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  • 1. CURRICULUM VITAE NAME: JOSEPH CHEGE MUKURIA BSc(Nairobi), PhD (Hokkaido) ADDRESS: Department of Biochemistry College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197-00100 NAIROBI, KENYA Tel/Fax: +254-020-4442841 E-mail: Jcmukuria@hotmail.com/ mukuriaj@uonbi.ac.ke CURRENT POSITION: Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Biochemistry. DATE OF BIRTH: November 30th 1957 PLACE OF BIRTH: Nyeri, Kenya MARITAL STATUS: Married with three children EDUCATION BACKGROUND Jan. 1972 – Dec. 1975 - Nyandarua High School EACE (O-Level) – Division I Jan. 1976 – Dec. 1977 - Nyandarua High School EAACE (A-Level) 3 Principals, 1 Subsidiary Oct. 1978 – Sept. 1981 - University of Nairobi, Faculty of Science. Admitted and completed a Bachelor of Science Honours degree in Zoology and Biochemistry. Oct. 1981 – March 1983 - Research student -Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan. Scholarship by the Japanese Ministry of Education (MONBUSHO). 1
  • 2. April 1983 – March 1986 - PhD student at the Department of Biochemistry , Hokkaido University. Research centred on Biochemistry and Molecular Immunology. Sept. 1986 – Jan. 1990 - Lecturer at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. Feb. 1991 – Nov. 1999 - Senior Lecturer at the Department of Biochemistry Oct. 1992 – July 1994 - Post-Doctoral Fellow at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Tokyo, Japan. Fellowship by the Research Development Corporation of Japan (JRDC). Dec. 1999 – Present - Associate Professor at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESEARCH BACKGROUND/EXPERIENCE 1. Glycosphingolipid Biochemistry/Chemistry (Glycoscience): Isolation, purification and chemical structure characterization by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. 2. Isolation of equine and bovine erythrocyte gangliosides and the determination of their antigenicitiy against heterophile HD antibodies. 3. Isolation of bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein (glycophorin) and the determination of its antigenicity against HD antibodies. 4. Detection of HD antibodies: their occurrence and elevation in pathologic conditions. 5. Determination of antibody specificity in sera obtained from different pathologic cases – particularly cancer. 6. The structure of HD antigens: The microstructure of HD antigens and the elucidation of HD antigenicity using polyclonal antibodies following chemical modifications of the carbohydrate and ceramide moieties of a HD antigen – active ganglioside. 7. Follow-up of hepatoma patients undergoing therapy for presence of HD antibodies and elevated levels of total sialic acid in serum. 2
  • 3. 8. The role of human HD antibody and a chicken HD antibody for the detection of HD antigenic compounds in cancer sera. 9. Studies on the biosynthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in pig mandibular gland. Neu5Gc is an epitope of HD antibody and this epitope is foreign to humans and chicken who possess only N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). 10 HIV-AIDS – Mother to child transmission. Diagnostic methods. NB: This Research background has provided me with a wide knowledge of advanced biochemical, chemical and immunological techniques. I have been to one of the most advanced laboratories in the world. RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS/PRESENTATIONS 1 Miyoshi, I., Mukuria, J.C., Kawai, T. and Naiki, M. (1983). Radioimmunoassay of HD antigen. Proceedings of Japan Conference on the Biochemistry of Lipids. 2. Orino, K., Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. and Sutomu, K. (1984). Determination of HD antibodies and immunocomplex by ELISA using nylon beads. 3. Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S. (1984). Detection of HD antibodies by ELISA procedure. Proceedings of Japan Conference on the Biochemistry of Lipids 26: 48 – 51. 4. Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. Hashimoto, M., Nishiura, K., and Okabe, M. (1985). A potential radioimmunoassay system for the detection of HD type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids. Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 – 106. 5. Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S. (1986). Specificities of human heterophile HD antibodies to a glycosphingolipid and a glycoprotein. Journal of Biochemistry 100: 469 – 475. 6. Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S., (1986). A specific ELISA procedure for detection of heterophile HD antibodies. Journal of Immunological Methods: 179 – 185. 3
