An Invitation to Health Prepared by: Karlyn Grimes MS RD Chapter 14:  Defending Yourself Against Infectious Disease
Chapter 14 Objectives Explain  how different agents of infection spread disease. Describe  how your body protects itself f...
Agents of Infection Helminths Small parasitic worms that attack specific tissues or organs and compete with the host for n...
How Do You Catch An Infection? Animals and Insects People Water Food
How do infections occur? <ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li...
4 Ways to Enter the Body Direct Indirect Airborne Vector-borne Fluid to Fluid Infected Surface Water Vapor Non-human Carrier
For Infection to Occur… <ul><li>Pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Entr...
The Process of Infection 1. Exposure 2. Infection 3. Incubation  Period 4. Prodormal Period 5. Clinical Stage 6. Recovery ...
How Your Body Protects Itself <ul><li>Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, mucus, and cilia. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic Syste...
Fig. 14-1, p. 395 Right lymphatic duct •  Drains right upper portion of body Thoracic duct •  Drains most of body Some of ...
Immune Disorders Allergies <ul><li>Hypersensitivity to a substance in our environment or diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms ...
Immune Disorders Autoimmune Disorders <ul><li>When the immune system declares war on the cells, tissues, or organs it norm...
Recommendations for Adult Immunizations <ul><li>Tetanus, Diphtheria </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>Hepati...
Who Is At Highest Risk  of Infectious Disease? Children & Their Families The Chronically Ill Residing In Poorly Ventilated...
Common Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Common Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>...
Common Cold Facts <ul><li>There are 200 distinct cold viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans come down with 1 billion colds ...
Treatments for the Common Cold <ul><li>Limit Aspirin and Acetaminophen (Tylenol) </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses important an...
Influenza <ul><li>The flu causes more severe, longer lasting symptoms than a cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza A and influ...
Influenza <ul><li>The flu is very contagious and is spread by coughs, sneezes, laughs, and even normal conversation. </li>...
Influenza <ul><li>Annually : FluMist vs. flu shots </li></ul><ul><li>Not for individuals who are allergic to eggs. </li></...
Influenza <ul><li>Relenza and Tamiflu </li></ul>Antiviral Drugs
Individuals Who Should Get Flu Shots <ul><li>Individuals aged 65 years and older. </li></ul><ul><li>Residents in long term...
Student Snapshot, p. 402
Rate of Flu in College Dorms Fig 14-3, p. 402
Meningitis <ul><li>An extremely serious, potentially fatal illness that attacks the membranes around the brain and spinal ...
Meningitis <ul><li>Rash, fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. </li></ul>Symptoms
Meningitis <ul><li>Coughing, kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils, or cigarettes; or prolonged exposure to infected in...
Meningitis <ul><li>Recommended for freshman living in dormitories. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination is effective for 3 years ...
Hepatitis <ul><li>Five different viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, Delta and E) that can cause inflammation of the liver. </li><...
Hepatitis <ul><li>Headaches, fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>Enla...
Hepatitis <ul><li>Hepatitis A :  Poor sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B :  Blood and other bodily fluids </li></ul>...
Hepatitis <ul><li>Rest, a high-protein diet, and the avoidance of alcohol and drugs that may stress the liver. </li></ul><...
Before You Get a Tattoo or Piercing If you require prophylactic antibiotics for dental cleanings or other procedures, do n...
Mononucleosis <ul><li>A viral disease that targets people 15-24 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>You can get mono through kiss...
Mononucleosis <ul><li>You can get mono through kissing or any other form of close contact. </li></ul>Transmission
Mononucleosis <ul><li>Sore throat, headache, fever, nausea, and prolonged weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen spleen, and ...
Mononucleosis <ul><li>Rest </li></ul>Treatment
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>As many as 500,000 Americans have an array of symptoms known as chronic fatigue syndrome ...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>Immune abnormalities, such as high levels of certain immune cells (B lymphocytes and cyto...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>Unavailable at this time. </li></ul>Diagnosis
Pneumonia <ul><li>An inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses (including flu), or foreign material in the lun...
Pneumonia <ul><li>Cough, a fever of more than 101 ºF, difficulty breathing, chills, and excessive yellow-green phlegm. </l...
Pneumonia <ul><li>Bacterial Pneumonia : fever, shortness of breath, and general weakness. </li></ul>Symptoms
Pneumonia <ul><li>Antibiotics and occasionally hospitalization. </li></ul>Treatment
Pneumonia <ul><li>Recommended for those who’ve had pneumonia in the past, those with impaired immune function, and those o...
Tuberculosis <ul><li>A bacterial infection of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>About 30% of the world’s population is infected...
