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Rapporteur Session
                                     AIDS Vaccine 2008



 B cell immunology, Neutralizing
antibodies, ...
Selected highlights

• Analysis/dissection of nAb responses in infected
individuals and immunized animals

• Anti-lipid an...
Analysis and dissection of nAb
responses in infected individuals
    and immunized animals
Moore et al. (OA03-04)
• Neutralization escape patterns in 2 subtype C-
  infected individuals suggest that low number of
...
Multiple nAb specificities
                                           Peak 1               Peak 2
                        ...
Moore et al. (OA03-04)
• Neutralization escape patterns in 2 subtype C-
  infected individuals suggest that low number of
...
•   Binley et al. (S01-01); Li et al. (P04-37): Use of various assays to dissect nAb responses (e.g.
    ‘modified’ neut a...
Anti-lipid antibodies ~ MPER Abs
Moody et al. (OA03-06)
• AIDS is rare in individuals with autoimmune disease – role of
  anti-lipid Abs? (vis-à-vis lipid ...
Anti-Lipid Antibodies Inhibit HIV-1 Primary Isolates With
        Greater Breadth than 2F5, 2G12 and b12
                 ...
Anti-Lipid Antibodies Inhibit HIV-1 Infectivity By
      Binding to Uninfected Target PBMC




                           ...
Moody et al. (OA03-06)
• AIDS is rare in individuals with autoimmune disease – role of
  anti-lipid Abs? (vis-à-vis lipid ...
•   Haynes/Alam et al. (OA07-06); Scherer et al. (P05-04): Role of hydrophobic CDR H3 of
    MPER Abs in lipid interaction...
Mucosal immunization strategies
Lewis et al. (OA04-04)
• Nasal immunization in humans (nasal prime/i.m boost) with o-
  gp140ΔV2 (SF162) adjuvanted with c...
Effect of nasal priming with or without LTK63 adjuvant on
                             serum anti-gp140V2LD IgG response t...
Effect of nasal priming with or without LTK63 adjuvant
                           on vaginal anti-gp140V2LD IgG response t...
•   Kozlowski et al. (OA04-03): Intranasal adjuvant Invaplex (NHP application)
    => adjuvant increases anti-gp120 IgG le...
Strategies to isolate and
characterize humoral responses
       at the B cell level
•   Connors et al. (S01-03); Wyatt et al. (S01-06): B cell clones sorted
    individually then RT-PCR cDNA (using bio-gp14...
Sort/selection of single gp140-binding B cells
                                                              ~2% gp140+
  ...
Conclusion
NAb field has made significant progress in
dissecting (n)Ab responses in different species,
particularly rabbit...
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Transcript of "B cell immunology, Neutralizing antibodies, Mucosal ..."

