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    • Comments & suggestions after the meeting are encouraged!
      • Gary Sherman – [email_address]
      • Peter Johnson – [email_address]
      • Cyril Gay – [email_address]
      • Rob Heckert – [email_address]
    •  
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: FMD has massive potential to devastate the beef industry and national economy if intentionally or unintentionally introduced into the US.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Vaccine Development
          • 2. Preparedness
          • 3. Anti-virals
          • 4. Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions
      Initiative: Foot and Mouth Disease (preparedness, threat-response, vaccine, field strategies, containment, disposal, DHS overlap? Interagency cooperation? anti-virals)
    • Initiative: Bovine Respiratory Disease (BVD, Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Histophilus, viral co-infection/emergence)
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: BRD continues to be an economically significant disease complex. Better strategies are needed for prevention.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Management-Disease interactions/Prevention Strategies
          • 2. Rapid Diagnostics to aid in vivo diagnosis and treatment
          • 3. Host-pathogen-environment interactions
          • 4. Immunology/Vaccine Development
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: A number of pathogens are economically important to the beef industry and have public health significance as well.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Vaccines/Anti-infection strategies
          • 2. Surveillance/Rapid Diagnostics to aid in treatment
          • 3. Biosecurity and Biocontainment Plans
          • 4. Genomics- genetically based resistance
      Initiative: Enteric Disease (O157, Johne's, Salmonella, BVD, neonatal, specific disease-related objectives under priorities)
    • Initiative: Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases (FMD, vectorborne, TB/Brucella, FAD, syndromes, surveillance, ticks/babesia)
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: New and existing disease control and eradication programs are needed to address public health, food safety and production concerns. There is need to rapidly respond to unexpected disease threats.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Modeling/prediction
          • 2. Innovative, rapid detection/diagnostic tests
          • 3. Understanding factors that lead to emergence/reemergence, including zoonotic transmission
          • 4. Global surveillance
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Resistance to therapeutics is a growing concern in regard to production, food supply veterinary medicine and public health. There are critical knowledge gaps that hinder development of effective solutions.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Rapid detection of resistance strains
          • 2. Bioinformatics/databases
          • 3. Management practices to manage/minimize resistance
          • 4. Ecology of emergence- ecosystem influences
      Initiative: Resistance to Therapeutics / Antimicrobials (antibiotics, anti-parasitics, other failures; treatment choices / consequences- disease evolution)
    • Initiative: TSEs
      • Rank: 6th
      •  Rationale: TSEs pose risk to the beef industry and there are large knowledge gaps with respect to this class of pathogens.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Pathogenesis
          • 2. Antemortem diagnosis
          • 3. Disposal
          • 4. Genomic based diagnostics/surveillance/resistance
    •  
    • Initiative: Mycobacterial Disease
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Economic losses due to these endemic diseases, Johnes and TB are growing. Diagnostic methods are currently inadequate to detect disease prior to clinical onset.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improve, develop, and validate diagnostic tests for early detection of infected and pre-clinical animals
          • 2. Vaccine development
          • 3. Management strategies (hygiene, nutrition, clean-up of premises)
          • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction, immune response or lack of response. Understanding genetic basis of resistance to Mycobacterial pathogens.
    • Initiative: Periparturient and Perinatal diseases.
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: Periparturient and perinatal disease comprise the bulk of diseases affecting economics and losses on dairy farms.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. mastitis
          • 2. immune suppression (as affected by cow comfort, nutrition, genetic resistance) and enhancement
          • 3. metabolic disease, retained placenta, reproductive disorders, and lameness
          • 4. Neonatal morbidity and mortality
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: There is a need to improve program capabilities to control and prevent diseases of high impact to economic health of dairy industry and public health. Research to improve programs to Control Zoonotic Diseases . Research needed to respond to acts of bioterrorism.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Vaccines, anti-virals, therapeutics, and implementation strategies development
          • 2. Development of new and Improved diagnostic methods and implementation
          • 3. Develop core abilities to identify "new" emerging diseases or research needed to respond to acts of bioterrorism - viral, microbial isolation abilities.