Tuberculosis <ul><li>Highly contagious, especially where inadequate ventilation increases the risk of infection. </li></ul...
Tuberculosis <ul><li>Vary depending on the organs affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, sweating, unexplained weight loss, lo...
Tuberculosis <ul><li>A combination of three to four different antibiotics taken daily for at least 6 to 9 months. </li></u...
Fig. 14-4, p. 405 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, tuberculosis is expelled in tiny airb...
Group A and Group B Strep Infection <ul><li>Group A streptococcal bacteria causes strep throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic st...
Group A and Group B Strep Infection <ul><li>Group A :  Antibiotics (penicillin or Omnicef) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If not tr...
Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>A potentially deadly disease associated with the use of tampons, particularly high-absorbency...
Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>High fever; a rash that leads to peeling of the skin on the fingers, toes, palms, and soles; ...
Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>Immediate hospitalization, IV administration of fluids, medications to raise blood pressure, ...
Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A bacterial infection spread by ticks carrying the a ...
Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A virus transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an in...
Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A rare viral disease common to Africa.  </li></ul><ul...
The Best Defense <ul><li>Eat a balanced diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fatty foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Get enough sleep. </l...
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  • Figure 6.1
  • Student Snapshot – Colds and Flu on Campus
  • Figure 14-3 Rate of Flu in College Dorms
  • An Invitation to Health Prepared by: Karlyn Grimes MS RD

    1. 1. An Invitation to Health Prepared by: Karlyn Grimes MS RD Chapter 14: Defending Yourself Against Infectious Disease
    2. 2. Chapter 14 Objectives Explain how different agents of infection spread disease. Describe how your body protects itself from infectious disease. List and describe some common infectious diseases. Identify sexually transmitted infections and the symptoms and treatments of each. List the methods of STI transmission. Define HIV infection and describe its symptoms. Explain some practical methods for preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections.
    3. 3. Agents of Infection Helminths Small parasitic worms that attack specific tissues or organs and compete with the host for nutrients. Protozoa Single-celled, microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxins that destroy cells or interfere with their function. Fungi Single-celled or multi-celled organisms composed of threadlike fibers and reproductive spores. Fungi release enzymes that digest cells in hair-covered areas of the body. Bacteria Simple one-celled organisms. The most plentiful microorganisms as well as the most pathogenic. Bacteria harm the body by releasing enzymes that digest body cells or toxins that produce the specific effects of specific diseases. Viruses Tiniest pathogens, but also the toughest. Consist of a bit of RNA or DNA within a protein coat. Take over a body cell’s reproductive machinery to reproduce.
    4. 4. How Do You Catch An Infection? Animals and Insects People Water Food
    5. 5. How do infections occur? <ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Rickettsia </li></ul>Body has normal resistance to most pathogens
    6. 6. 4 Ways to Enter the Body Direct Indirect Airborne Vector-borne Fluid to Fluid Infected Surface Water Vapor Non-human Carrier
    7. 7. For Infection to Occur… <ul><li>Pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Site/Mode </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Process of Infection 1. Exposure 2. Infection 3. Incubation Period 4. Prodormal Period 5. Clinical Stage 6. Recovery or Relapse 7. Termination
    9. 9. How Your Body Protects Itself <ul><li>Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, mucus, and cilia. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic System Organs and Components : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes (white blood cells) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Fig. 14-1, p. 395 Right lymphatic duct • Drains right upper portion of body Thoracic duct • Drains most of body Some of the lymph vessels • Return excess fluid and reclaimable solutes to the blood Some of the lymph nodes • Filter bacteria and many other agents of disease from lymph Tonsils • Defense against bacteria and other foreign agents Thymus gland • Site where certain white blood cells acquire means to chemically recognize specific foreign invaders Spleen • Site where antibodies are manufactured; disposal site for old red blood cells and foreign debris; site of red blood cell formation in the embryo Bone marrow • Marrow in some bones are production sites for infection-fighting blood cells (as well as red blood cells and platelets) Lymph nodes • Store protective cells and destroy pathogens The Human Lymphatic System
    11. 11. Immune Disorders Allergies <ul><li>Hypersensitivity to a substance in our environment or diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itching, nasal congestion, eye irritation, coughing, wheezing, hives, vomiting, and diarrhea, and even sudden life-threatening collapse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-sedating oral medications, nasal sprays, and immunology. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Immune Disorders Autoimmune Disorders <ul><li>When the immune system declares war on the cells, tissues, or organs it normally protects. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graves disease, systematic lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics, drugs, chemicals, bacteria and viruses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New diagnostic tests and treatments are on the horizon. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Recommendations for Adult Immunizations <ul><li>Tetanus, Diphtheria </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><li>Measles, Mumps and Rubella </li></ul><ul><li>Varicella (Chickenpox ) </li></ul><ul><li>Meningococcal Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumococcal Disease </li></ul>
