Lymphatic System and Immunity:
Lymphatic System <ul><li>Lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Ly...
Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Carry lymph away from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More...
Functions of the Lymphatic System <ul><li>Fluid balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic c...
 
Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Carry lymph away from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More...
Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries join to form </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hav...
Lymph Drainage Into Veins
Lymphatic Tissue and Nodules <ul><li>Lymphatic tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists mainly of lymphocytes </li></ul></ul>...
Tonsils <ul><li>Large groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide protection agai...
Lymph Nodes <ul><li>Organized in cortex and medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymp...
Spleen <ul><li>Located in left superior side of abdomen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injur...
Spleen
Thymus <ul><li>Located in superior mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions: Cortex and medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Site of m...
Immunity <ul><li>Ability to resist damage from foreign substances as microorganisms and harmful chemicals </li></ul><ul><l...
Innate immunity
Inflammatory Response <ul><li>Tissue injury regardless of type can cause inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Response initiated...
Inflammatory Response
Normal Microcirculation Flow
Exudate Formation
Leukocyte Margination and Migration
Diapedesis
Chemotaxis
Innate Immunity: Cells <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important cellular components of immune system...
Antigenic Determinants <ul><li>Antigenic determinants  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific regions of a given antigen recognize...
 
C3a stimulates mast cells and basophils, which then secrete  inflammatory mediators
Adaptive Immunity <ul><li>Involves the ability to recognize, respond to, and remember a particular substance </li></ul><ul...
Origin and Development of Lymphocytes <ul><li>B and T cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate in red bone marrow </li></ul><...
Origin and Development of Lymphocytes <ul><li>Positive selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures survival of lymphocytes tha...
Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) <ul><li>Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins of cell surfaces called M...
Antigen Processing
MHC class I
 
Phagocytosis <ul><li>Phagocytosis also involves membrane invagination. </li></ul><ul><li>This process does not involve cla...
Costimulation
Proliferation of Helper T Cells
Proliferation of B Cells
 
Lymphocyte Inhibition <ul><li>Tolerance: To prevent the immune system from responding to self-antigens </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Antibody-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Antibodies or Immunoglobulins (Ig) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, I...
Actions of Antibodies
Antibody Production
Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Antigen activates effector T cells and produces memory T cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cytotoxic ...
Interactions and Responses of Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Ways to Acquire  Adaptive Immunity
Effects of Aging <ul><li>Little effect on lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased ability of helper T cells to prolif...
Immune System Problems <ul><li>Hypersensitivity reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disease </li></ul><ul><li>Severe co...
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9 Lymphatic System and Immunology

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9 Lymphatic System and Immunology