  • 4. 7. Mukuria, J.C., Miyoshi, I., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S. (1983). Expression of heterophilic HD antigen in human lung cancer as a tumor- associated antigen. Workshop W-510 entitled “Immunological Analysis of Tumor Antigens”. 5th International Congress of Immunology, Kyoto, Japan. 8. Mukuria, J.C. (1986). Studies on human heterophile HD antibodies and antigens. PhD Thesis – Hokkaido University. 9. Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. and Kato, S. (1986). Microstructure of the sialic acid moiety of N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide and the elucidation of HD antigenicity. Immunology Letters 12: 165 – 169. 10. Suzuki, E., Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Kurosawa, T. and Hanaue, J. (1987). Elevation of heterophilic antibodies to rabbit erythrocytes in human pathologic sera: Quantitative studies by ELISA using glycosphingolipid antigen. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 35: 11 – 20. 11. Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A. and Naiki, M. (1993). A free N-acetylneuraminic acid-hydroxylating enzyme in porcine mandibular gland soluble fraction. The 66th Japan Biochemistry Conference, Tokyo. 12. Mukuria, J.C., Noguchi, A., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1994). Potential use of specific human and chicken antibodies for detection of HD antigen(s) in sera of cancer patients. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47: 253 – 264. 13. Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1995). Immunogenicity of N-glycolylneuraminic acid – containing carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells. Journal of Biochemistry 117: 59 – 62. 14. Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A., Waiyaki, P.G., Asano, T. and Naiki, M. (1995). Evidence for a free N-acetylneuraminic acid – hydroxylating enzyme in pig mandibular gland soluble fraction. Biochemical Journal 305: 459 – 464. 15. Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A. and Naiki, M. (1995). The use of human and chicken antibodies for detection of HD antigen(s) in sera of lung cancer patients. Abstract 19. 4
  • 5. 5th Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium – Juja. 16. Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A. and Naiki, M. (1995). The biosynthesis of free N-glycolylneuraminic acid in pig mandibular gland. Abstract 16. 5th Biochemical Society of Kenya Symposium – Juja. 17. Fujita, O., Noguchi, A., Yimam, A.E., Mukuria, J.C. and Naiki, M. (1996). Development of an adhesin vaccine enterotoxigenic E.coli K99. Abstract 12/96. 17th African Health Sciences Congress, Nairobi. 18. Mwangi, D.W., Mukuria, J.C., Noguchi, A. and Naiki, M. (1996). HD antibody and sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients: A preliminary study. Abstract P4/96. 17th African Health Sciences Congress, Nairobi. 19. Naiki, M., Matsuda, J., Suzuki, O., Mukuria,, J.C. and Oshima, A. (1996). Targeted distribution of the mouse acid β–galactosidase gene: An animal model for GM1-gangliosidosis. Abstract 24/96. 17th African Health Sciences Congress, Nairobi. 20. Mukuria, J.C. and Kariuki, D.W.M. (1996). N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is also synthesized from free N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). 1st Pan-African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – Nairobi. 21. Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1996). Failure of human immunoresponse to N-Glycolylneuraminic acid epitope contained in recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephron 72: 599 – 603. 22. Mwangi, D.W., Mukuria,J.C. and Noguchi, A. (1998). Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) serum antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients. African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 – 112. 23. Njoroge, W.J., Ichimura, H., Songok, E.M., Kakimoto, K., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua, J.K., Makokha, E.P., Kageyama, S., Tukei, P.M. and Kurimura, T. (1998). Sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR primers in detection of HIV-1 in antenatal clinic attendees. Abstract A96. 19th African Health Sciences Congress, Arusha. 5