    14. 14. Who Is At Highest Risk of Infectious Disease? Children & Their Families The Chronically Ill Residing In Poorly Ventilated Buildings Smokers & Those With Respiratory Problems The Elderly Individuals Working With Sick Individuals
    15. 15. Common Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Common Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Mononucleosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Group A and Group B Strep Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Shock Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Insect- and Animal-Borne Infections </li></ul><ul><li>New Infectious Treats </li></ul>
    16. 16. Common Cold Facts <ul><li>There are 200 distinct cold viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans come down with 1 billion colds annually. </li></ul><ul><li>The common cold results in ~20 million lost work days and 22 million days of absence from school. </li></ul><ul><li>Spring, Summer and Early Fall Colds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhinoviruses causing symptoms above the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stuffy nose, headache and runny nose. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Winter Colds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, coronaviruses and influenza viruses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These viruses are more likely to get into the bronchi and trachea and cause more fever and bronchitis. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Treatments for the Common Cold <ul><li>Limit Aspirin and Acetaminophen (Tylenol) </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses important antibodies and increases symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Reye’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Ibuprofen </li></ul><ul><li>Antihistamines </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, or thyroid disorders should limit products containing pseudoephedrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit Multisymptom Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Remedies </li></ul><ul><li>? Vitamin C, Echinacea , zinc lozenges </li></ul>
    18. 18. Influenza <ul><li>The flu causes more severe, longer lasting symptoms than a cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza A and influenza B. </li></ul>Facts
    19. 19. Influenza <ul><li>The flu is very contagious and is spread by coughs, sneezes, laughs, and even normal conversation. </li></ul>Transmission
    20. 20. Influenza <ul><li>Annually : FluMist vs. flu shots </li></ul><ul><li>Not for individuals who are allergic to eggs. </li></ul>Vaccinations
    21. 21. Influenza <ul><li>Relenza and Tamiflu </li></ul>Antiviral Drugs
    22. 22. Individuals Who Should Get Flu Shots <ul><li>Individuals aged 65 years and older. </li></ul><ul><li>Residents in long term care facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals aged 2 to 64 years with chronic health conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Children aged 6 to 23 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women. </li></ul><ul><li>Health-care personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Household contacts and caregivers. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Student Snapshot, p. 402
    24. 24. Rate of Flu in College Dorms Fig 14-3, p. 402
    25. 25. Meningitis <ul><li>An extremely serious, potentially fatal illness that attacks the membranes around the brain and spinal cord; caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in hearing loss, kidney failure, and permanent brain damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral meningitis is typically less severe. </li></ul>Facts
    26. 26. Meningitis <ul><li>Rash, fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. </li></ul>Symptoms
    27. 27. Meningitis <ul><li>Coughing, kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils, or cigarettes; or prolonged exposure to infected individuals. </li></ul>Transmission
    28. 28. Meningitis <ul><li>Recommended for freshman living in dormitories. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination is effective for 3 years against 70% of bacterial meningitis strains. </li></ul>Vaccinations
    29. 29. Hepatitis <ul><li>Five different viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, Delta and E) that can cause inflammation of the liver. </li></ul>Facts
    30. 30. Hepatitis <ul><li>Headaches, fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged, tender liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the yellowish tinge of jaundice develops. </li></ul>Symptoms
    31. 31. Hepatitis <ul><li>Hepatitis A : Poor sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B : Blood and other bodily fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C : Exposure to infected blood, injection-drug use, tattoos, or body piercing. </li></ul>Transmission
    32. 32. Hepatitis <ul><li>Rest, a high-protein diet, and the avoidance of alcohol and drugs that may stress the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha interferon. </li></ul>Treatments
    33. 33. Before You Get a Tattoo or Piercing If you require prophylactic antibiotics for dental cleanings or other procedures, do not get a tattoo. Always ask to see photos of the artist’s finished work. Ask how the artist disposes of used needles. Make sure the artist uses only new sterile needles. Find out if the artist is vaccinated for hepatitis B. Make sure the artist is wearing standard medical latex gloves. Ask to see a certification that the autoclave has been sterilized.