  1. 1. Lymphatic System and Immunity:
  2. 2. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic nodules </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Carry lymph away from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More permeable than blood capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of the Lymphatic System <ul><li>Fluid balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of fat and other substances from digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Carry lymph away from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More permeable than blood capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries join to form </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have valves that ensure one-way flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes: Distributed along vessels and filter lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic trunks: Jugular, subclavian, bronchomediastinal, intestinal, lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic ducts: Right and thoracic which connect to large veins </li></ul>
  7. 8. Lymph Drainage Into Veins
  8. 9. Lymphatic Tissue and Nodules <ul><li>Lymphatic tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists mainly of lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulated or not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic nodules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous in loose connective tissue of digestive (Peyer’s patches), respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Tonsils <ul><li>Large groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide protection against bacteria and other harmful material </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Lymph Nodes <ul><li>Organized in cortex and medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes or both </li></ul><ul><li>Only structures to filter lymph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent and efferent vessels </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Spleen <ul><li>Located in left superior side of abdomen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injuries resulting in bleeding, shock, death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood flows through at 3 different rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast (most), slow, intermediate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys defective RBCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects and responds to foreign substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited reservoir for blood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Spleen
  13. 14. Thymus <ul><li>Located in superior mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions: Cortex and medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Site of maturation of T cells </li></ul>
  14. 15. Immunity <ul><li>Ability to resist damage from foreign substances as microorganisms and harmful chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innate or nonspecific resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical mechanisms: Prevent entry or remove microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical mediators: Promote phagocytosis and inflammation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells: Involved in phagocytosis and production of chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive or specific immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specificity: Ability to recognize a particular substance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: Ability to remember previous encounters with a particular substance and respond rapidly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Innate immunity
  16. 17. Inflammatory Response <ul><li>Tissue injury regardless of type can cause inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Response initiated by chemical mediators that produce vasodilation, chemotactic attraction, increased vascular permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local: Symptoms are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic: Symptoms are increase in neutrophil numbers, fever and shock </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Inflammatory Response
  18. 19. Normal Microcirculation Flow
  19. 20. Exudate Formation
  20. 21. Leukocyte Margination and Migration
  21. 22. Diapedesis
  22. 23. Chemotaxis
  23. 24. Innate Immunity: Cells <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important cellular components of immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes that leave blood, enter tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large phagocytic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basophils and mast cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse tumor and virus-infected cells </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Antigenic Determinants <ul><li>Antigenic determinants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific regions of a given antigen recognized by a lymphocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antigenic receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface of lymphocyte that combines with antigenic determinant </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. C3a stimulates mast cells and basophils, which then secrete inflammatory mediators
  26. 28. Adaptive Immunity <ul><li>Involves the ability to recognize, respond to, and remember a particular substance </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens: Large molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign: Not produced by body, introduced from outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-antigens: Produced by body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haptens: Small molecules and capable of combining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humoral or Antibody-mediated: B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated: T cells </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Origin and Development of Lymphocytes <ul><li>B and T cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate in red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to lymphatic tissue from processing sites and continually circulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clones are small groups of identical lymphocytes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Origin and Development of Lymphocytes <ul><li>Positive selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures survival of lymphocytes that react against antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates lymphocytes that react against self-antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where lymphocytes mature into functional cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary lymphatic organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where lymphocytes produce an immune response </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) <ul><li>Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins of cell surfaces called MHC molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I molecules display antigens on surface of nucleated cells, resulting in destruction of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class II molecules display antigens on surface of antigen-presenting cells, resulting in activation of immune cells </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Antigen Processing
  31. 33. MHC class I
  32. 35. Phagocytosis <ul><li>Phagocytosis also involves membrane invagination. </li></ul><ul><li>This process does not involve clathrin. </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudopods extend around a particle, forming a phagosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Phagosome will fuse with a lysosome, containing digestive enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>There are smaller transport mechanisms in the wall of the secondary lysosome. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Costimulation
  34. 37. Proliferation of Helper T Cells
  35. 38. Proliferation of B Cells
  36. 40. Lymphocyte Inhibition <ul><li>Tolerance: To prevent the immune system from responding to self-antigens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provoked by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing activation of lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of suppressor T cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Antibody-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Antibodies or Immunoglobulins (Ig) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable region: Part that combines with anitgenic determinant of antigen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant region: Responsible for activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Actions of Antibodies
  39. 43. Antibody Production
  40. 44. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Antigen activates effector T cells and produces memory T cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cytotoxic T cells lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Cytotoxic T cells produce cytokines, which promote phagocytosis and inflammation </li></ul>
  41. 45. Interactions and Responses of Innate and Adaptive Immunity
  42. 46. Ways to Acquire Adaptive Immunity
  43. 47. Effects of Aging <ul><li>Little effect on lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased ability of helper T cells to proliferate in response to antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased primary and secondary antibody responses </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased ability of cell-mediated immunity to resist intracellular pathogens </li></ul>
  44. 48. Immune System Problems <ul><li>Hypersensitivity reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disease </li></ul><ul><li>Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) </li></ul><ul><li>Transplantation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic rejection </li></ul></ul>

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