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Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
Comprehensive Immunology
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Comprehensive Immunology

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  • 1. Comprehensive Immunology Penelope Morel MD Russell Salter PhD
  • 2. What you will learn  CELLS: What cells contribute to immune response, where they are generated, how they migrate  RECEPTORS AND LIGANDS: recognition of foreign antigens, cytokines, chemokines  SIGNALS: How cells are activated  EFFECTOR FUNCTIONS: how pathogens are removed  REGULATION: how the system is kept in control
  • 3. Class resources  SYLLABUS: List of lectures, outlines, reading assignments  TEXTBOOK: Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease. Sixth edition  JOURNAL ARTICLES: links to all assigned reading is on the website - if not it is on reserve in Falk library  WEBSITE: www.dean-med.pitt.edu/biomed/immunology/CI_EBI.html This site has all necessary links and is where power point presentations will be loaded  HANDOUTS: Each lecturer will provide a handout of his slides.
  • 4. What journals?  Primary Articles: Immunity, Nature Immunology, J. Immunol., J. Exp Med., Eur. J. Immuno., Nature, Science, Cell etc  Review Articles:Nature Reviews Immunology, Annual Review of Immunology, Trends in Immunology, Current Opinions in Immunology, Immunological Reviews etc.
  • 5. Exams  Three in class exams  Short answer format  On day of exam the class will start at 8:30am  Each exam has equal weight and will cover the material immediately prior to the exam
  • 6. What is the immune system for and how does it do it?  To recognize a pathogen  To react and enlist an appropriate response  To eliminate the pathogen  To “remember” an encounter with a pathogen: immunological memory  To avoid damage to self tissues
  • 7. What antigens does the immune system respond to?  Bacteria  Transplants  Allergens  Viruses  Tumors  Parasites  Dead cells  Fungi  Pregnancy/fetus  Toxins  Self antigens - autoimmunity  Prions
  • 8. What are the sites of infection?  Skin  Mucosal surfaces  Central Nervous System  Visceral organs (e.g. liver, kidney)  Blood  Inside cells  Outside cells
  • 9. Players in the immune response  Dendritic cells: located in tissues, high endocytic capacity, sample the environment for antigens  T cells: in T cell area of LN, coordinate the immune response  B cells: in follicles of LN, recirculating, make antibodies that neutralize pathogens  Effector cells: cytotoxic T cells, activated macrophages,
  • 10. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity Banchereau and Steinman Nature 392:245
  • 11. Nature Rev. Immunol. 3:984, 2003
  • 12. Effector Mechanisms  Antibody neutralization  Opsonization  Direct killing - complement  Cytotoxicity - infected cells by cytotoxic cells (CD8 T cells, NK cells  Intracellular mechanisms of killing
  • 13. Figure 1-24 part 1 of 3
  • 14. Figure 1-24 part 2 of 3
  • 15. Figure 1-24 part 3 of 3
  • 16. Figure 1-25
  • 17. Figure 1-26
  • 18. Levels of Immune regulation  Homeostatic control - steady state  Peripheral tolerance to self antigens - prevent autoimmunity  Initiation and termination of immune responses to foreign antigens - what is a pathogen? And how do you turn off the response?  Immunological memory
  • 19. Diseases studied by immunologists  Infections: vaccine development  Autoimmunity: Usually Th1 diseases  Cancer : immunotherapy and vaccines  Allergy: usually Th2 dominated  Transplant rejection  Gene Therapy: how to replace a defective gene without stimulating the immune system

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