  • 6. 24. Njoroge, W.J., Mutura, C.W., Mwangi, W.A., Kinyanjui, M.G., Sakagami, N., Mukuria, J.C., Kakimoto, K., Munyua, J.K., Ichimura, H., Rotich, C.W., Kageyama, S., Ndhiwa, M., Makokha, E.P., Songok, E.M., Kurimura, T., Tukei, P.M., Githure, I.J. and Koech, D.K. (1998). Evaluation of a locally produced Particle Agglutination Assay for Detection of Antibodies to HIV-1. Abstract 41105. 12th World AIDS Conference, Geneva. 25. Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Mukuria, J.C., Songok, E.M.,Munyua, J.K., Lihana, R.N., Kiptoo, M.K., Akuku, A., Adungo, N.I., Makokha, E.P., Oloo, A.J. and Tukei, P.M. (1998). Early Diagnosis of HIV-1 in Children Born to HIV-1 Seropositive Mothers in Western Kenya. Abstract AB 082-28. 2nd National HIV/AIDS/STD Conference, Mbagathi. 26. Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Ichimura, H., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua, J.K., Makokha, E.P., Genga, O., Oloo, J.A., Freda, A., Adungo, N.I. and Tukei, P.M. (1999). Influence of Maternal HIV-1 viral load on vertical transmission in a short – course Zidovudine (ZDV) regimen in Kenya. 20th African Health Sciences Congress, Accra. 27. Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Makokha, E.P., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua,J.K., Adungo, N.I., Oloo, J.A., Orege, P.A. and Tukei,P.M. Use of short-course Zidovudine (ZDV) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in rural Western Kenya. E.A. Medical Journal. 28. Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Makokha, E.P., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua, J.K., Adungo, N.I., Oloo, J.A., Orege, P.A. and Tukei, P.M. (1999). Use of short-course Zidovudine (ZDV) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in rural Western Kenya. Abstract 0312. 2nd Conference of Global Strategies for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mothers to Infants, Montreal. 29. Kanduma, E.G., Mukuria, J.C., and Mwanda, E.O. (2000). A comparative study of serum levels of total sialic acid and HD antibodies in normal and cancer patients. 6th Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium – Nairobi. 30. Kanduma, E.G., Mukura, J.C. and Mwanda, E.O. (2001). Serum total sialic acid levels: Relationship with age of cancer patient, gender and histological type of tumor. Proceedings of the 6th Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Scientific Conference 23 – 27. 6
  • 7. 31. Kanduma, E.G., Mukuria, J.C., and Mwanda, E.O. (2001). Survey of HD antibody in cancer patients attending clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. 7th Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium – Nairobi. 32. Kanduma, E.G., Mukuria, J.C., and Mwanda, E.O. (2001). Total Sialic acid (TSA) and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in malignant and healthy sera. E.A. Med. J. (Submitted). 33. Mecha, E.O., Mukuria, J.C., Foglia, G., and Omwandho, C.A.O. Natural killer cells CD4+/CD8+ cell ratios and selected liver and kidney function enzyme and metabolite levels in HIV infection and progression to AIDS. To be presented at the 16th World AIDS conference in August 2006, Toronto, Canada. NB: Several manuscripts in preparation. PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES Member of the:  Have been Vice-Chairman - Biochemical Society of Kenya.  Immunological Society of Kenya  Japanese Biochemical Society  Japanese Immunological Society  Japanese Cancer Association CURRENT RESEARCH INTERESTS 1. Tumor Immunology. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) expression on tumor cells and its use in offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and metastases. 2. Enzymological studies on the biosynthesis of Neu5Gc. Studies on the “Origin and Mechanism of enzymatic N-glycolylation in porcine mandibular gland”. The use of pig mandibular gland as a model, then move to a human cancerous tissue. 3. The induction of hepatoma in chickens through feeding of aflatoxin (a carcinogen). Analysis of the tumors for expression of Neu5Gc and the activity of Neu5Ac-hydroxylase. Detect the level of HD antibody in Aflatoxin – fed chickens. 7
  • 8. NB: Chickens, like humans do not possess Neu5Gc under normal circumstances. They possess only Neu5Ac. 4. HIV-AIDS: Isolation of IgM from baby serum which reacts with HIV-1 or HIV-2 antigens. This would be an early indication of intra-uterine HIV infection in newborns. Do RT-PCR in milk of HIV infected mothers and obtain cDNA which can be amplified by PCR. The aim is to assess the frequency of free virus in milk – then relate it to serum virus. This will form the basis of postpartum infection i.e. confirm the infection through milk. RESEARCH GRANTS OBTAINED/APPLIED 1. Deans Committee, University of Nairobi 2. National Council for Science & Technology (NCST) 3. Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) 4. Mizutani Foundation for Glycoscience RESEARCH COLLABORATION 1. I have collaborative research with the Department of Veterinary Science, The National Institute of Health – Tokyo. I was a Post-doctoral fellow at the Institute 1992 – 1994. A researcher from NIH (Dr. A. Noguchi) came to my Department for 7 months in 1992. We were able to isolate and purify glycosphingolipids from horse erythrocyte membranes. 