      Initiative: Biosecurity and disease control of Emerging and re-emerging diseases
    • Initiative: Chronic endemic diseases
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: These endemic diseases , BVDV, BLV, IBR, BRSV, Adenovirus, Staph mastitis, Pappillary Digital Dermatitis, and parasitic infections reduce the competitiveness of US dairies on the world market
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improve, develop, and validate diagnostic tests for early detection of infected and pre-clinical animals
          • 2. Vaccine development
          • 3. Management strategies (hygiene, nutrition, clean-up of premises)
          • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction, immune response or lack of response. Understanding genetic basis of resistance to these pathogens
    • Initiative: Arthropod borne Disease
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Diseases borne by arthropods are serious emerging and endemic threats and includes Babesiosis, rift valley fever, blue tongue, anaplasmosis, Heartwater, Theileria, Trypanosomiasis, Vesicular stomatitis
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improve, develop, and validate DX for early infected and pre-clinical animals
          • 2. Vaccine and therapeutics development
          • 3. Management and vector control/avoidance strategies (hygiene, nutrition, clean-up of premises, genetic selection for disease resistance)
          • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction, immune response or lack of response. Understanding genetic basis of resistance to these pathogens
    •  
    • Initiative: PRRS (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome)
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: most economically important disease of swine ever, key contributor to other disease complexes. RNA virus with constantly changing genetics for which diagnostics are inadequate and vaccines are only partially protective at best.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Identify mechanisms for PRRS control and prevention. Improve detection methods.
          • 2. Lab-field connections – genomics to biology. Utilize genomics of host and pathogen to understand host-pathogen interactions and increase herd resistance;
          • 3. Understand protective anti-PRRS Immunity and develop novel vaccines and therapeutics.
          • 4. Models of immune development – pathogen effects; comparative complex host-pathogen interactions
    • Initiative: Preventive health management
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: improve pig and human health, prevent disease transmission to humans
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. innate immunity, including comparative models
          • 2. alternatives to growth promotants, antibiotic usage
          • 3. nutritional modulation of pig health, nutritional modification of final pork product to enahnce human health.
          • 4. management practices, housing, reduction of stress, animal welfare
    • Initiative: emerging/reemerging infectious diseases: PMWS, circoviruses; influenza; infectious pathogens of unknown etiology
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: Newly emerging and reemerging diseases appear. Identification of the actual infectious agent and its pathogenicity is required. New diagnostics must be developed.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improve genomic characterization of emerging and reemerging disease agents
          • 2. improved diagnostics
          • 3. Develop strong linkage with NIH, CDC, human health researchers.
          • 4. Rebuild human resources
    • Initiative: complex disease interactions
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: Many pig diseases result from the interaction of multiple infectious agents, e.g., porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC), diarrheal syndromes. Indeed pathology may only be seen as a result of such interactions. Alternatively certain microbes can help prevent infection associated pathologies.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Understand host-pathogen interactions at them molecular and cellular level, use of genomics
          • 2. regional, including mucosal, immunity, immune toolkit, protective immune mechanisms,
          • 3. Understand microbial interactions
          • 4. vaccines for difficult pathogens
    • Initiative: FADs
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: ARS is the only entity that can address FADs and prevent threats to human food supply
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improve diagnostic toolkit for FADs and agents of bioterrrorism; field based rapid technologies
          • 2. Understand the epidemiology of the Feral swine – domestic swine interface
          • 3. Emergency vaccine and therapeutic development
    •  
    • Initiative: Avian Infuenza/Exotic Newcastle Disease
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Foreign animal disease having global implications for human health, trade together with catastrophic consequences.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Diagnostics - surveillance
          • 2. Effectiveness of vaccines/need for mass application vaccine(s) in AI and improved Newcastle vaccines)
          • 3. Genetic analysis of viruses (viral genomics-molecular epidemiology)
          • 4. Understanding ecology in waterfowl and associated resistance in individual species
    • Initiative: Marek's disease
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: Historically, one of the more costly poultry diseases. Currently, using vaccine of last resort and more virulent strains are developing.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. New vaccines
          • 2. Understanding of genetic resistance in the host
          • 3. Mechanisms of disease and changing viral pathogenesis, host immunity
          • 4. Diagnostics
    • Initiative: Mycoplasma gallisepticum/Mycoplasma synoviae
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: Continues to be a problem that current vaccines have not dealt with and is a co-factor with opportunistic organisms and are highly prevalent.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Better vaccine (Mg) and a live Ms vaccine
          • 2. Improved diagnostics
          • 3. Understanding the immunological response of the host
          • 4. Role in severity of bronchitis and E. coli
    • Initiative: Avian Leukosis Virus
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: Virus mutates from less viurlent to more virulent - emergence of new subgroups
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Diagnostics
          • 2. Understanding the development of the recombinant viruses - ie, circumstances that allow for new viruses.
