Writing Better Abstracts:   A User’s Guide Barbara J. Holtzclaw, PhD, RN, FAAN Nurse Scientist & Research Liaison Universi...
What is an abstract? <ul><li>highlights the major points covered </li></ul><ul><li>concisely describes the content & scope...
Objectives for this Session <ul><li>Compare & contrast various types of abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>Critically examine sub...
Types of  Abstracts <ul><li>Responses to a “Call for Abstracts”  </li></ul><ul><li>A synopsis of a presented poster or pap...
Reasons for Writing an Abstract <ul><li>Responses to a   “Call for Abstracts”   </li></ul><ul><li>A synopsis of a presente...
Responding to Calls for Abstracts  <ul><li>Who is issuing the call?  </li></ul><ul><li>When/where is the meeting to be? </...
Competitive or Judged Abstracts  <ul><li>Are abstracts reviewed blind?  </li></ul><ul><li>Are defined/limited topics invit...
Competitive or Judged Abstracts  <ul><li>Is there a required template or form for submission? </li></ul><ul><li>If no temp...
Do guidelines state that abstract must be typed on a specific document or “inserted” in an online template? Abstract Templ...
Abstract Templates: Typing Instructions Top box measures 6” x 2 1/2”  Use this form as a guide to format. Your information...
Abstract Templates Bottom box measures 6” x 7 1/2” Abstracts should, as appropriate, include the following subheadings or ...
Abstract Templates These are  required  elements! But you need more! You need an introductory KYSO* statement about the St...
Online Submission Sigma Theta Tau International:  <ul><li>General Submission Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>All  abstracts m...
Example from the Sigma Theta Tau International:  <ul><li>Selection Criteria Submissions will be rated on the following:   ...
Example of Online Submission from   Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) :  Go to  www. focisnet .org   to ...
Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) :  Review Process Abstracts will be peer-reviewed according to the cat...
Example:  Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) :  Notification Notifications regarding acceptance & rejecti...
Example:  Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies  <ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>When submitting online, please...
Example:  Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies Submission Formatting 1.  Authors :  Include the first and middle in...
Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS)   Submission Instructions Go to  www.focisnet.org   to begin the onlin...
Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS)   <ul><li>FOCIS 2005 May 12-16, 2005  Boston, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Abs...
The Graduate Research Education and Technology (GREAT)  Symposium  Abstract Instructions
GREAT Abstract Instructions  <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul...
GREAT Abstract Instructions  <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT (Continued) <...
GREAT Abstract Instructions  <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT (Continued) <...
GREAT Abstract Instructions  ABSTRACT FORM Submitting your abstract: You may email your abstract and presentation entry fo...
GREAT Abstract Instructions  <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Content of the abstrac...
GREAT Abstract Instructions  TYPING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ABSTRACT 1. Font type must be Times New Roman & the size must be 11 p...
The Art of Abstracting   Where do I start?   Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Spe...
These are required elements! But you need more! You need an introductory KYSO statement about the Study Problem, its Signi...
Where to start?  <ul><li>Read Abstract Guidelines  (highlight key info) </li></ul><ul><li>Set up abstract format or space ...
Cutting through the Verbiage  <ul><li>Use a  colored highlighter  to : </li></ul><ul><li>highlight  key points  of the tex...
Cutting through the Verbiage  <ul><li>Creating the  abstract draft : </li></ul><ul><li>Type in  headers  to match  require...
Tips for reducing character spaces  <ul><li>Don’t use words for numbers (except at start of sentence). </li></ul><ul><li>U...
Tips for making abstracts clear  <ul><li>Use standard abbreviations. </li></ul><ul><li>Define any new abbreviation </li></...
Learning from Examples Examples drawn from handout called Specimen Paper A Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That P...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern,...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern,...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern,...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern,...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal per...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Therefore the  purpose of this pilot study  is to illuminate a preliminary...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  In this pilot study the meaning of children’s and adolescent’s experience ...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  “ An inductive approach will be utilized for analysis of the data. Themati...
