10, 8-12. Session 4: The reptilian and avian defence systems Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The reptiles and birds, together with mammals, are amniotes and while reptiles have remained poikilothermic, birds have evolved endothermy. This has been reflected in advances in the level of sophistication in their immune systems, both in terms of structure and function, which will be described. Learning objectives To know the main lymphoid organs and immune responses of reptiles and birds To appreciate how differences in modes of reproduction affect immunology To appreciate how the evolution of endothermy affected the evolution of immune responses Suggested reading El Deeb, S.O. and Saad, A.-H.M. (1990) Ontogenic maturation of the immune system in reptiles. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 10, 353-364. Cohen, N. (1971) Reptiles as models for the study of immunity and its phylogenesis. Journal of the American Veterinary Association, 159, 1662-1671. Vainio, O. and Imhof, B.A. (1995) The immunology and developmental biology of the chicken. Immunology Today, 16, 365- 370 6
  7. 7. Session 5: Evolutionary aspects Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis This session will trace the evolutionary appearance of the thymus (M Tatner) There will then student presentations on: Phagocytic cells in phylogeny The extent of lymphocyte heterogeneity in vertebrates Learning Objectives To trace the development of the thymus gland from its first appearance to the situation found in mammals To understand the pivotal role of the phagocytic cell in both non-specific and specific immune responses To understand the extent of the T cell/B cell dichotomy in vertebrates Session 6: Evolutionary Aspects Lecture: Mary Tatner Synopsis This session will consider the Major Histocompatability system of lower vertebrates and vertebrates (Mary Tatner) There will then be student presentations on: The phylogeny of cytokines Cytotoxic/Natural killer cells throughout evolution Learning Objectives To understand the evolution of the Major Histocompatability system To appreciate the extent of cytokine-like activity in lower animals To appreciate the universality of and need for a cytotoxic cell in all organisms Session 7: Antimicrobial peptides in phylogeny Lecturer: Malcolm Kennedy Synopsis Antimicrobial peptides were first discovered in insects (the cercropins and the attacins) and only after some time was it realised that other invertebrates and mammals had similar compounds, and that they may provide an important barrier function against infection, even in vertebrates with their advanced adaptive immune system. The session will summarise the properties of the peptides, their role in anti-microbial defence reactions in insects, tissue-specificity and their induction following infection and at crucial stages in metamorphosis. Learning objectives To appreciate the structure and mode of operation of anti-microbial peptides To understand their role in non-specific defence reactions To understand the widespread occurrence of these compounds in nature To appreciate the potential of anti-microbial peptides for medical applications Suggested reading Marsh, J. and Goode, J.A. (Editors) Antimicrobial peptides. (1994) Ciba Foundation Symposium. 7
  8. 8. Fehlbaum, P. et al. (1994) Insect immunity. Septic injury of Drosophila induces the synthesis of a potent antifungal peptide with sequence homology to plant antifungal peptides. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269, 33159-33163. Cociancich, S., Bulet, P., Hetru, C. and Hoffman, J.A. (1994) The inducible antibacterial peptides of insects. Parasitology Today, 10, 132-139. Kato, Y. and Komatsu, S. (1996) ASABF, a novel cysteine-rich antibacterial peptide isolated from the nematode Ascaris suum. Purification, primary structure and molecular cloning of cDNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 30 Session 8: Immune consequences of major evolutionary events Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis This session will consider the immune consequences of the emergence onto land (Mary Tatner) There will then be student presentations on: A comparison of the immune systems of endotherms vs ectotherms Metamorphosis in amphibians Learning objectives To appreciate how the first emergence onto land profoundly affected the range and type of immune responses possible by virtue of the accompanying morphological changes To understand how the immune systems of animals which developed endothermy differs from that in ectothermic vertebrates To appreciate how metamorphosis poses a unique immunological problem Session 9: Immune consequences of different modes of reproduction Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis This session will look at how the different methods various animal groups use to reproduce influences their immunology, and the immunological relationship between parents and their progeny. There will then be student presentations on: The extent of the passive transfer of immunity within vertebrates Complement Learning objectives To understand the immunological consequences of different methods of reproduction To appreciate the relationship between mother and progeny To investigate the extent of, and types of passive immunity transfer in the Vertebrates To trace the complement system throughout phylogeny 8