2. Recently, I received a letter from Prof. Reinhard Brossmer of the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Germany requesting me to collaborate with the Laboratory in the studies on the metabolism of sialic acids. I am considering going out of the country at an opportune time. He had read my publication in a journal. 3. I am currently working on an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. This involves obtaining serum from cancer patients. I am collaborating with Dr. P.P.M. Wambua (Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi), Dr. A. Abinya (Medicine), Dr. Mwanda (Pathology/Haematology). I have obtained a research grant (from NCST) enabling me to hire a Research Assitant. 4. I am in collaborative research with Dr. David Livingstone of Laboratory of Tumor Vaccinology, Memorial Sloan – Kettering Cancer Research Center, New York. Three (3) manuscripts are under preparation. I am to visit the place in the near future. 8
  • 9. TEACHING EXPERIENCE Sept. 1986 – Present: All levels of undergraduate Biochemistry – Teaching almost all disciplines of Biochemistry. Presently, I am involved in teaching Medical 1st year students. I also teach Master of Science 1st years in Molecular Immunology and Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation. I also teach M.Med Psychiatry as well as MSc. Animal Production students. RESPONSIBILITY EXPERIENCE 1. Co-ordinator – MSc. Biochemistry 2. Member – Departmental Postgraduate Committee 3. Member (Secretary) – Departmental Committee of Module II in BSc. in Biochemistry 4. Have represented Chairman of Department of Biochemistry in various Faculty Committees 5. Has acted as Chairman, Department of Biochemistry and also as Associate Dean, Faculty of Medicine. 6. Has represented the Dean, Faculty of Science in Deans Committee meetings and promotion committees. 7. August 2001 – present: Chairman, Department of Biochemistry. EXPERIENCE IN POSTGRADUATE SUPERVISION 1. Mr. D.W. Mwangi (1991): Preliminary studies on expression of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antigens on human cancer cells. 2. Mr. W.J. Njoroge (1998): Vertical transmission and early diagnosis of HIV in children born from infected mothers. In corraboration with JICA- KEMRI. 3. Miss E.G. Kanduma (2001): A comparative study of serum levels of total sialic acid and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in normals and cancer patients. 4. Current supervising others (MSc) 5. Over the years, I have been extensively consulted by both MSc. and PhD students both in Kenya and Japan. OTHER ACADEMIC/COMMERCIAL CONSULTATIONS 9
  • 10. 1. City Council of Nairobi - Measurement and determination of Aflatoxin levels in maize flour obtained from several millers. 2. Moi University, Eldoret - External Examiner, Department of Medical Biochemistry from 1999-2002. 3. Tumaini University, Moshi-Tanzania – Currently, External Examiner of Biochemistry – Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College. 4. Egerton University, Njoro – Kenya - Currently, External Examiner. 5. Have been involved in several curriculum development committees in the Faculties of Science, Medicine, Agriculture, Pharmacy, Dental Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. OTHER ATTRIBUTES 1. 1975 – Form 4 - O – Level -Appointed Prefect in 4th year 2. 1976 – 1977 - A Level – Appointed Prefect and Games Captain. 3. 1972 – 1977 - At Nyandarua High School • Active in Sports and Athletics • Member of School Volleyball team/Captain • Participated in athletics particularly in Javelin (set school record unbroken up-to today), short put, Pole Vault and Discus. Won at District and Provincial Levels. 4. 1978 – 1981 - At the University of Nairobi Member of the University Volleyball team – rose to Vice Captain. 5. 1981 – 1986 - At Hokkaido University Member of the Faculty Sports/Athletics Team. Participated in University activities in long- distance running. Was a Volleyball Team Member. 6. 1994 – Present - Member of Chiromo Campus Club – Have been Deputy Secretary for 3 years. 7. 1995 – Present - Member of Friends of Heart to Heart 10
  • 11. Foundation. Have been involved in fund raising and organizing Annual Heart Runs and also participate. 8. 1998 – Present - Member of Prime Health Club – Nairobi. ACADEMIC REFEREES 1. Professor D.W. Makawiti Department of Biochemistry University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 NAIROBI. Tel: +254-020-4442534 Fax: +254-020-4442841 2. Professor N.K. Olembo Department of Biochemistry University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 NAIROBI. 3. Professor V.B. Mbaya Department of Biochemistry University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 NAIROBI. 12th March, 2004 END 11
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