Example of Original text from Research Report:  Once analysis is complete, theory or precursors of such will emerge from t...
Put the pieces together, cut, refine and distill:  Study Problem & Significance:  Childhood obesity leads to obesity in ad...
Example of a completed study abstract:  Continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) has solved many of the problems of int...
Example of a completed study abstract:  The   study problem  of interest to this investigator was to what extent variabili...
Example of a completed study abstract:  Methodology:  A prospective descriptive correlational design was used to identify ...
Example of a completed study abstract:  Variables  included TMT, measured by handheld TM thermometer (Diatek 9000,  Welch ...
Example of a completed study abstract:  Findings:  Hypothermia occurred in 91% (n=11) subjects and shivering in 64%. BSA <...
Example of a completed study abstract:  Discussion:  Findings of this study provide evidence that hypothermia occurs durin...
Example of a completed study abstract:  The dialysate flow rate was more influential ( p  = .05), than was blood flow rate...
References Cremmins, E.T. (1982).  The art of abstracting.  Philadelphia, ISI Press. Day, R. A. (1995).  How to Write & Pu...
Need more help or suggestions?  Contact me at [email_address]
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Abstract Preparation

  1. 1. Writing Better Abstracts: A User’s Guide Barbara J. Holtzclaw, PhD, RN, FAAN Nurse Scientist & Research Liaison University of Oklahoma College of Nursing
  2. 2. What is an abstract? <ul><li>highlights the major points covered </li></ul><ul><li>concisely describes the content & scope of the writing </li></ul><ul><li>reviews the writing's contents in abbreviated form. </li></ul>A condensed version of a longer piece of writing that: Assumption: abstracts should be clear, concise, & free from extraneous words.
  3. 3. Objectives for this Session <ul><li>Compare & contrast various types of abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>Critically examine submission guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Select critical elements from original documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Modify and abstract text into uncluttered synopses that meet acceptance criteria. </li></ul>This session should enable you to :
  4. 4. Types of Abstracts <ul><li>Responses to a “Call for Abstracts” </li></ul><ul><li>A synopsis of a presented poster or paper </li></ul><ul><li>Preface for an article for publication </li></ul><ul><li>Preface for a thesis/dissertation </li></ul>Common varieties : Assumption: an abstract is taken from an existing longer document.
  5. 5. Reasons for Writing an Abstract <ul><li>Responses to a “Call for Abstracts” </li></ul><ul><li>A synopsis of a presented poster or paper </li></ul><ul><li>Preface for an article for publication </li></ul><ul><li>Preface for a thesis/dissertation </li></ul>Common varieties : Assumption: an abstract is taken from an existing longer document. A “Call for Abstracts” is issued by meeting (or publication) organizers to recruit presenters for a conference. Accepted abstracts sometimes (but not always) have reduced conference rates. Accepted abstracts sometimes (but not always) are published by conference organizers Accepted abstracts show up as scholarly work on your curriculum vitae (C.V.)!
