An Invitation to Health Prepared by: Karlyn Grimes MS RD Chapter 14: Defending Yourself Against Infectious Disease
Chapter 14 Objectives Explain how different agents of infection spread disease. Describe how your body protects itself from infectious disease. List and describe some common infectious diseases. Identify sexually transmitted infections and the symptoms and treatments of each. List the methods of STI transmission. Define HIV infection and describe its symptoms. Explain some practical methods for preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections.
Agents of Infection Helminths Small parasitic worms that attack specific tissues or organs and compete with the host for nutrients. Protozoa Single-celled, microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxins that destroy cells or interfere with their function. Fungi Single-celled or multi-celled organisms composed of threadlike fibers and reproductive spores. Fungi release enzymes that digest cells in hair-covered areas of the body. Bacteria Simple one-celled organisms. The most plentiful microorganisms as well as the most pathogenic. Bacteria harm the body by releasing enzymes that digest body cells or toxins that produce the specific effects of specific diseases. Viruses Tiniest pathogens, but also the toughest. Consist of a bit of RNA or DNA within a protein coat. Take over a body cell’s reproductive machinery to reproduce.
How Do You Catch An Infection? Animals and Insects People Water Food
Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, mucus, and cilia.
Lymphatic System Organs and Components :
Spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.
Lymphocytes (white blood cells)
Fig. 14-1, p. 395 Right lymphatic duct • Drains right upper portion of body Thoracic duct • Drains most of body Some of the lymph vessels • Return excess fluid and reclaimable solutes to the blood Some of the lymph nodes • Filter bacteria and many other agents of disease from lymph Tonsils • Defense against bacteria and other foreign agents Thymus gland • Site where certain white blood cells acquire means to chemically recognize specific foreign invaders Spleen • Site where antibodies are manufactured; disposal site for old red blood cells and foreign debris; site of red blood cell formation in the embryo Bone marrow • Marrow in some bones are production sites for infection-fighting blood cells (as well as red blood cells and platelets) Lymph nodes • Store protective cells and destroy pathogens The Human Lymphatic System
Who Is At Highest Risk of Infectious Disease? Children & Their Families The Chronically Ill Residing In Poorly Ventilated Buildings Smokers & Those With Respiratory Problems The Elderly Individuals Working With Sick Individuals
Rest, a high-protein diet, and the avoidance of alcohol and drugs that may stress the liver.
Before You Get a Tattoo or Piercing If you require prophylactic antibiotics for dental cleanings or other procedures, do not get a tattoo. Always ask to see photos of the artist’s finished work. Ask how the artist disposes of used needles. Make sure the artist uses only new sterile needles. Find out if the artist is vaccinated for hepatitis B. Make sure the artist is wearing standard medical latex gloves. Ask to see a certification that the autoclave has been sterilized.
A combination of three to four different antibiotics taken daily for at least 6 to 9 months.
Fig. 14-4, p. 405 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, tuberculosis is expelled in tiny airborne droplets that others may inhale. The TB bacteria lodge mainly in the lungs, where they slowly multiply, creating patches, then cavities, in the lungs. Other parts of the lung are affected, including bronchi and the lining of the lung. If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys, spine, and skin. How Tuberculosis Spreads
High fever; a rash that leads to peeling of the skin on the fingers, toes, palms, and soles; dizziness; dangerously low blood pressure; and abnormalities in several organ systems, and in the muscles and blood.