SCHEME OF STUDIES
         M.PHIL. ZOOLOGY PROGRAM




         DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY


FACULTY OF LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ...
OBJECTIVES:

Teaching, Research, Consultancy and Community Service

MISSION:

        The Department of Zoology is committ...
M. PHIL. ZOOLOGY


Program Objectives:

       1. To provide graduates who are familiar with an advance level of Zoology a...
a.     Continuous assessments (Tests, assignments, Seminars) 60 %
      b.     Final examination 40 %

Course Prerequisite...
M. Phil. Courses


Major Subjects in different           Credit Course Major/              *Approval
Semesters            ...
•   Courses of 6 Credit hours in related subjects. May be below 900 but these will
       neither be given numerical grade...
2. Bardach, et al. 1972. Aquaculture - The Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater &
Marine Organisms.
3. Pitcher, T.J. and P....
Practicals

        Basic techniques. Widal test. Laboratory diagnosis and control of infections:
Streptococcus. Corynebac...
Aims, Objectives and outcomes:
                This course is intended to realize the importance of biotechnology in
diffe...
The aims of this course is to study recent developments and technologies
introduced in the field of biology and to update ...
London.
12. McCarthy, J & Moore, T.A. (2004). Emerging Helminth Zoonoses. International
 Journal of Parasitology. 30:1351-...
Practical:
       DNA extraction techniques, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, DNA visualization, Lac
Z Gene Expression in bact...
Field observation of various Ecosystems, Study of various Population in different
ecosystems, Study of various environment...
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  1. 1. SCHEME OF STUDIES M.PHIL. ZOOLOGY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY FACULTY OF LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR 1
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: Teaching, Research, Consultancy and Community Service MISSION: The Department of Zoology is committed to the production of well-rounded international standard graduates of B. Sc (Hons.), M.Sc., M.Phil and Ph.D level in areas of Zoology including Entomology, Parasitology, and Fisheries and modern subjects maintaining high level of integrity and responsibility at individual and departmental level; and conducting quality research, teaching and to participate in community development projects. VISION: To act as a leader of excellence and performance in its objectives in the country GOAL: To study, know, love and to serve the entire creation of the Creator 2
  3. 3. M. PHIL. ZOOLOGY Program Objectives: 1. To provide graduates who are familiar with an advance level of Zoology and its various disciplines, which are exploited, in many fields of life 2. To provide theoretical and practical knowledge of various zoological methods, their analysis, which are required for professional activities in the field. 3. The graduates who are able to manipulate and utilize their training correctly and grasp a realistic approach to the conservation of animals as well as their habitats. 4. To prepare graduates with the skills and knowledge of all aspects of life. 5. To produce graduates with the skills to critically analyze samples of environmental and biological importance. 6. The graduates should be able to use the skills of analytical biological information in selecting and executing the appropriate biological analysis techniques in Molecular biology and other modern fields. Program Outcomes: After completion of M. Phil. program, the graduate will 1. Have an overall knowledge of Zoology and its various disciplines. 2. Have sufficient idea for those biological methods, which are vital both in other courses as well as in any employment undertaking in the science. 3. Be able to use data interpretation in every aspect of future study of life science. 4. Have sufficient knowledge of the techniques studied, which are applicable in biological sciences. 5. Have necessary knowledge with all stages in the entire framework of environmental investigation and monitoring. 6. Be able to use the skills of biological instrumentations and laboratory techniques in the biological science. Section Mission: To promote the mission of the department and the promotion of various disciplines of Zoology in all of its aspects; like teaching, research and the organization of symposia/workshop on topics of interest to Zoologist/ Biologists; the development of activities which will promote the growth of Zoology; and the establishment of means for increasing the processional status and contacts between Zoologists. Section Vision: Their scientific thinking, skills, innovation and problem solving should recognize our graduate. Course Assessment Methods: 3