  6. 6. Responding to Calls for Abstracts <ul><li>Who is issuing the call? </li></ul><ul><li>When/where is the meeting to be? </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s for a meeting, can I actually go ? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of abstracts are called for? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the experience be of value to me? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I write alone or coauthor an abstract? </li></ul>Key points :
  7. 7. Competitive or Judged Abstracts <ul><li>Are abstracts reviewed blind? </li></ul><ul><li>Are defined/limited topics invited? </li></ul><ul><li>Are previous presentations allowed? </li></ul><ul><li>Must presenter(s) be members? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there required elements? </li></ul><ul><li>Must studies/projects be completed? </li></ul>Look for the Criteria :
  8. 8. Competitive or Judged Abstracts <ul><li>Is there a required template or form for submission? </li></ul><ul><li>If no template, are dimensions or space allowances specified? </li></ul><ul><li>What identifying information is required? </li></ul><ul><li>Are “blind” copies required? </li></ul>Look at the Format:
  9. 9. Do guidelines state that abstract must be typed on a specific document or “inserted” in an online template? Abstract Templates: Typing Instructions Tips for the stenographically-challenged & those without typewriters <ul><li>Set margins or dimensions to “fit” space on form. </li></ul><ul><li>Type abstract on computer (use MS-WORD (or other) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Block” text & use “Edit feature” on menu to“Copy” </li></ul><ul><li>Go to online template form & “Paste” your abstract. </li></ul><ul><li>For hard copy literally paste or tape abstract on form. </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopy paste-up for submission. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Abstract Templates: Typing Instructions Top box measures 6” x 2 1/2” Use this form as a guide to format. Your information should be typed on plain paper without lines on it. All text must be within spaces indicated by the boxes. 6” x 7 1/2” Abstracts should, as appropriate, include the following subheadings or their equivalent. This greatly helps in the review process and makes for a cleaner abstract. Purpose: Method: Findings: Discussion: You may submit as one continuous paragraph. 6” x 2 1/2” Use this form as a guide to format. Your information should be typed on plain paper without lines on it. All text must be within spaces indicated by the boxes. Guidelines for Paper/Poster Abstracts TYPE ABSTRACT TITLE IN UPPER CASE Author’s Name, Degrees Author’s Institution Author’s Institutional Address Three Key Word..
  11. 11. Abstract Templates Bottom box measures 6” x 7 1/2” Abstracts should, as appropriate, include the following subheadings or their equivalent. This greatly helps in the review process and makes for a cleaner abstract. Purpose: Method: Findings: Discussion: You may submit as one continuous paragraph. 6” x 7 1/2” Abstracts should, as appropriate, include the following subheadings or their equivalent. This greatly helps in the review process and makes for a cleaner abstract. Purpose: Method: Findings: Discussion: You may submit as one continuous paragraph. 6” x 2 1/2” Use this form as a guide to format. Your information should be typed on plain paper without lines on it. All text must be within spaces indicated by the boxes. Guidelines for Paper/Poster Abstracts TYPE ABSTRACT TITLE IN UPPER CASE Author’s Name, Degrees Author’s Institution Author’s Institutional Address Three Key Word..
  12. 12. Abstract Templates These are required elements! But you need more! You need an introductory KYSO* statement about the Study Problem, its Significance, and why the study or project was needed. *Knock Your Sox Off Purpose: You need to state the Purpose in terms of what the study/project was intended to do. Research studies should include hypotheses or questions that achieve that intention. Method: This needs to include: Design, sample size & description, setting, instruments & procedures. Findings: Combine statistical or analytic findings with Data Analysis methods to save space. Just the “Facts Maam” Discussion: Interpret implications of actual or expected findings or outcomes. List grant or funding agency here! 6” x 7 1/2” Abstracts should, as appropriate, include the following subheadings or their equivalent. This greatly helps in the review process and makes for a cleaner abstract. Purpose: Method: Findings: Discussion: You may submit as one continuous paragraph. 6” x 2 1/2” Use this form as a guide to format. Your information should be typed on plain paper without lines on it. All text must be within spaces indicated by the boxes. Guidelines for Paper/Poster Abstracts TYPE ABSTRACT TITLE IN UPPER CASE Author’s Name, Degrees Author’s Institution Author’s Institutional Address Three Key Word..