  1. 1. Rapporteur Session AIDS Vaccine 2008 B cell immunology, Neutralizing antibodies, Mucosal immunology: a summary Ralph Pantophlet, PhD Faculty of Health Sciences Simon Fraser University
  2. 2. Selected highlights • Analysis/dissection of nAb responses in infected individuals and immunized animals • Anti-lipid antibodies ~ MPER Abs • Mucosal immunization strategies • Strategies to isolate and characterize humoral responses at the B cell level
  3. 3. Analysis and dissection of nAb responses in infected individuals and immunized animals
  4. 4. Moore et al. (OA03-04) • Neutralization escape patterns in 2 subtype C- infected individuals suggest that low number of (homologous) nAb specificities develop during course of infection • Individual#1: escape in V5 (and V1/V2) • Individual#2: escape in C3 and V1/V2 • NAb specificities appear to develop sequentially (shift of nAb response to new epitopes) • Accumulation of mutations at certain sites suggests that HIV possibly has multiple pathways for nAb escape • Targeting multiple epitopes with a vaccine required
  5. 5. Multiple nAb specificities Peak 1 Peak 2 Anti-C3 Anti-V1V2 40000 88.2.17 63-88-63 C3 63-88-63 V1V2 4000 CAP63 A9 Titre 400 40 0 25 50 75 100 125 weeks p.i. C3 V1V2 V3 α2 V4 V5 Sensivity ++++ 88.1 mo CAP63 A9 R 63-88-63 C3 ++++ (peak 1) 63-88-63 C3V4 ++++ (peak 1) 63-88-63 V1V2 ++++ (peak 2)
  6. 6. Moore et al. (OA03-04) • Neutralization escape patterns in 2 subtype C- infected individuals suggest that low number of (homologous) nAb specificities develop during course of infection • Individual#1: escape in V5 (and V1/V2) • Individual#2: escape in C3 and V1/V2 • NAb specificities appear to develop sequentially (shift of nAb response to new epitopes) • Accumulation of mutations at certain sites suggests that HIV possibly has multiple pathways for nAb escape • Targeting multiple epitopes with a vaccine required
  7. 7. • Binley et al. (S01-01); Li et al. (P04-37): Use of various assays to dissect nAb responses (e.g. ‘modified’ neut assay, virus capture assay, neut inhibition assay, BN-PAGE, serum fractionation) => applied to Hum and Rab sera – unknown nAb specificities apparent (20-40%); generation of more mutant proteins may be needed • Corti et al. (S01-05); Simek et al. (P04-22): Use of novel EBV transformation techniques to isolate novel nAbs from non-B infected individuals => 47 antibodies so far, a few promising (e.g. HK20 to gp41); algorithms developed to rapidly identify individuals with potent/broad nAb activity • Warren et al. (SP02-02): ‘In vitro’ immune system to screen Ags for their potential to elicit x- nAb responses => analyses ongoing to establish system; class-switching of Abs current limitation • Bunnik et al. (P04-05); Gils et al. (P04-06): Analysis of autologous nAb from SC to AIDS symptoms => early escape coincides with increased V-loop length; as nAb pressure wanes, virus often reverts wt Env sequence (shorter V-loop length and fewer # of PNGS); no difference between LTNPs and progressors in development of x-nAb responses • Shen et al. (P04-32); Gray et al. (LB-19): Identification of select individuals with anti-MPER nAb activity => Use of peptide absorption to isolate MPER-specific serum fraction; 2F5- (Shen et al.) and 2F5/4E10-like (Gray et al.) activity observed. Gray et al. show using neut inhibition assay that anti-MPER Abs not responsible for neut against all viruses (3/9 viruses neutralized by other specificities) • Scarlatti et al. (P04-09): Comparison of in vitro neutralization assays => Difficulties due to cell donor-to-donor variation and virus source
  8. 8. Anti-lipid antibodies ~ MPER Abs
  9. 9. Moody et al. (OA03-06) • AIDS is rare in individuals with autoimmune disease – role of anti-lipid Abs? (vis-à-vis lipid binding by MPER Abs) • Anti-lipid Abs isolated from autoimmune disease patients; two groupings based on β2-gp1 dependence for lipid binding • Neut observed in PBMC assay, not TZM-bl; only Abs that bind independent of β2-gp1 • Inhibition of infection due to interaction with target cells alone • Further analysis revealed that lipid interaction induces chemokine production (MIP1α, MIP1β), resulting in HIV infection blockage – blockage can be revered using anti- chemokine Abs • Challenge studies in primates planned • Induction of anti-lipid Abs (β2-gp1-independent) a possible stragety for vaccine design?