  4. 4. a. Continuous assessments (Tests, assignments, Seminars) 60 % b. Final examination 40 % Course Prerequisites: B. S. / B.Sc or M.S. / M.Sc. in Zoology Learning Objectives: To provide a foundation in: a. Advance concepts of Zoology. b. Study of various aspects of Molecular Biology, Immunology, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Entomology, Parasitology, and Fisheries. c. Study of biology, ecology, classification, identification, economic and medical importance of insects/ parasites/ fishes. d. Wide range of practical applications ranging from control measures like chemical, mechanical, ecological, biological and integrated management. Learning Outcomes: The recipient of this curse will be able to: a. Have an overall knowledge of Zoology and especially modern fields. b. Make the best choice among various disciplines of Zoology. 4
  5. 5. M. Phil. Courses Major Subjects in different Credit Course Major/ *Approval Semesters Hours Number Minor 1st Semester 8 Current topics in zoology 3 Zool-90 Major *Approved 5 Molecular biology 3+1 Zool-90 Major *Approved 1 Seminar 1 Zool-92 Major *Approved 0 2nd Semester 9 Immunology 3+1 Zool-91 Major *Approved 6 Medical microbiology 3+1 Zool-93 Major *Approved 0 Seminar 1 Zool-92 Major *Approved 0 3rd Semester 9 Advance ecology 3+1 Zool-91 Major *Approved 4 Medical Biotechnology 3+1 Zool-93 Major *Approved 5 Seminar 1 Zool-92 Major *Approved 0 4th Semester 8 Medical Entomology 3 Zool-94 Major *Approved 0 Aquaculture & Fisheries 3+1 Zool-94 Major *Approved 5 Seminar 1 Zool-92 Major *Approved 0 * Approved by Departmental Board of Study. Course Requirements • Approved courses of 34 Credit hours in the major subjects (900 & above) 5
  6. 6. • Courses of 6 Credit hours in related subjects. May be below 900 but these will neither be given numerical grades nor counted towards CGPA, Course below 900 shall be given letter grades P (Pass) or F (fail). • Research Project for Thesis. COURSE CONTENTS: 1. Aquaculture & Fisheries (Zool-945) AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES: The aim of this course is to enable students in obtaining complete understanding about freshwater as well as marine fishes in general and freshwater culturable fishes in particular. It comprises morphology, anatomy, classification and some understanding about various feeding groups found in different water bodies. The aim of this course is to provide sufficient knowledge about all physiological phenomena in fishes. The subject provides practical information to obtain better growth by following physiological aspects during extensive or semi-intensive culture. It also emphasizes thoroughly in breeding of most culturable freshwater fishes by manipulating reproductive and endocrinological aspects during natural season as well as off seasons. After having complete knowledge of above, students will be able to practice independently as well as know how to improve and economically utilize the resources for the benefit of human beings. Theory Basic principles of fish culture, Fin Fish & Shellfish (history and significance of aquaculture. Fish culture; categories of fish farms, Selection of species for culture), Fish ponds, (management, culture, stocking, harvesting), manure and fertilizer (significance, types, application), breeding and cultivation of food, fishes, induced spawning, fish diseases, their diagnosis and control; Fish enemies and their control, fish feeds and Supplementary feeding (significance, requirements, nutritional value, varieties of fish feeds), Post harvesting technology, First Processing and preservation; integrated fish farming. Practicals Induced spawning, study of early developmental stages of fishes, study of ecto- and endo-parasites of fish, methods of disease control in fish, preparation of a layout plan of a commercial fish farm, determination of water quality parameters of fish ponds. Books Recommended (Latest Editions) 1. Huet, M. 1986. Textbook of Fish Culture, breeding and cultivation of fish. 6
  7. 7. 2. Bardach, et al. 1972. Aquaculture - The Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater & Marine Organisms. 3. Pitcher, T.J. and P.J.B. 1982. Fisheries Ecology. 4. Chaudhri, H. and Singh, S.B. 1984. Induced spawning of carps. 5. Ali, S.S. 1993. An introduction to freshwater fishery biology, U.G.C. Islamabad, Pakistan. 6. Pillay, T.V.R. 1993. Aquaculture, Principles and Practices, Fishing News Books. 7. Barnabe, G. 1990. Aquaculture. Vol.I & II. Ellis Horwood, New York. 8. Boyd, C.E. 1981. Water quality in warm water fish ponds, Craftmaster printers Inc. Opelika, Alabama. 9. Shepherd, J. and Bromage, N. 1992. Intensive fish farming. Oxford Blackwell Scientific Publicaions, London. 10. Rath, R.H. 1993. Freshwater Aquaculture. Scientific Publishers,.India. 11. Mirza, M.R. and Bhatti, M.N. 1993. Pakistan Ki Machlian aur Mahi Parwari Part-I. Ferozesons (Pvt.) Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan. 12. Evans, D.H. 1998. The physiology of fishes, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, New York. 13. Boyd, C.E. and Tucker, C.S., 1998. Pond-Aquaculture Water Quality Management, Boston, Kluwer. 2. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Zool-935) Aims and objectives and outcomes: Aims of this course is to let the students know about the science of microbiology, to work with microorganisms, their pathogenecity, and various diseases and problems caused by microorganisms. The course may also initiate their interest in agricultural, industrial and/or environmental microbiology. The course will enable the students to identify specific areas in practical life where the science of microbiology is being applied. Thus they can seek different job in various organizations such as clinical, industrial and environmental microbiology sections. Theory 1. Microbiology and Medicine, antimicrobial agents, mode of action. Bacterial pathogenicity, sources and spread of infection in the community. Immunological principles: antigens, antibodies, and antigen - antibody reactions. 2. Bacterial pathogens and associated diseases. Staphylococcus, skin and wound infections. Streptococcus, sore throat, scarlet fever, glomerulo-nephritis. Pneumococcus, respiratory infections. Cornyebacterium. Erysipelothrix: Listerial, Diphtheria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: pulmonary and other tuberculosis infections. Actinomyces. Neisseria: Meningitis, Gonorrhoea. Salmonella, Shigella. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus,.Providencia. Anthrax bacillus. Clostridium tetani. Poxviruses. Herpes viruses. Herpes simplex. Cytomegalovirus infections. Adenoviruses. Influenza viruses. Miscellaneous viruses: Rubella. Corona, Arena viruses. Hepatitis viruses. Arboviruses. Rickettsia. Pathogenic Fungi. Protozoa. Infective syndromes and diagnostic procedures. Strategy of antimicrobial therapy. Prophylactic immunization. 7
  8. 8. Practicals Basic techniques. Widal test. Laboratory diagnosis and control of infections: Streptococcus. Corynebacterium, Erysispelothrix Listeria, Mycobacterium. The Entero bacteriaceae: Salmonella. Shigella. Escherichia, Klebsiella. Proteus and other Enterbacteria. Clostridium 1. Clostridium II. Protozoa. Blood tests: TLC, DLC, RBC. Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. Cruickshank, R, Duguid, J.P., Hermion, B.P. and Swain, R.H.A., (2003). Medical Microbiology, (Vol. 1 & Vol. Churchill Livingstone, N.Y. 2. Turk, D.C. and Poster, I.A., (2004). A Short Textbook of Medical Microbiology, Hodder and Stoughton. 3. Collins, C.H. and Lyne P.M. (2003) Microbiological Methods. 3. IMMUNOLOGY ( Zool-916) AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES: The aim of this course is to learn about immune system of human beings, mechanism of responses, mechanism of development of immunity, various causes and factors of immunity and sensitization of an organism for immune responses. The student would be able to understand this entire natural system. Theory: Cell mediated and humoral immunology. Immunoglobulins. The synthesis of antibody. Theories of antibodies synthesis. Antigenicity. Interaction of antigen and antibody. Hypersensitivity and its various types with mechanisms. Classical and alternate complement sequence. Immunology in transplantation. Autoimmunity. Immunity to infections. Immune deficiency diseases. Application of immunological phenomenon in experimental biology. Practicals: ABO Blood Grouping, Observation of various types of allergies, Study of various infections, Study and demonstration of various immunological diseases. Books Recommended (Latest Editions) 1. Roitt, M., (2004). Essentials of Immunology, Blackwell, Oxford. 2. Benacerraf, B. and Unanue, F.R., (1999). Textbook of Immunology. 3. Bellanti, J.A., (1998). Immunology II, W.B. Saunders. and Co. 4. Fundehberg, H.H., Stites, D.P., Claswell, J.B. and Wells, J.V., (1978). Basic and Clinical Immunology, Lange Medical Los Atlos, California. 5. Hyde, R.H. and Pathode, R.A., (1998). Immunology, Prentice Hall, Reston, Virginia. 4. MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (Zool-935) 8
  9. 9. Aims, Objectives and outcomes: This course is intended to realize the importance of biotechnology in different fields of life specially in medicine. The course describes role of bacteria, their action as well as chemical reactions in synthesis and transformation of various drugs, and their commercial and pharmaceutical importance. The students would enable to understand the role of bacteria in the synthesis of antibiotics, vaccines, hormones enzymes and other products. Theory Conventional medical biotechnology. Contemporary issues in medical biotechnology. Drug delivery. Introduction to principles of gene therapy and gene delivery system. Ethical issues in gene therapy and tissue engineering. Biodegradable polymers. Practical and theoretical problems of modern methods of disease therapy. Production of therapeutical monoclonal antibodies and their uses. Role of organ transplantation in curing and neo-organ production. Use of transgenic animals in therapy. The principles and practices of transfusion techniques. Preparation of blood components and their use. Essentials of osteopathic principles. Human and veterinary osteopathy and bone grafting. Practical Basic tissue culture techniques, Culture of cancer cell lines J774 & P388-D1, ELISA based diagnostics. Bio-availability of serum. Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. Lanza, R.P., Langer, R. and Vacanti, J., 2000. Principles of Tissue Engineering, 2 nd edn. Academic Press, California. 2. Isaacson, R.E., 1992. Recombinant DNA Vaccines: Rationale and Strategy. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.. 3. Perbal, B., 1988. A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning, 2 nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, NewYork. 4. Johnstone, A. and Thorpe, R., 1996. Immunochemistry in Practice, 3 rd edn. Blackwell Science, Inc., USA. 5. Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M. and Howley, P.M., 1996. Fundamental Virology, 3 rd edn. Lippincott – Ravren Publisher, New York. 5. CURRENT TOPICS IN ZOOLOGY (Zool-905) AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES: 9
  10. 10. The aims of this course is to study recent developments and technologies introduced in the field of biology and to update their knowledge and information especially in Zoology. The student would be able to keep himself abreast with the recent developments. Theory Twinning (monozygotic & dizygotic twins) and various factors responsible for twinning. Production of therapeutical monoclonal antibodies and their uses. Use of transgenic animals in biomedicine and developmental biology, different techniques used in Production of transgenics. The principles and practices of in vitro Fertilization (Test tube baby technology). Stem cells types eg., Totipotent, Pluripotent and Multipotent stem cells; Using Stem Cells for Human Therapy - The Dream, Making ES cells from the differentiated cells of an adult, Echinococcus granulosus & Taenia saginata as important Zoonotic infections prevalent in Pakistan, Important diagnostic techniques used in parasitology eg., PCR, ELISA and Simple sedimentation techniques. Vaccination in Schistosoma species. Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. Lanza, R.P., Langer, R. and Vacanti, J., 2000. Principles of Tissue Engineering, 2 nd edn. Academic Press, California. 2. Cohen, Y & Nagler, A. (2004).Umbilical cord blood transfusion, how, when & for whom. Blood Reviews.18: 167-179 3. Cai et al. (2004). Insearch of stemness. Experimental Hematology. 32:585-598 4. Benvenisty, N. (2002). Europe & stem cell debate. Trends in Biotechnology. 20 (5); 183 5. Bjorklund, A & Swendsen, N.C. (2001). Chimeric stem cells. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 7(4):144 -146 5. Wheeler et al. (2003). Transgenic animals in Biomedicine & Agriculture: outlook for the future. Animal reproduction Science. 79:265-289 6. Gringras, P and Chen, W.(2001). Mechanism for differences in monozygous twins. Early human development. 64: 105-117. 7.Hall, J. G. (1996). Twinning. Mechanism and genetic implication. Current opinion in Genetics and Development.6:343-347. 8. Hall, J. G. (2003). Twinning. The Lancet. 362: 735-743. 9. Kallen, B.(2004). Use of folic acid supplementation and risk for dizygotic twinning. Early human development. 80:143-15 10. Sang, H.(2004). Prospects for transgenesis in Chick. Mechanism of development. 121:1179-1186 11. Trounson, A & Gardner, D.K. (1993). In Vitro fertilization. Published by CRC press 10
  11. 11. London. 12. McCarthy, J & Moore, T.A. (2004). Emerging Helminth Zoonoses. International Journal of Parasitology. 30:1351-1360 13.Robertson, I.D & Thomson, R.C. (2002). Enteric parasitic zoonoses in dogs and cats. Microbes & Infections. 4: 867-73 14. Roberts, L.S. and Jonovy, J. Jr. (2005). Foundation of Parasitology, 7 th Ed. Wan Brown Publishers, Chicago, U.S.A. 6. MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY (Zool-940) Aims Objectives and outcomes: This course will contribute in the understanding towards the role of insect vectors in the transmission of different pathogens to man and livestock. The course further enhances the knowledge of their breeding biology and control measure. Theory Introduction, Life cycle, Control and Medical importance of Mosquitoes (Anophelinae, Culicinae), Phlebotomine sandflies (Phlebotominae); Horse flies (Tabanidae); Tsetse-flies (Glossinidae); Fleas (Siphonoptera); Lice (Anoplura);Bedbugs (Cimicidae); Cockroaches (Blatharia) and Scabies mites (Sarcoptidae). Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. De Bach, P. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Chapman and Hall, London. 2. Herms, W. E. & Janes, M. T. Medical Entomology. The Macmillan Co. New York 3. Imms, A.D. (1970) A General Textbook of Entomology. 