  13. 13. Online Submission Sigma Theta Tau International: <ul><li>General Submission Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>All abstracts must be submitted via this online submission system. (Follow the hyperlinks on page). </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts must be in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract text should be original in compliance with copyright laws (not previously published/ presented). Abstracts can discuss work that was used in a prior presentation/publication. However, the abstract text & focus must differ from previous presentation/ publication. </li></ul><ul><li>You are strongly encouraged to compose the abstract text in your own word processor before submitting it online. Be sure to check spelling, word count and conformance with the guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>No italics, Greek letters, or other special fonts are permitted. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual may submit more than one abstract but only one selected presentation per author/organizer. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract text should be original in compliance with copyright laws (not previously published/ presented). Abstracts can discuss work that was used in a prior presentation/publication. However, the abstract text & focus must differ from previous presentation/ publication. </li></ul><ul><li>No italics, Greek letters, or other special fonts are permitted. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual may submit more than one abstract but only one selected presentation per author/organizer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example from the Sigma Theta Tau International: <ul><li>Selection Criteria Submissions will be rated on the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Applicability </li></ul><ul><li>Global Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility (Focused Discussion Group Submissions Only) </li></ul>Look for Criteria for Acceptance
  15. 15. Example of Online Submission from Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) : Go to www. focisnet .org to begin the online abstract submission process. Click on the “Submit an Abstract” button to access Call4Abstracts™system, which includes complete instructions on the process. Paper and disk submissions will NOT be accepted. Deadline The deadline for submitting abstracts is January 17, 2005. Eligibility Members of any of the FOCIS Member Societies or Affiliate Societies, as well as non-members are eligible to submit abstracts. Prior Publication Abstracts that have been or will be published prior to the time of presentation at FOCIS 2005 may not be submitted. Abstract Templates
  16. 16. Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) : Review Process Abstracts will be peer-reviewed according to the categories provided. Authors must choose one category and one theme for each abstract submitted. Indicate the category and theme during online submission. Abstract Placement The FOCIS Program Committee will have sole discretion regarding placement of abstracts within the FOCIS program. Abstracts will be considered for either an oral or poster presentation. Please indicate your preference for oral or poster presentation format during online submission. All abstracts selected for oral presentations must also be presented as posters. Abstract Templates
  17. 17. Example: Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) : Notification Notifications regarding acceptance & rejection of abstracts are made by March 1, 2005. To verify your abstract’s status, contact: FOCIS Executive Office (414) 918-3192 [email_address] Abstract Publication All abstracts accepted for presentation by deadline will be published on FOCIS website & distributed as a hard-copy volume at FOCIS 2005. Abstracts will be accessible via the homepage 4/1/05. Withdrawals Withdrawals of abstracts must be received in writing before 2/15/05. Abstract Presentation Submitters must be prepared to present submitted abstracts at FOCIS 2005 should their abstract be accepted for the meeting. Posters will not be allowed without an accompanying presenter. Abstract Templates
  18. 18. Example: Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies <ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>When submitting online, please select the category that best represents your abstract from following choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergy/asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune neurologic diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune rheumatologic diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow/stem cell transplantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokines/chemokines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes/other autoimmune endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General autoimmunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammatory bowel diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity and infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme : When submitting online, please select which of the themes of the meeting into which your abstract falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunodeficiency: primary or acquired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immuno-dermatology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunology of the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immuno-oncology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory immunology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ transplantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive immunology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>Abstract Templates
  19. 19. Example: Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies Submission Formatting 1. Authors : Include the first and middle initial and last name of each author. Omit titles or designations (e.g. MD, PhD). 2. Affiliations : Include hospital, university, clinic or other affiliation, followed by the city and state or country. 3. Abbreviations : Use standard abbreviations. Place special or unusual abbreviation in parentheses after first appearance of the full word for which it stands. 4. Drug Names : Non-proprietary (generic) drug names are preferred and should be written without capitalization. Names of proprietary drugs should be capitalized in all instances. Abstract Templates
  20. 20. Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) Submission Instructions Go to www.focisnet.org to begin the online abstract submission process. Click on the “Submit an Abstract” button to access Call4Abstracts™system, which includes complete instructions on the process. Paper and disk submissions will NOT be accepted. Deadline The deadline for submitting abstracts is January 17, 2005. Eligibility Members of any of the FOCIS Member Societies or Affiliate Societies, as well as non-members are eligible to submit abstracts. Prior Publication Abstracts that have been or will be published prior to the time of presentation at FOCIS 2005 may not be submitted.