  10. 10. Anti-Lipid Antibodies Inhibit HIV-1 Primary Isolates With Greater Breadth than 2F5, 2G12 and b12 IC80 values in µg/mL HIV-1 isolates IS4 CL1 P1 11.31 Anti-RSV Tri-Mab B.TORNO 0.6 0.7 17 0.09 >50 0.03 B.PVO 0.4 0.2 4.5 0.03 >50 0.64 B.6535 0.07 0.4 4.0 0.14 >50 >25 C.DU123 0.06 0.2 1.7 <0.02 >50 >25 C.DU156 2.8 2.6 16 0.06 >50 >25 C.DU151 1.8 4.1 0.1 <0.02 >50 >25 C.DU172 1.1 0.6 0.55 <0.02 >50 >25 SHIV 162P3 5.2 1.2 1.6 0.06 >50 1.5 Tri-Mab = 2F5, 2G12, IgG1b12
  11. 11. Anti-Lipid Antibodies Inhibit HIV-1 Infectivity By Binding to Uninfected Target PBMC mAb incubated with virus mAb incubated with cells David Montefiori, Duke
  12. 12. Moody et al. (OA03-06) • AIDS is rare in individuals with autoimmune disease – role of anti-lipid Abs? (vis-à-vis lipid binding by MPER Abs) • Anti-lipid Abs isolated from autoimmune disease patients; two groupings based on β2-gp1 dependence for lipid binding • Neut observed in PBMC assay, not TZM-bl; only Abs that bind independent of β2-gp1 • Inhibition of infection due to interaction with target cells alone • Further analysis revealed that lipid interaction induces chemokine production (MIP1α, MIP1β), resulting in HIV infection blockage – blockage can be revered using anti- chemokine Abs • Challenge studies in primates planned • Induction of anti-lipid Abs (β2-gp1-independent) a possible stragety for vaccine design?
  13. 13. • Haynes/Alam et al. (OA07-06); Scherer et al. (P05-04): Role of hydrophobic CDR H3 of MPER Abs in lipid interaction => mutants generated in which specific hydrophobic residues in CDR H3 are changed; select changes reduce gp41 (peptide) binding; some changes result in loss of lipid interaction and loss of neut activity against HXB and primary isolates *Haynes/Alam propose 2-step mode of MPER interaction • Cho et al. (OA07-05); Ofek et al. (OA07-07): Structure-based design of antigens to elicit MPER Abs, e.g. 2F5 (Ofek) => computational design heavily used to produce thermo-stable structures that resemble Ab- bound state; however, so far none of the strategies have incorporated lipid context • Holl et al. (AO07-08): Rarity of neutralizing MPER Abs investigated using RAG1-/- mice reconstituted with CD B-cells => results suggest possible tolerance mechanisms in bone marrow that prevent development of B cells with (low) affinity for MPER antigens; however, how specific tolerance of B cells occurs that may produce x-neut MPER Abs unclear • Clark et al. (SP02-01): Vector-mediated Ab gene delivery to control or prevent HIV infection (using rAAV system) => proof-of-concept completed; 6/9 animals protected with model Ab (scFv-IgG2 construct); non-protected animals develop anti-Ab response; future plans to use HIV bNAbs; may allow for better study of anti-lipid Ab application
  14. 14. Mucosal immunization strategies
  15. 15. Lewis et al. (OA04-04) • Nasal immunization in humans (nasal prime/i.m boost) with o- gp140ΔV2 (SF162) adjuvanted with cholera toxin/LT toxin (Novartis LTK63; nasal) and MF59 (i.m.) • Immunization strategy: 3x i.n., 2x i.m. • High levels of systemic IgG; relatively lower levels of cervical and vaginal IgG observed; also IgA • Use of LTK63 for nasal delivery not ideal; other routes perhaps better • Only homologous neutralization tested
  16. 16. Effect of nasal priming with or without LTK63 adjuvant on serum anti-gp140V2LD IgG response to IM boosters After three nasal primes After first IM boost P < 0.001 P < 0.01 n.s. 10000 10000 P > 0.05 P >n.s. 0.05 1000 1000 100 100 10 10 1 1 0.1 0.1 1 Nasal 2 Nasal 3 Nasal 1 Nasal 2 Nasal 3 Nasal placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant After second IM boost n.s. P > 0.05 n.s. Higher response to nasal immunisation 10000 P > 0.05 and first IM boost after nasal prime 1000 with gp140+LTK63 Group 1: nasal placebo Trend to more responders with 100 Group 2: nasal gp140+LTK63 unadjuvanted gp140 nasal prime Group 3: nasal gp140 10 Similar serum IgG response after second IM boost in all groups: MF59 is 1 a potent systemic adjuvant Medians ± IQR 1 2 3 Kruskal-Wallis statistic Nasal Nasal Nasal Dunn’s Multiple placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant Comparison Test