9th ed. Revised by O. W. 4. Matheson, R. (2003). Medical Entomology. Comstock Publishing Associates, N.Y. 3. Metcalf, G. L. & Flint, W.P. (1980) Destructive and useful insects. Mc Graw Hill New York. 6. Pfadt, R. E. Fundamental of applied Entomology. The Macmillan Co. New York 7. Service, M.W. 1996, Medical Entomology 7. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (Zool-901) AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES: This course is intended to study the macromolecules like DNA, RNA ands Proteins at molecular level. Also to study their action and mechanism of their function, normal as well as abnormal, in certain cases, at different stages of cell cycle. Theory Molecular Biology of DNA, RNA and Proteins, DNA Replication and Repair, Transcription and Translation, Gene expression in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Molecular biology of DNA and RNA, Viruses and Yeast, Molecular Immunology, Oncogenes and Cancer. 11
  12. 12. Practical: DNA extraction techniques, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, DNA visualization, Lac Z Gene Expression in bacteria. Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, Jr. E.M.F. (1995) Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, Lea and Febiger. 2. DeRobertis, Nowinski & Saez. (1970) Cell Biology, 5th Ed.W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London 3. Avers , Cell Biology (1976), D Von Nostrand Co. 4. Karp, G. (2001), Cell Biology. Mc Graw Hill Book Company New York. 5. Strickberger, M.W. (1998). Genetics: an introduction. Macmillan publications Ltd., New York. 6. Gardener, E. J. (1972) Principles of Genetics. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 7. Sinnot, E. W., Dunn, L. C. & Dobzhansky, T. Principles of Genetics. International Student Edition. McGraw-Hill. Tokyo. 8. Burns, G.E. (1983) The Science of Genetics: An introduction to Heredity. 5th edition. Macmillan. New York. 9. Nicholl, D. S. T. (1994), An introduction to genetic engineering. Cambridge University Press, UK. 10. Brown T.A. (1989). Gene Cloning: an introduction. Van-Nostrand Reinhold International, UK 8. ADVANCED ECOLOGY (Zool-914) AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES: This course would enable the students to observe their environment, habitats of various organisms, factors affecting and changing the environment, survival and adaptation of different populations in various environments, as well as factors, threats leading to the extinction and elimination of various animals/ plants on this planet. Theory The scope of Ecology. Concept of the Ecosystem. Energy in ecological systems. Biogeochemical cycles, Limiting factors and physical environment. Population dynamics. Populations and communities. The systems approach and mathematical models in Ecology. Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution sources: Origin, dispersion and impact on human, crops and forests e.g. Carbon monoxide & CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons); Noise pollution; Water pollution, Composition and properties of water pollutants, Domestic and industrial effluents, Heavy metals and their impact on aquatic life, Water purification in nature, Waste water treatment. Land Pollution; Pesticides (pollutants made to kill); Radioactive pollution, Radioactivity leakage from nuclear reactor. Conservation of natural resources in general. Mineral resources. Agriculture, Forestry, Wildlife management. Range management and use. Contemporary environmental themes: (ozone depletion, acid rain, green house effect and global warming, desertification, deforestation, exotic and invasive species Practical: 12
  13. 13. Field observation of various Ecosystems, Study of various Population in different ecosystems, Study of various environmental pollutants like Smoke, Noise, Water, Land. Effects of Pesticides, Insecticides in various Food Chains. Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. Odum, E. P., (latest edition) Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B.Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 2. Smith, R.L., (1996) Ecology and Field Biology Harper and Raw Publisher, NW Evanston, London. 3. Robert, T. J., (1991) The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 1. Oxford. 4. Robert, T. J., (1992) The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 2. Oxford. 5.Robert, T. J., (1972) The Mammals of Pakistan, Ernest Benon LTD, London. 6.Chapman and Reiss, 1997. Ecology. Cambridge University Press. 7.Molles Ecology: Concepts and applications .(1999). WCB/McGraw Hill, New York 8.McKinney, M.L.Environmental Science: System and Solution (1999). Jones & Bartlett Publication, Boston 9.Lloyd, R.Pollution and Freshwater (1992). Fishing News Books 10.Odum, E.P. Ecology: A Bridge between science & society. (1996).W.B.Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 13

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