Comprehensive Immunology

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  • 1. Comprehensive Immunology Penelope Morel MD Russell Salter PhD
  • 2. What you will learn  CELLS: What cells contribute to immune response, where they are generated, how they migrate  RECEPTORS AND LIGANDS: recognition of foreign antigens, cytokines, chemokines  SIGNALS: How cells are activated  EFFECTOR FUNCTIONS: how pathogens are removed  REGULATION: how the system is kept in control
  • 3. Class resources  SYLLABUS: List of lectures, outlines, reading assignments  TEXTBOOK: Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease. Sixth edition  JOURNAL ARTICLES: links to all assigned reading is on the website - if not it is on reserve in Falk library  WEBSITE: This site has all necessary links and is where power point presentations will be loaded  HANDOUTS: Each lecturer will provide a handout of his slides.
  • 4. What journals?  Primary Articles: Immunity, Nature Immunology, J. Immunol., J. Exp Med., Eur. J. Immuno., Nature, Science, Cell etc  Review Articles:Nature Reviews Immunology, Annual Review of Immunology, Trends in Immunology, Current Opinions in Immunology, Immunological Reviews etc.
  • 5. Exams  Three in class exams  Short answer format  On day of exam the class will start at 8:30am  Each exam has equal weight and will cover the material immediately prior to the exam
  • 6. What is the immune system for and how does it do it?  To recognize a pathogen  To react and enlist an appropriate response  To eliminate the pathogen  To “remember” an encounter with a pathogen: immunological memory  To avoid damage to self tissues
  • 7. What antigens does the immune system respond to?  Bacteria  Transplants  Allergens  Viruses  Tumors  Parasites  Dead cells  Fungi  Pregnancy/fetus  Toxins  Self antigens - autoimmunity  Prions
  • 8. What are the sites of infection?  Skin  Mucosal surfaces  Central Nervous System  Visceral organs (e.g. liver, kidney)  Blood  Inside cells  Outside cells
  • 9. Players in the immune response  Dendritic cells: located in tissues, high endocytic capacity, sample the environment for antigens  T cells: in T cell area of LN, coordinate the immune response  B cells: in follicles of LN, recirculating, make antibodies that neutralize pathogens  Effector cells: cytotoxic T cells, activated macrophages,
  • 10. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity Banchereau and Steinman Nature 392:245
  • 11. Nature Rev. Immunol. 3:984, 2003
  • 12. Effector Mechanisms  Antibody neutralization  Opsonization  Direct killing - complement  Cytotoxicity - infected cells by cytotoxic cells (CD8 T cells, NK cells  Intracellular mechanisms of killing
  • 13. Figure 1-24 part 1 of 3
  • 14. Figure 1-24 part 2 of 3
  • 15. Figure 1-24 part 3 of 3
  • 16. Figure 1-25
  • 17. Figure 1-26
  • 18. Levels of Immune regulation  Homeostatic control - steady state  Peripheral tolerance to self antigens - prevent autoimmunity  Initiation and termination of immune responses to foreign antigens - what is a pathogen? And how do you turn off the response?  Immunological memory
  • 19. Diseases studied by immunologists  Infections: vaccine development  Autoimmunity: Usually Th1 diseases  Cancer : immunotherapy and vaccines  Allergy: usually Th2 dominated  Transplant rejection  Gene Therapy: how to replace a defective gene without stimulating the immune system