          • 3. Genetic resistance
    •  
    • Initiative: Alternative methods of production to deal with regulatory changes that are limiting our production tools
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: The current regulatory environment is limiting the tools necessary to raise poultry (loss of antibiotics and probiotics) and this has resulted or may result in increase of diseases like necrotic enteritis.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Necrotic enteritis (clostridial diseases)
          • 2. Necrotic dermatitis (clostridial diseases)
          • 3. Understanding microbial ecology of the intestines
          • 4. Mucosal immunity
    • Initiative: Poultry FADs
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: The U.S. poultry industry has eliminated or prevented the introduction of many important poultry diseases, but these diseases remain a threat to our poultry industry.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Avian influenza and END
          • 2. Emerging diseases or other FADs (vIBD, etc)
          • 3. Biosecurity and biocontainment
          • 4. Therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics
    • Initiative: Respiratory diseases
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: Respiratory disease remain an important cause of disease and decreased performance for the broiler industry.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Infectious bronchitis
          • 2. Infectious laryngotracheitis
          • 3. Colibacillosis
          • 4. Mucosal immunology
    • Initiative: Enteric diseases
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: Enteric diseases remain a threat to the poultry industry and better control are needed, particularly since current tools may not be available in the future.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Runting and stunting disease
          • 2. Coccidia
          • 3. Therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines
          • 4. Necrotic enteritis
    • Initiative: Immunosuppression
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Several viral diseases and environmental factors are known to cause immunosuppression that impacts overall animal health.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Infectious bursal disease
          • 2. Chicken anemia virus
          • 3. Stress and developing tools for quantitatively measuring stress and its affects on immunity
          • 4. Nutrition and its affects on immunity
    • Initiative: Tumour viruses
      • Rank: 6th
      •  Rationale: Although currently these diseases are under control, history suggests that these viruses will reemerge as disease issues for the broiler industry.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Marek's disease
          • 2. Avian leukosis
    •  
    • Initiative: Improved diagnostics for detection of infectious agents of turkeys.
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Need improved diagnostics that result in rapid detection with improved sensitivity and specificity.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Differentiate infected versus vaccinated for Avian influenza
          • 2. Avian pneumovirus-vaccinated versus infected
          • 3. PEMS-astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, etc
          • 4. Salmonella
          • 5. Campylobacter 7.Fowl cholera
          • 6. ORT 8.Colibacillosis
    • Initiative: Develop improved vaccines for protection against infectious agents.
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: In the face of declining antibiotic usage, vaccines are a feasible alternative means for disease control. Developing new vaccines and vaccine strategies will aid in animal health and reduce disease transmission.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Avian influenza
          • 2. Avian pneumovirus
          • 3. PEMS
          • 4. Fowl cholera
          • 5. mycoplasma
          • 6. Coccidiosis
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: In real-world situations multiple species (e.g. turkeys, pigs, humans, water fowl) are in close approximation to one another. Use of epidemiology and survelliance will assist in disease control and increased animal and public health.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Risk factors associated with multi-species diseases.
          • 2. Mode of transmission
          • 3. Avian influenza
          • 4. Avian pneumovirus
      Initiative: Epidemiology and surveillance of infectious agents associated with turkey diseases.
    • Initiative: Improved understanding of innate and adaptive immune response of turkeys.
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: Basic knowledge of the immune response of turkeys will help implement mitigation strategies for disease control.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Improved knowledge of turkey mucosal immunology as it relates to the gut and respiratory tracts.
          • 2. Understanding role of probiotic/additives in promoting turkey health
    • Initiative: Develop genomic database of turkey species
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Use of genomic markers will lead to improved selection of breeding stocks.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Identify genes and gene products associated with increased feed efficiency.
          • 2. Identify genes and gene products associated with enhanced disease resistance.
    • Initiative: Other important issues related to turkey industry
      • Rank: 6th
      •  Rationale: In discussions with turkey industry representatives these priorities were identified as being important to animal health
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Food safety
          • 2. Development of preharvest intervention strategies to meet processing standards
          • 3. Enviroment/regulatory requirements
          • 4. Animal welfare
          • 5. Nutrition/alternative feed sources
    •  
    • Initiative: Scrapie (sheep and goats)
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Augment eradication; trade issues; cost of disposal and loss of by product value
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Transmission/Pathogenesis
          • 2. Diagnostics
          • 3. Immunogenetics/Host genetic resistance
          • 4. Environmental persistence/decontamination
    • Initiative: Internal Parasites (sheep and goats)
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: Multidrug resistance threatens sustainability
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Host resistance
          • 2. Biological controls (such as nematophagous fungi)
          • 3. Immunogenetics
    • Initiative: OPP/CAE
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: A significant economic loss for the industries
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Immunogenetics
    • Initiative: Ovine/Caprine Johne's disease
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: Production losses; lack of tools for effective control and prevention
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Diagnostics