  21. 21. Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) <ul><li>FOCIS 2005 May 12-16, 2005 Boston, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Submission Deadline: January 17, 2005, 11:59 PM, Central Standard Time </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for choosing this online submission program. This program is to make the abstract submission process easier To submit your abstract using the online submission form, you will need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Internet Explorer , Vers. 5.1 or higher, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Navigator or Communicator , Vers. 6.2 or higher. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions about the Online Abstract Submission process? Contact Marathon Multimedia at Technical Support . </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Graduate Research Education and Technology (GREAT) Symposium Abstract Instructions
  23. 23. GREAT Abstract Instructions <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>RULES FOR SUBMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>1. Participants must indicate whether they wish to present their research as a poster presentation or oral presentation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For poster presentations, please indicate whether competitive or non-competitive, & the relevant category, i.e., Basic or Clinical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No additional audiovisual aids will be allowed for poster presentations other than the poster itself. </li></ul></ul>poster presentation or oral presentation? Type and category? Poster stands alone!
  24. 24. GREAT Abstract Instructions <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All oral presentations will be considered competitive, please indicate relevant category, i.e., Basic or Clinical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every attempt will be made to accommodate participants in the oral/platform session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final selection of abstracts for oral presentation will be determined by the GREAT abstract review committee. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstracts not selected for oral presentations will be included as poster presentations, & participant notified of the change. </li></ul></ul></ul>Some oral presentation submissions will be asked to do posters.
  25. 25. GREAT Abstract Instructions <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR GREAT 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMISSION OF AN ABSTRACT (Continued) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Only students who are presenting their work in person will be eligible for awards. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Presentation Entry Form” must be completed & submitted with the abstract. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each entry form must be signed by a faculty sponsor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such a signature will be considered assurance of adherence to the rules & of the role of the student in the research reported. </li></ul></ul>You must be present to compete for awards! You must have faculty sponsor’s signature on form!
  26. 26. GREAT Abstract Instructions ABSTRACT FORM Submitting your abstract: You may email your abstract and presentation entry form as an attachment in Microsoft Word to grad-college@ ouhsc . edu . You may submit your abstract on a 3.5 inch IBM formatted disk using Microsoft Word. The presenter's name should be written on the diskette. 2. Presentation entry forms abstracts must be emailed or submitted to the Graduate College Office by Friday, February 18, 2005. Electronic submission! Either email attachment or disk submission acceptable! Deadline, Friday February 18, 2005
  27. 27. GREAT Abstract Instructions <ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>1. Content of the abstract should be informative & contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study’s specific objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a brief statement of methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a summary of the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the conclusions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. It is NOT satisfactory to state: 'The results will be discussed.' </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tables & figures are permitted, provided they are within the limits described below. </li></ul>Give a context or background to the objective or purpose! State Purpose/Objectives in terms of what the study/project was intended to do.
  28. 28. GREAT Abstract Instructions TYPING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ABSTRACT 1. Font type must be Times New Roman & the size must be 11 point. 2. The text of the abstract is limited to 250 words. 3. The title of the abstract should be in bold, italicized & in upper case letters. 4. Italicize names & initials of all authors. 5. When listing authors from different affiliations list by author order; no reference marks are needed. 6. When using abbreviations for compounds, spell out in full when first mentioned, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis. 11 point 250 words bold, italicized & in upper case letters.
  29. 29. The Art of Abstracting Where do I start? Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may
  30. 30. These are required elements! But you need more! You need an introductory KYSO statement about the Study Problem, its Significance, and why the study or project was needed. Purpose: You need to state the Purpose in terms of what the study/project was intended to do. Research studies should include hypotheses or questions that achieve that intention. Method: This needs to include: Design, sample size & description, setting, instruments & procedures. Findings: Combine statistical or analytic findings with Data Analysis methods to save space. Just the “Facts Maam” Discussion: Interpret implications of actual or expected findings or outcomes. List grant or funding agency here! You may usually submit as one continuous paragraph . To Recap!