  17. 17. Effect of nasal priming with or without LTK63 adjuvant on vaginal anti-gp140V2LD IgG response to IM boosters After three nasal primes After first IM boost P < 0.01 P < 0.05 100 P n.s. > 0.05 P > n.s. 0.05 100 10 10 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 1 Nasal 2 Nasal 3 Nasal 1 Nasal 2 Nasal 3 Nasal placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant After second IM boost P < 0.05 Higher / more frequent response to 100 P > n.s. 0.05 nasal immunisation and both IM boosts 10 after nasal prime with gp140+LTK63 Group 1: nasal placebo 1 Trend to higher response to IM boost Group 2: nasal gp140+LTK63 0.1 after nasal prime with g140 alone Group 3: nasal gp140 0.01 IM prime & boost alone induces vaginal IgG responses 0.001 Medians ± IQR 1 2 3 Kruskal-Wallis statistic Nasal Nasal Nasal Dunn’s Multiple placebo Group +adjuvant no adjuvant Comparison Test
  18. 18. • Kozlowski et al. (OA04-03): Intranasal adjuvant Invaplex (NHP application) => adjuvant increases anti-gp120 IgG levels in serum, IgA in nasal passage, and rectal IgA; adjuvant also increases % of Env-specific T cells; however, no challenge study performed to study Ab functionality • Mann et al. (P02-02): Mucosal delivery of antigen using CD71 (Hum Fe2+ scavenger receptor) => genetic constructs and chemical conjugation applied (biotin/avidin); vaginal application generates systemic and mucosal (IgG) responses (no response with Ag alone) • Fraser et al. (P04-21): Dose comparison and epitope mapping after mucosal immunization => Animals (rabbits) immunized 27 times (divided in 3 cycles over 3 wk period); only IgG measurable in mucosa (no IgA); systemic IgA and IgG; V3 immunodominant • Arias et al. (P11-17): Use of wax nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for Ag for mucosal immunization => Ag (TT, gp140) absorbed onto particles ingested by DCs, resulting in induction of mucosal and systemic IgG; adjuvant studies planned
  19. 19. Strategies to isolate and characterize humoral responses at the B cell level
  20. 20. • Connors et al. (S01-03); Wyatt et al. (S01-06): B cell clones sorted individually then RT-PCR cDNA (using bio-gp140) => results show 80% of cells categorized into clonal families; 500 Abs isolated to date, 160 unique; none of the Abs isolated so far are highly cross-neutralizing • Dosenovic et al. (P04-28): Use of B-cell ELISPOT to study (memory) Env-specific responses => Use of alternate ELISPOT setup to dissect frequency of different B cell specificities; caveat: functionality of Abs unknown
  21. 21. Sort/selection of single gp140-binding B cells ~2% gp140+ PBMCs YU2 gp140 FACS-sorted probe gp140 PE CD19 FITC for CD19+, CD27+, IgG+ memory B cells Biotin ligase + biotin Biotinylation motif (13aa) IgG APC Lysis, RT-PCR
  22. 22. Conclusion NAb field has made significant progress in dissecting (n)Ab responses in different species, particularly rabbits and humans. It is now clear that additional nAb (fine) specificities exist. Progress has also been made in isolating new mAbs, though none as broad as the current ones. Abs to MPER region are elicited during infection. Mucosal immmunology: application-focused. More work in process to link results to current understanding of systemic Ab responses and specificities.
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