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9 Lymphatic System and Immunology
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9 Lymphatic System and Immunology

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  • 1. Lymphatic System and Immunity:
  • 2. Lymphatic System
    • Lymph
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lymphatic tissue
    • Lymphatic nodules
    • Lymph nodes
    • Tonsils
    • Spleen
    • Thymus
  • 3. Lymphatic Vessels
    • Carry lymph away from tissues
    • Lymphatic capillaries
      • More permeable than blood capillaries
      • Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves
  • 4. Functions of the Lymphatic System
    • Fluid balance
      • Excess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymph
    • Fat absorption
      • Absorption of fat and other substances from digestive tract
    • Defense
      • Microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen
  • 5.  
  • 6. Lymphatic Vessels
    • Carry lymph away from tissues
    • Lymphatic capillaries
      • More permeable than blood capillaries
      • Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves
  • 7. Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic capillaries join to form
    • Lymphatic vessels
      • Have valves that ensure one-way flow
    • Lymph nodes: Distributed along vessels and filter lymph
    • Lymphatic trunks: Jugular, subclavian, bronchomediastinal, intestinal, lumbar
    • Lymphatic ducts: Right and thoracic which connect to large veins
  • 8. Lymph Drainage Into Veins
  • 9. Lymphatic Tissue and Nodules
    • Lymphatic tissue
      • Consists mainly of lymphocytes
      • Encapsulated or not
    • Lymphatic nodules
      • Numerous in loose connective tissue of digestive (Peyer’s patches), respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems
  • 10. Tonsils
    • Large groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavity
    • Provide protection against bacteria and other harmful material
    • Groups
      • Palatine
      • Pharyngeal
      • Lingual
  • 11. Lymph Nodes
    • Organized in cortex and medulla
    • Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes or both
    • Only structures to filter lymph
      • Afferent and efferent vessels
  • 12. Spleen
    • Located in left superior side of abdomen
      • Can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injuries resulting in bleeding, shock, death
    • Blood flows through at 3 different rates
      • Fast (most), slow, intermediate
    • Functions
      • Destroys defective RBCs
      • Detects and responds to foreign substances
      • Limited reservoir for blood
  • 13. Spleen
  • 14. Thymus
    • Located in superior mediastinum
    • Divisions: Cortex and medulla
    • Site of maturation of T cells
  • 15. Immunity
    • Ability to resist damage from foreign substances as microorganisms and harmful chemicals
    • Categories
      • Innate or nonspecific resistance
        • Mechanical mechanisms: Prevent entry or remove microbes
        • Chemical mediators: Promote phagocytosis and inflammation
        • Cells: Involved in phagocytosis and production of chemicals
      • Adaptive or specific immunity
        • Specificity: Ability to recognize a particular substance
        • Memory: Ability to remember previous encounters with a particular substance and respond rapidly
  • 16. Innate immunity
  • 17. Inflammatory Response
    • Tissue injury regardless of type can cause inflammation
    • Response initiated by chemical mediators that produce vasodilation, chemotactic attraction, increased vascular permeability
    • Types
      • Local: Symptoms are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function
      • Systemic: Symptoms are increase in neutrophil numbers, fever and shock
  • 18. Inflammatory Response
  • 19. Normal Microcirculation Flow
  • 20. Exudate Formation
  • 21. Leukocyte Margination and Migration
  • 22. Diapedesis
  • 23. Chemotaxis
  • 24. Innate Immunity: Cells
    • White blood cells
      • Most important cellular components of immune system
      • Methods
        • Chemotaxis
        • Phagocytosis
    • Neutrophils
      • Phagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissue
    • Macrophages
      • Monocytes that leave blood, enter tissues
      • Large phagocytic cells
    • Basophils and mast cells
      • Promote inflammation
    • Eosinophils
      • Reduce inflammation
    • Natural killer cells
      • Lyse tumor and virus-infected cells
  • 25. Antigenic Determinants
    • Antigenic determinants
      • Specific regions of a given antigen recognized by a lymphocyte
    • Antigenic receptors
      • Surface of lymphocyte that combines with antigenic determinant
  • 26.  
  • 27. C3a stimulates mast cells and basophils, which then secrete inflammatory mediators
  • 28. Adaptive Immunity
    • Involves the ability to recognize, respond to, and remember a particular substance
    • Stimulants
      • Antigens: Large molecules
        • Foreign: Not produced by body, introduced from outside
        • Self-antigens: Produced by body
      • Haptens: Small molecules and capable of combining
    • Types
      • Humoral or Antibody-mediated: B cells
      • Cell-mediated: T cells
  • 29. Origin and Development of Lymphocytes
    • B and T cells
      • Originate in red bone marrow
      • Move to lymphatic tissue from processing sites and continually circulate
      • Clones are small groups of identical lymphocytes
  • 30. Origin and Development of Lymphocytes
    • Positive selection
      • Ensures survival of lymphocytes that react against antigens
    • Negative selection
      • Eliminates lymphocytes that react against self-antigens
    • Primary lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus)
      • Where lymphocytes mature into functional cells
    • Secondary lymphatic organs
      • Where lymphocytes produce an immune response
  • 31. Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)
    • Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins of cell surfaces called MHC molecules
      • Class I molecules display antigens on surface of nucleated cells, resulting in destruction of cells
      • Class II molecules display antigens on surface of antigen-presenting cells, resulting in activation of immune cells
  • 32. Antigen Processing
  • 33. MHC class I
  • 34.  
  • 35. Phagocytosis
    • Phagocytosis also involves membrane invagination.
    • This process does not involve clathrin.
    • Pseudopods extend around a particle, forming a phagosome.
    • Phagosome will fuse with a lysosome, containing digestive enzymes.
    • There are smaller transport mechanisms in the wall of the secondary lysosome.
  • 36. Costimulation
  • 37. Proliferation of Helper T Cells
  • 38. Proliferation of B Cells
  • 39.  
  • 40. Lymphocyte Inhibition
    • Tolerance: To prevent the immune system from responding to self-antigens
      • Provoked by
        • Deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes
        • Preventing activation of lymphocytes
        • Activation of suppressor T cells
  • 41. Antibody-Mediated Immunity
    • Antibodies or Immunoglobulins (Ig)
      • Classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
      • Structure
        • Variable region: Part that combines with anitgenic determinant of antigen
        • Constant region: Responsible for activities
  • 42. Actions of Antibodies
  • 43. Antibody Production
  • 44. Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • Antigen activates effector T cells and produces memory T cells
    • Cytotoxic T cells lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue transplants
    • Cytotoxic T cells produce cytokines, which promote phagocytosis and inflammation
  • 45. Interactions and Responses of Innate and Adaptive Immunity
  • 46. Ways to Acquire Adaptive Immunity
  • 47. Effects of Aging
    • Little effect on lymphatic system
    • Decreased ability of helper T cells to proliferate in response to antigens
    • Decreased primary and secondary antibody responses
    • Decreased ability of cell-mediated immunity to resist intracellular pathogens
  • 48. Immune System Problems
    • Hypersensitivity reactions
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
    • Transplantation
      • Acute rejection
      • Chronic rejection