Lecture 13 Immunology: Innate Immunity
Elie Metchnikoff <ul><li>Theorized that there are specialized cells within the body that could destroy invading organisms ...
Immune System <ul><li>Used by our bodies to fend off invaders (microorganisms) </li></ul><ul><li>Two different immune resp...
Figure 16.1 - Overview  (1 of 3)
Cells of the Immune System <ul><li>Can  move  from one part of the body to another, traveling through circulatory systems ...
Where do cells of the Immune System come from? <ul><li>All originate from same type of cell,  hematopoietic stem cell , fo...
Cells of the Immune System <ul><li>All immune system cells are called white blood cells, or  leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>...
Granulocytes <ul><li>All contain granules filled with chemicals that are important in their function </li></ul><ul><li>Thr...
Agranulocytes <ul><li>1. Monocytes   Macrophages : professional phagocytes  </li></ul><ul><li>-  present in virtually all...
Lymphocytes <ul><li>Natural killer (NK) cells-  destroy virus-infected and abnormal cells </li></ul><ul><li>B lymphocytes ...
Dendritic Cells <ul><li>Found in the skin and other points of pathogen origin </li></ul><ul><li>They are involved in the a...
Cell Communication <ul><li>Cells of the immune system must be able to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>They u...
Cytokines <ul><li>4 kinds:  </li></ul><ul><li>Chemokines : important in chemotaxis of immune cells </li></ul><ul><li>Inter...
The Innate Immune Response <ul><li>Includes:   </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical, and microbiological   barriers </li><...
Figure 15.3
Physical Barriers <ul><li>Skin:  microbes sloughed off along with skin cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes must penetrate...
Figure 15.2
Chemical Barriers <ul><li>Low pH  in vaginal and urinary tracts, and stomache </li></ul><ul><li>Defensins:  short antimicr...
Microbiological Barriers <ul><li>Normal Flora : not part of immune system, but are part of first line of defense </li></ul...
Phagocytosis <ul><li>Performed by  Neutrophils  and  Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis is the capture and dig...
Figure 16.6
Figure 16.7 - Overview
Inflammation <ul><li>This is a coordinated response to tissue damage </li></ul><ul><li>Five signs of inflammation: redness...
Figure 16.8a
Figure 16.8b, steps 1 –3
Figure 16.8c, steps 4 –6
Figure 16.8d
Fever <ul><li>Higher body temperature occurs as a result of certain cytokines called  pyrogens </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines...
Fever <ul><li>How does raising temperature get rid of microorganisms? </li></ul><ul><li>It inhibits growth of many pathoge...
Complement System <ul><li>Series of proteins that constantly circulate in blood and fluids that bathe tissues </li></ul><u...
Figure 16.9 - Overview  (1 of 5)
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13. Innate Immunity

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13. Innate Immunity

  1. 1. Lecture 13 Immunology: Innate Immunity
  2. 2. Elie Metchnikoff <ul><li>Theorized that there are specialized cells within the body that could destroy invading organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Studying immature starfish larvae  introduced splinter in larvae, area surrounded by motile cells </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoned certain cells within body were responsible for ingesting and destroying foreign matter - phagocytes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Immune System <ul><li>Used by our bodies to fend off invaders (microorganisms) </li></ul><ul><li>Two different immune response systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Innate Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adaptive Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>- is able to learn and remember </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 16.1 - Overview (1 of 3)
  5. 5. Cells of the Immune System <ul><li>Can move from one part of the body to another, traveling through circulatory systems </li></ul><ul><li>Always found in normal blood </li></ul><ul><li>Some play dual functions in both innate and acquired immune response </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where do cells of the Immune System come from? <ul><li>All originate from same type of cell, hematopoietic stem cell , found in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Induced to develop into different types of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Some types are already mature when they leave the bone marrow, others differentiate after leaving blood </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cells of the Immune System <ul><li>All immune system cells are called white blood cells, or leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be divided into two main groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Granulocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Agranulocytes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Granulocytes <ul><li>All contain granules filled with chemicals that are important in their function </li></ul><ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Neutrophils - professional phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>- Granules contain antimicrobial substances and degradative enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Eosinophils- granules contain substances toxic to multicellular parasites </li></ul><ul><li>3. Basophils and Mast cells - blood cells involved in allergic reactions and inflammation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agranulocytes <ul><li>1. Monocytes  Macrophages : professional phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>- present in virtually all tissues </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dendritic cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Natural killer (NK) cells- destroy virus-infected and abnormal cells </li></ul><ul><li>B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes are involved inadaptive immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells : produce antibody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T cytotoxic cells : destroy infected host cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T helper cells : coordinate immune response </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Dendritic Cells <ul><li>Found in the skin and other points of pathogen origin </li></ul><ul><li>They are involved in the activation of acquired immunity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cell Communication <ul><li>Cells of the immune system must be able to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>They use cytokines </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines bind to surface receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Then induce change in these cells, such as growth, differentiation, movement or cell death </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cytokines <ul><li>4 kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>Chemokines : important in chemotaxis of immune cells </li></ul><ul><li>Interferons : glycoproteins important in the control of viral infections; also help regulate cells involved in immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Interleukins : important in innate immunity, inflammation, and adaptive immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor necrosis factors : help kill tumor cells, initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Innate Immune Response <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical, and microbiological barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Complement system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 15.3
  16. 16. Physical Barriers <ul><li>Skin: microbes sloughed off along with skin cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes must penetrate several layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mucous Membranes: produce mucus to trap microbes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lined with cilia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Figure 15.2
  18. 18. Chemical Barriers <ul><li>Low pH in vaginal and urinary tracts, and stomache </li></ul><ul><li>Defensins: short antimicrobial peptides, insert into bacterial membranes and form pores </li></ul><ul><li>Lysozyme: degrades peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>Interferon: are cytokines that trigger: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>macrophage activation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>production of substances to interfere with RNA viral reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Microbiological Barriers <ul><li>Normal Flora : not part of immune system, but are part of first line of defense </li></ul><ul><li>Protection they provide is considerable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion of invading microbes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce compounds that are toxic to other bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates immune system, providing a moderate amount of “exercise” to system, thereby enhancing it’s function </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Phagocytosis <ul><li>Performed by Neutrophils and Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis is the capture and digestion of foreign particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemokines are cytokines that attract macrophages and neutrophils to infected tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opsonins attach to microbes to increase the ability of phagocytes to adhere (opsonization) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 16.6
  22. 22. Figure 16.7 - Overview
  23. 23. Inflammation <ul><li>This is a coordinated response to tissue damage </li></ul><ul><li>Five signs of inflammation: redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function (sometime present) </li></ul><ul><li>Vital role of inflammation : destroy injurious agent if possible, contain site of damage, and restore tissue function </li></ul>
  24. 24. Figure 16.8a
  25. 25. Figure 16.8b, steps 1 –3
  26. 26. Figure 16.8c, steps 4 –6
  27. 27. Figure 16.8d
  28. 28. Fever <ul><li>Higher body temperature occurs as a result of certain cytokines called pyrogens </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines carried in bloodstream to hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus responds by raising temperature </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fever <ul><li>How does raising temperature get rid of microorganisms? </li></ul><ul><li>It inhibits growth of many pathogens by at least two mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates temperature above optimum growth temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Activates and speeds up a number of other body defenses </li></ul>
  30. 30. Complement System <ul><li>Series of proteins that constantly circulate in blood and fluids that bathe tissues </li></ul><ul><li>When they detect presence of foreign material, cascade of reactions follows </li></ul><ul><li>Complement proteins activated </li></ul><ul><li>When activated, cooperate with other host defense systems to rapidly get rid of invader </li></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 16.9 - Overview (1 of 5)
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