    34. 34. Mononucleosis <ul><li>A viral disease that targets people 15-24 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>You can get mono through kissing or any other form of close contact. </li></ul>Facts
    35. 35. Mononucleosis <ul><li>You can get mono through kissing or any other form of close contact. </li></ul>Transmission
    36. 36. Mononucleosis <ul><li>Sore throat, headache, fever, nausea, and prolonged weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen spleen, and enlarged lymph nodes and liver. </li></ul>Symptoms
    37. 37. Mononucleosis <ul><li>Rest </li></ul>Treatment
    38. 38. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>As many as 500,000 Americans have an array of symptoms known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). </li></ul>Facts
    39. 39. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>Immune abnormalities, such as high levels of certain immune cells (B lymphocytes and cytokines) that act as if they were constantly battling a viral infection. </li></ul>Common Characteristics
    40. 40. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome <ul><li>Unavailable at this time. </li></ul>Diagnosis
    41. 41. Pneumonia <ul><li>An inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses (including flu), or foreign material in the lungs (such as smoke). </li></ul><ul><li>The 5 th leading killer of Americans. </li></ul>Facts
    42. 42. Pneumonia <ul><li>Cough, a fever of more than 101 ºF, difficulty breathing, chills, and excessive yellow-green phlegm. </li></ul>Signs
    43. 43. Pneumonia <ul><li>Bacterial Pneumonia : fever, shortness of breath, and general weakness. </li></ul>Symptoms
    44. 44. Pneumonia <ul><li>Antibiotics and occasionally hospitalization. </li></ul>Treatment
    45. 45. Pneumonia <ul><li>Recommended for those who’ve had pneumonia in the past, those with impaired immune function, and those over age 65. </li></ul>Vaccination
    46. 46. Tuberculosis <ul><li>A bacterial infection of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>About 30% of the world’s population is infected with the TB organism, although not all develop active disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 15 million Americans have the disease. </li></ul>Facts
    47. 47. Tuberculosis <ul><li>Highly contagious, especially where inadequate ventilation increases the risk of infection. </li></ul>Transmission
    48. 48. Tuberculosis <ul><li>Vary depending on the organs affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, sweating, unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue, persistent cough, difficulty breathing or chest pain when breathing. </li></ul>Symptoms
    49. 49. Tuberculosis <ul><li>A combination of three to four different antibiotics taken daily for at least 6 to 9 months. </li></ul>Treatment
    50. 50. Fig. 14-4, p. 405 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, tuberculosis is expelled in tiny airborne droplets that others may inhale. The TB bacteria lodge mainly in the lungs, where they slowly multiply, creating patches, then cavities, in the lungs. Other parts of the lung are affected, including bronchi and the lining of the lung. If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys, spine, and skin. How Tuberculosis Spreads
    51. 51. Group A and Group B Strep Infection <ul><li>Group A streptococcal bacteria causes strep throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic streptococcal shock syndrome is an invasive form of the disease in which strep gains access to the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of life-threatening perinatal infections in the United States. </li></ul>Facts
    52. 52. Group A and Group B Strep Infection <ul><li>Group A : Antibiotics (penicillin or Omnicef) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If not treated promptly, strep bacteria can travel to the kidneys, the liver, or the heart, where they can cause rheumatic fever. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group B : Antibiotics during and prior to childbirth. </li></ul>Treatment
    53. 53. Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>A potentially deadly disease associated with the use of tampons, particularly high-absorbency types, and women who have given birth within the preceding six to eight weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. </li></ul>Facts
    54. 54. Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>High fever; a rash that leads to peeling of the skin on the fingers, toes, palms, and soles; dizziness; dangerously low blood pressure; and abnormalities in several organ systems, and in the muscles and blood. </li></ul>Symptoms
    55. 55. Toxic Shock Syndrome <ul><li>Immediate hospitalization, IV administration of fluids, medications to raise blood pressure, and powerful antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Without treatment, TSS can cause severe and permanent damage, including muscle weakness, partial paralysis, amnesia, disorientation, an inability to concentrate, and impaired lung and kidney function. </li></ul>Treatment
    56. 56. Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A bacterial infection spread by ticks carrying the a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi . </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include joint inflammation, heart arrhythmias, blinding headaches, and memory lapses. </li></ul>Lyme Disease
    57. 57. Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A virus transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an infected bird and then bites a human. </li></ul><ul><li>MNV interferes with normal central nervous system functioning and causes inflammation of brain tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>No treatment is available. </li></ul>West Nile Virus
    58. 58. Insect and Animal Borne Infections Characteristics Infection <ul><li>A rare viral disease common to Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms are similar to those of small pox. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no specific treatment. </li></ul>Monkeypox Virus
    59. 59. The Best Defense <ul><li>Eat a balanced diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fatty foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Get enough sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Control your alcohol intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t share food, drinks, silverware or glasses. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend as little time as possible in crowds. </li></ul><ul><li>Use tissues rather than handkerchiefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid irritating air pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Get tested immediately if you think you have an STI. </li></ul>
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