  9. 9. Session 10: Applied Fish Immunology: Immunoprophylaxis Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The session will include a brief history of fish vaccination, the benefits of vaccines over chemotherapeutics, and a comparison of vaccines with non-specific immunostimulants. Methods of vaccine delivery will be described, and examples given of success and problematical vaccines. Current research on DNA vaccines, the use of micro particles and the search for a successful oral vaccine will be described. Learning Objectives To appreciate the mode of action of fish vaccines, their benefits and limitations To know examples of successful, and not so successful vaccines To know the research on the next generation of vaccines for aquaculture Suggested reading Bricknell, I.R., Bowden, T.J., Lomax, L. and Ellis, A.E. (1997) Antibody response and protection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunised with an extracellular polysaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 7, 1-16. Newman, S.G. (1993) Bacterial vaccines for fish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 3, 145-185. Session 11: Contribution of unusual animal models to answering key questions in immunology Lecturer: Mary Tatner Synopsis The value of studying the immune sytems of animals other than the standard laboratory species will be highlighted, by considering the contribution that a study of chick/quail chimaeras has made to the question of stem cell differentiation, and particularly the origin of thymic lymphocytes; how a study of the marsupial immune system has allowed studies on the ontogentic development of immunity possible; and how the free living larval stages of fish and amphibians have allowed very early thymectomy experiments to be carried out. There will then be student presentations on: Immunological Memory Germinal Centres Suggested reading Jurd, R.D. (1994) “Not proper mammals”: Immunity in monotremes and marsupials. Comparative Immunology and Microbiology of Infectious Diseases, 14, 41-52. Session 12: Mammalian antibody diversity Lecturer: Rob Aitken Synopsis An overview will be given of those features of complexity which characterise the mammalian sytem, before focussing in detail on aspects of immunologlobulins, comparing and contrasting them between mammals, chickens and sharks. Learning objectives To contrast the complexity of the mammalian immune system with that of other vertebrates, with emphasis on the major histocompatability loci, T lymphocyte function, immunoglobulin loci and the distribution of lymphoid tissue Describe the mechanisms which in mammals generate immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor diversity with reasonable genetic economy 9
  10. 10. Compare and contrast the manner in which immunoglobulin is passively transferred to the foetus/neonate amongst the mammals Discuss the different mechanisms which generate immunoglobulin diversity in humans, mice, rabbits and sheep Session 13: New disciplines Everyone Synopsis An introduction to some of the new subdisciplines which have arisen in recent years, linking immunology with other physiological/behavioural aspects. Session 14: Construction of An Immunological Evolutionary tree/Consolidation session General References You will need to read widely around the subject, and the following are some good review articles. If you have any difficulty getting these (and some are not in the library) they are available from Dr Tatner on overnight loan. Articles Janeway, C.A. Jr. (1992) The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self. Immunology Today, 13, 11-16. Stewart, J. (1992) Immunoglobulins did not arise in evolution to fight infection. Immunology Today, 13, 396-399. Cooper, E.R. (1990) Immune diversity throughout the animal kingdom. Bioscience, 40, 720-722. Humphreys, T. and Reinherz, E.L. (1994) Invertebrate immune recognition, natural immunity and the evolution of positive selection. Immunology Today, 15, 316-320. Marchalonis, J.J. and Schluter, S.F. (1990) Origins of immunoglobulins and immune recognition molecules. Bioscience, 40, 758-768. Litman, G.W., Amemiya, C.T., Haire, R.N. and Shamblott, M.J. (1990) Antibody and immunoglobulin diversity. Bioscience, 40, 751-757. Karp, R.D. (1990) Cell-mediated immunity in invertebrates. Bioscience, 40, 732-737. Dunn, P.E. (1990) Humoral immunity in insects. Bioscience, 40, 738-744. Manning, M.J. (1979) Evolution of the vertebrate immune system. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 72, 683-688. Powis, H.P and Geraghty, D.E. (1995) What is the MHC? Immunology Today, 16, 466-468. Zavazava, N. and Eggert, F. (1997) MHC and behaviour. Immunology Today, 18 Books E Horton, J.D. (1993) Evolution of immunity. In: Immunology Roitt, J., Brostoff, B. and Male, G. 3rd edition Du Pasquier, L. (1989) Evolution of the Immune System In: Fundamental Immunology, 2nd ed. Ed. W.E.Paul, Raven Press Ltd., New York pp. 139-165 Iwama, G. and Nakanisihi, T. Eds. (1996) The Fish Immune System Academic Press, New York Beck, G., Cooper, E.L., Habicht, G.S. and Marchalonis, J.J. (1994) Primordial Immunity: Foundations for the Vertebrate Immune System. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 712. 10

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