  31. 31. Where to start? <ul><li>Read Abstract Guidelines (highlight key info) </li></ul><ul><li>Set up abstract format or space limits on computer (space limit vs. word limit) </li></ul><ul><li>Mark key points & elements on original document (use highlighter) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt objective attitude about removing pieces of your creative work </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude general, obvious, deadwood information </li></ul>Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may
  32. 32. Cutting through the Verbiage <ul><li>Use a colored highlighter to : </li></ul><ul><li>highlight key points of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>highlight important words or phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>answer required elements of the abstract format. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cutting through the Verbiage <ul><li>Creating the abstract draft : </li></ul><ul><li>Type in headers to match required elements of the abstract format. </li></ul><ul><li>Type in key points from original text document under appropriate headers . </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate important words or phrases from original text. </li></ul><ul><li>Edit, compact & concentrate phrases. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tips for reducing character spaces <ul><li>Don’t use words for numbers (except at start of sentence). </li></ul><ul><li>Use conjunctions appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Use articles (a, an, the) sparingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Use active rather than passive verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Use common, not overstuffed, words (e.g. “use” instead of “utilize”). </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase original into own words. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Tips for making abstracts clear <ul><li>Use standard abbreviations. </li></ul><ul><li>Define any new abbreviation </li></ul><ul><li>Give information only once. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep prepositions in their place. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts aren’t reviews, avoid describing the presentation unless requested . </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts ideally inform rather than describe original paper. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Learning from Examples Examples drawn from handout called Specimen Paper A Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may Study in Progress Learned Feeding Habits That Produce Obesity in Children Specific Aims Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Jones, Brown & Smith, 1998). The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s (Daye & Knight, 1999; White, Green & Black, 1992; Black & Blue, 1999). Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and obesity in children. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life and the family is responsible for these habits (Hoedown, 1986). The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may
  37. 37. Example of Original text from Research Report: Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. What is the study problem and significance in the first paragraph?
  38. 38. Example of Original text from Research Report: Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. cause of death leads to obesity in adulthood preventable cause of disease percent in some minority upwards of 30
  39. 39. Example of Original text from Research Report: Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family Influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide
  40. 40. Example of Original text from Research Report: Obesity is an avoidable cause of death, a neglected public health concern, and the most preventable cause of disease second only to smoking. In 80 percent of cases, obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood and is a leading factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of childhood obesity increases in North America, upwards of 30 percent in some minority pediatric populations, tripling estimates from the 1980’s. Prevention of obesity is an important goal for society concerned with the lifestyle and future wellness of all young children. Lifelong food habits are acquired early in life and typically result from family influence. The primary influence stems from mothers who ultimately provide example, food choices and health behaviors for their children and act as most influential role models and change agents. What is the study problem and significance in the first paragraph? Childhood obesity leads to obesity in adulthood, a leading factor in the development of life-threatening disease in the US. The problem is higher is some minority populations. Family role models, particularly mothers, influence lifelong food habits early in life.
  41. 41. Example of Original text from Research Report: Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and childhood obesity. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life from family influences. The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children. The following questions remain: What is the process behind the learning and role modeling of food behaviors? Where and how do mothers learn these practices? Will learning the process provide insight into possible wellness intervention? Will learning the process dispute existing intervention and timing with regard to child feeding? This area of mother's perceptions of the learning process of feeding children requires illuminating feelings, ideals, thoughts and emotions that may not be collected or brought to the surface using quantitative means. The proposed pilot study will incorporate the grounded theory method of qualitative data collection and analysis in order to illuminate process and ultimately build theory. What are the study purposes and research questions from the second paragraph? grounded theory method of qualitative data collection Studies confirm relationships between maternal perceptions, feeding practices, food habits and obesity in early childhood. Yet, little is known about how mothers learn to feed and nurture children. Research is plentiful with regard to the correlations between maternal perceptions, influence, feeding practices and childhood obesity. Researchers agree that food habits are acquired early in life from family influences. The scientific community lacks knowledge, however, about the process involved in mothers learning to feed and nurture children.
