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  • 1. Basics of Immunology
  • 2. This presentation was created by: Amelia Farber Sadie Shelton Amy Senestraro Zack Hartman Tanner Hebert This publication was made possible by Grant # 024094 from NIAID. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
  • 3. Immune System
    • The immune system is designed to protect the body from harmful diseases.
    • The immune system begins to develop in the embryo and by the time the baby is born, it is a sophisticated collection of tissues that includes the blood, lymphatic system, thymus, spleen, skin, and mucosa.
  • 4.
    • The immune system responds to any antigen, whether is it harmless, like grass pollen, or harmful, such as a virus or bacterial infection.
    • Everyone’s immune system is different, and reacts differently to every antigen.
  • 5.  
  • 6. Immune System layout
  • 7.
    • I. Blood:
    • a. plasma (the yellow liquid component of blood in which blood cells are suspended)
    • b. hematocrit (proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells)
    • i.Red Blood Cells
    • ii. White Blood Cells
    • a. monocytes
    • b. granulocytes
    • c. leukocytes ----> cytokines activate immune
    • response cells:
    • T cells - time *memory
    • B cells - antibodies
    • Natural Killer cells - nonspecific
  • 8. Here are some immune system videos that might be helpful:
    • http://www. youtube .com/watch?v=hQmaPwP0KRI
    • http://www. youtube .com/watch?v=lrYlZJiuf18&feature= fvw
    • http://www. youtube .com/watch?v= Ys _V6FcYD5I
  • 9. There are many cells which are the workers of your immune system. They are all sorted based on their form and their function. These cells are also called lymphocytes- a type of white blood cell.
  • 10. T Lymphocytes
    • T- lymphocytes
      • Are different from B and NK cells because they have a special receptor on their surface called a T cell receptor (TRC) which are designed to recognize antigen. When a TRC comes in contact with an antigen, the T cell matures and changes into one of five things:
        • A Helper T cell – which divides rapidly and secretes tiny proteins (called cytokines), that help in the immune response.
        • A Cytotoxic T cell – which destroys virally infected cells and tumor cells
        • A Memory T cell – which remain active after an immune response, and help the body remember the specific antigen that attacked it.
        • A Regulatory T cell – which is responsible for shutting down the T cell reaction after an immune response is over.
        • A Natural Killer T cell – which is responsible for recognizing different types of antigens
  • 11. B Lymphocytes
    • B-lymphocytes
      • Their primary role is to make antibodies to attack antigens. Once a B cell has come in contact with an antigen, it becomes a memory B cell, meaning it will remember that specific antigen if the body is every attacked by it again.
  • 12. Flow Cytometry
    • Flow Cytometry relates to immunology because it is the process of counting and measuring cells.
    • Clinics and hospitals use Flow Cytometry to test their patients for HIV/AIDS, test for new vaccines, and many other medical needs.
    The AIDS virus
  • 13. Flow Cytometry diagram
  • 14. Basic diagram of flow cytometry Cells from a patient’s blood are injected, in a fluid stream, into the flow cytometer. As the cells pass the laser beam, the light refracts off the cells, causing a certain amount of forward and side scatter. By graphing and measuring the amount of scatter the cytometer reads, you can tell if the patient has a certain ailment or disease such as HIV/AIDS
  • 15. Referenced Sites http://www.etc. cmu . edu /projects/immunology/ http://www. bcps .org/offices/ lis /models/immunology/index.html   http://www. kibook .net/ cgd /news_stem_cells.html http:// pleiad . umdnj . edu /~ dweiss / immuno / immuno .html http://www. astrographics .com/ GalleryPrintsIndex /GP2091.html http://users. rcn .com/ jkimball .ma. ultranet / BiologyPages /B/B_and_ Tcells .html   http://en. wikipedia .org/ wiki /B_cell http://en. wikipedia .org/ wiki /White_blood_cell http://en. wikipedia .org/ wiki /Flow_cytometry http://www. abcam .com/index.html? pageconfig =resource&rid=11446 http://www. wi . mit . edu /news/archives/2006/ cpa _0403b.html