          • 2. Vaccine development/immunogenetics
    • Initiative: Malignant Catarrhal Fever (sheep and goats)
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Maximize resource utilization and prevent interspecies transmission
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Vaccine/immunogenetics
    • Initiative: Bighorn Sheep Pneumonia - Etiology (Sheep) Caseous Lymphadenitis (goats)
      • Rank: 6th
      •  Rationale: CL - production loss and condemnation of product BSP - loss of grazing opportunities
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Epidemiology (BSP)
          • 2. Vaccine/immunogenetics (CL)
    •  
    • Initiative: Regulatory Concerns
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Diseases that impact national and international movement of horses that is central to all aspects of the equine industry.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. piroplasmosis
          • 2. Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
          • 3. VSV
    • Initiative: Enabling Technologies
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: Development of tools that will enable and enhance all aspects of discovery research. Also facilitates access to other funding avenues.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Genomics
          • 2. immunologic reagents
          • 3. proteomics
          • 4. transcriptional profiling
    • Initiative: epidemiology, disease surveillance
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: Data regarding incidence and prevalence of disease are fundamental to determining future research priorities and disease control strategies.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. track by incidence and economic impact
          • 2. biosecurity, biocontainment
    • Initiative: Laminitis
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: A performance-limiting and life-threatening malady that affects all types of horses.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. population studies - prevalence, prognosis, risk factors, incidence
          • 2. pathogenisis
          • 3. treatment
          • 4. prevention
    • Initiative: Respiratory Disease
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Respiratory disease limits the utilization and well-being of all types of horses. These conditions are highly prevalent.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO)
          • 2. S. equi
          • 3. foal pneumonia
          • 4. herpes viruses
    • Initiative: Colic
      • Rank: 6th
      •  Rationale: Colic is the number one cause of mortality in horses based on insurance data and is reported as the number one concern of horse owners.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. etiology, pathophysiology of colic
          • 2. population studies
          • 3. Treatment
          • 4. Prevention
    •  
    • Initiative: Basic discovery of the biology, genomics of susceptibility and resistance, and mechanisms of diseases where little is known (TSE/CWD, Avian Flu)
      • Rank: 1st
      •  Rationale: Research in this area is essential for the following reasons: 1) the magnitude of impact of these diseases on rural economies and US international trade positions, 2) increase our base of scientific knowledge, 3) the potential zoonotic effects on animal and human health, and 4) the benefit to society in the control of these diseases.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. CWD
          • 2. Genomics of TB
          • 3. Avian Influenza
          • 4. Phenotypic disease susceptibility/resistance
      • Rank: 2nd
      •  Rationale: Recent disease events demonstrate the important role of wildlife in the emergence diseases with a zoonotic potential as well as a significant economic impact on the domestic animal industry. Existing diagnostic assays which are designed for domestic species are not adequate for many wildlife species. The availability of new technology and knowledge, like genomics and micro-arrays, offers the opportunity to develop assays tailored to specific wildlife species and infectious agents. Key to controlling spread of disease among and between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is the ability to identify infection in wildlife.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. TB 4. Avian Influenza
          • 2. Brucella 5. Foreign animal disease
          • 3. TSE 6. Unknown/emerging infectious agents
      Initiative: Development of diagnostics tools a) that are tailored to the wildlife species/infectious agent of interest, b) for use in surveillance systems of extensive wildlife systems, and c) which utilize genomics and new technologies for identifying animals with a potential to spread targeted/zoonotic diseases
    • Initiative: Immunology, improved vaccines, and delivery systems
      • Rank: 3rd
      •  Rationale: Wildlife has intrinsic value to the public but we need effective intervention strategies to protect this intrinsic value. There is a lack of basic information on immulogical responses, efficacious vaccines, and effective delivery systems.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Avian Influenza
          • 2. Evaluational of delivery of available exotic disease vaccines to wildlife (foot & mouth disease)
          • 3. Brucella and TB
          • 4. Development of immunilogical reagents
          • 5. Basic immunoglical studies in species of interest
      • Rank: 4th
      •  Rationale: There is an extensive amount of knowledge in the wildlife management community about the ecology and behavior of wildlife. The veterinary community brings disease intervention strategies to the table. Therefore integrating these information resources will improve disease control strategies by incorporating wildlife ecology into the control paradigms.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Identify pathophysiologies of Brucellosis in elk and bison while utilizing wildlife's normal ecology and behavior to control and eliminate brucellosis.
          • 2. Same for T.B.
          • 3. Same for psuedorabies
          • 4. Where applicable use for avian influenza and other wildlife/domestic animal disease interfaces
      Initiative: Integration and meta-analysis of existing knowledge of wildlife and disease/infection and ecology
      • Rank: 5th
      •  Rationale: Many new diseases in domesticated animals and humans originate from wildlife. Assessing the risks of new infections and their sources is critical to predicting the scope and impact of potential new outbreaks.
      •  Priorities within Initiative:
          • 1. Development of effective and affordable surveillance technologies
          • 2.Develop information sharing networks, GIS mapping of disease/infection distribution including integrated database development
          • 3. Develop response contingencies to the intentional introduction of foreign animal diseases including cost-benefit analyses
      Initiative: Epidemiological and risk assessment of the potential new origins of zoonotic diseases/infections and the likely pathways of contagion