  42. 42. Example of Original text from Research Report: Therefore the purpose of this pilot study is to illuminate a preliminary understanding of the process of learning to feed children. Answers to process directed interview questions provide the pieces necessary to begin to build theory. Substantive theory building according to Strauss and Corbin (1994) evolves from research into the processes or phenomenon in a particular situational context. Resulting substantive theory may provide support and direction to future nursing practice and research within the realm of maternal child relationships and processes. From this analysis, concepts and themes will arise that may provide the groundwork for further establishment of relationship statements. These relationship statements will provide a framework in which to theorize specific to the phenomenon of learning to feed one's children, from the mother's perspective and provide the ground work necessary for further process directed research on a larger scale. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study is to explore the nature of how Mexican American mothers of young children in Hidalgo County learn to feed their children. A grounded theory approach will be used to interview six Mexican American mothers of young obese and non-obese children in Hidalgo County. What are the study purposes and research questions from the second paragraph?
  43. 43. Example of Original text from Research Report: In this pilot study the meaning of children’s and adolescent’s experience is central, a phenomenological qualitative research design will be used to search for meaning and essences of the experience of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM. Phenomenology is an inductive research method used when the concern is to understand the subjective experience of an individual (Oiler-Boyd, 1990). This pilot study will serve as a springboard for the Primary Investigators plan of research to develop and test interventions in this population to prevent DM and decrease complications in children and adolescents. Through the meanings discovered using a phenomenological approach. Sampling: Purposive sampling will be utilized for this study. Sampling criterion will consist of 10-19 year old children and adolescents, MA, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from Hidalgo county. What are the Methods? a phenomenological qualitative research design will be used to search for meaning and essences of the experience of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM. Phenomenology is an inductive research method used when the concern is to understand the subjective experience of an individual
  44. 44. Example of Original text from Research Report: “ An inductive approach will be utilized for analysis of the data. Thematic analysis, consisting of recovering the themes embodied in the evolving meanings in the data, will be practiced to uncover the structures of the experience (Van Manen, 1990). A theme is an intransitive focus point, and “is the form of capturing the phenomenon one tries to understand” (p. 87). Once the themes are unearthed using a detailed reading approach as well as Qualrus TM , an analysis program that uses an array of intelligent computational strategies to assist with analyzing and applying qualitative data, the themes will become the object of reflection in follow-up interviews with the children and adolescents. Data analysis will begin after the first interview and occur simultaneously throughout data collection. The child/adolescent and researcher will attempt to interpret . . .” Can Data Analyses be combined with findings? Thematic analysis will be used to identify themes assisted by Qualrus TM software. , an analysis program that uses an array of intelligent computational strategies to assist with analyzing and applying qualitative data,
  45. 45. Example of Original text from Research Report: Once analysis is complete, theory or precursors of such will emerge from the data as it unfolds among previous literature and research. The resultant theory will be compared to existent theories and literature to either build on previous knowledge or create new pathway toward understanding. Can actual or expected findings be interpreted?
  46. 46. Put the pieces together, cut, refine and distill: Study Problem & Significance: Childhood obesity leads to obesity in adulthood, a leading factor in the development of life-threatening disease. The problem is higher is some minority populations. Family role models, particularly mothers, influence lifelong food habits early in life. Studies confirm relationships between maternal perceptions, feeding practices, food habits and obesity in early childhood. Yet, little is known about how mothers learn to feed and nurture children. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study is to explore the nature of how Mexican American mothers of young children in Hidalgo County learn to feed their children. Methods: A grounded theory approach will be used to interview six Mexican American mothers of young obese and non-obese children in Hidalgo County. Open-ended questioning will elicit feelings, ideas, thoughts and emotions. Thematic analysis will be used to identify themes assisted by Qualrus TM software. Findings will be used to compare and contrast obese and non obese family situations. Conceptual links and meaning will be compared to existent theories to help clarify this important experience.
  47. 47. Example of a completed study abstract: Continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) has solved many of the problems of intermittent hemodialysis in care of critically ill patients, but has introduced a complication that threatens thermal balance. The slow gentle removal of body fluids over a 24-hour period is accompanied by a continual exchange of warmer body heat to the cooler room-temperature dialysate. Metabolic costs to maintain body temperatures at euthermic levels during a steady rate of heat loss can be extremely high. When shivering occurs, energy expenditure may rise 300-500%. Little is known about the extent of heat loss occurring during CVVHD or about factors that influence the rate or amount of heat lost. Section 1
  48. 48. Example of a completed study abstract: The study problem of interest to this investigator was to what extent variability in the patient’s blood volume, body surface area (BSA) and duration of exposure to the extracorporeal blood/dialysate interface influence transmembrane transfer of heat to the dialysate during CVVHD. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to 1) determine associations between blood volume, BSA and tympanic membrane temperatures (TMT) after initiation of CVVHD, and 2) determine effects of blood flow rates (BFR) and dialysate flow rates (DFR) through a fixed volume dialysis circuit on TMT after initiation of CVVHD. Section 2
  49. 49. Example of a completed study abstract: Methodology: A prospective descriptive correlational design was used to identify the existence and extent of heat loss in patients experiencing CVVHD. A convenience sample of 11 patients (5 male, 6 female), with either acute (n=10) or chronic (n=1) renal failure, consented to study participation. Room temperatures were kept constant. Section 3
  50. 50. Example of a completed study abstract: Variables included TMT, measured by handheld TM thermometer (Diatek 9000, Welch Allyn, San Diego CA) ; dialysate temperatures pre and post analyzer, and blood temperatures, to and from the patient, measured with TEGAM 871 digital thermometers (TEGAM, Geneva, OH), at baseline, 30 min, 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 8 hrs, 12 hrs, and 24 hrs after initiation of CVVHD. BSA, and blood volume estimated as 2.7 liters/m 2 BSA. Section 4
  51. 51. Example of a completed study abstract: Findings: Hypothermia occurred in 91% (n=11) subjects and shivering in 64%. BSA <2m 2 was associated with incidence of hypothermia at 30 min and 2 hrs. BFR with speeds higher or lower than 150 ml/min were not found to influence incidence of hypothermia. DFR rates >1000 ml/hr had the greatest impact on hypothermia incidence irrespective of BSA at 2, 4, and 8 hrs. Section 5
  52. 52. Example of a completed study abstract: Discussion: Findings of this study provide evidence that hypothermia occurs during CVVHD. This study did not examine the physiological correlates accompanying hypothermia, but there is abundant support in the literature for its negative effects on the critically ill. The presence of shivering in study subjects suggests that patients experienced increased metabolic expenditure and oxygen demand. While no association was found between BSA and TMT, the correlation between BSA and rate of heat loss was significant, using Kendall’s tau ( T = .739, p = .003). Section 6
  53. 53. Example of a completed study abstract: The dialysate flow rate was more influential ( p = .05), than was blood flow rate during any period during CVVHD. Data indicate the most drastic decline in TM temperature occurred during the first 2 hrs, and shivering occurred within the first 12 hrs of CVVHD therapy. Findings suggest that caregivers must be vigilant in monitoring as well as developing and testing strategies for minimizing heat loss and its metabolic consequences in the critically ill. Section 7
  54. 54. References Cremmins, E.T. (1982). The art of abstracting. Philadelphia, ISI Press. Day, R. A. (1995). How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper . Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press, pp. 29-32. The Writers' Workshop,(2001). Writing abstracts. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/advice/writing_abstracts.htm Proulx, A. (1993). The Shipping News. NY: Scribner
  55. 55. Need more help or suggestions? Contact me at [email_address]
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