固有和适应性免疫

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固有和适应性免疫

  1. 1. Innate vs adaptive immunity Mike Kemeny Professor of Immunology, GKT School of Medicine and Dentistry, King’s College, London, UK
  2. 2. Janeway & Travers Immunobiology   Abbas Lichtman Pober Cellular & Molecular Immunology   Peakman & Vergani Basic and Clinical Immunology Various Roitt textbooks   Textbooks
  3. 3. Useful web sites and reading   1. Immunologic Diseases http://www.mic.ki.se/Diseases/c20.html excellent resource A comprehensive list of links to websites related to immune diseases.   2. The PathoPlus Page http://pathoplus.com/newpage7.htm Good introductory lectures on cells of the immune system and inflammation.   3. The Macrophage Home Page http://www.path.ox.ac.uk/sg A recently updated introduction to the cells of the mononuclear phagocyte family.   4. Antigen Presentation http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/A/AntigenPresentation.html A nice introduction to antigen presentation, part of Kimball's Biology Pages.   5. Clinical and basic Immunology tutorials http://www. ozemail .com.au/~ davidful /Net_Path_Immunology/ tutes .html
  4. 4. What is the immune system for <ul><li>Protect against pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate damaged or malignant cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bacteria Tubercule bacillus Staphylococci Fungi Candida albicans Virus Influenza Polio mellitus Parasites Tapeworms Malaria Helminths Role of the immune system is to protect from:
  6. 6. <ul><li>Immediate protection </li></ul><ul><li>Low specificity broad reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Important for first exposure </li></ul>Innate immunity
  7. 7. <ul><li>Physicochemical barriers : Skin, mucus, cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted agents : Lysozyme, acidic pH, saliva, urine </li></ul><ul><li>Protective organisms : Commensal bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytic cells : Macrophages, Neutrophils secrete free radicals (superoxide and cationic proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Killer (NK) cells </li></ul>The innate immune system
  8. 8. Bacteria Cell wall proteins Bacterial DNA Activated dendritic cell (DC) DANGER!
  9. 9. <ul><li>Features of pattern recognition: </li></ul><ul><li>Conserved receptors and ligands </li></ul><ul><li>Invokes same response in immune system </li></ul><ul><li>You are born with it (innate) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Comparison of Innate and Adaptive immune system Receptors/ ligands Grade of response Age Innate Adaptive Conserved Invariant Fully mature at birth Diverse Modulated (ie memory) Immature at birth
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ligands that bind pathogens: Pattern recognition receptors (Toll like receptors, mannose receptors) </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted agents : Interferon ( IFN)  </li></ul><ul><li>Complement activation: Alternative pathway - secretion of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a </li></ul>The innate immune system
  12. 12. <ul><li>Later protection </li></ul><ul><li>High specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Important for lasting protection </li></ul>The adaptive immune system
  13. 13. <ul><li>Molecules: Antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines </li></ul><ul><li>Cells: Lymphocytes ( T & B cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Killer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Monocytes/Macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>Dendritic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils & Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils/Mast cells </li></ul>Components of the adaptive immune system
  14. 14. <ul><li>B cells </li></ul><ul><li>T cells </li></ul><ul><li>NK cells </li></ul><ul><li>Monocytes/macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils/Mast cells </li></ul>Cells of the immune system
  15. 15. Eosinophil Monocyte Macrophage Neutrophil Basophil Origin of cells involved in the immune response Haemopoietic stem cell B cell Thymus NK cell Mast cell Plasma cell CD4 T cell Myeloid progenitor Lymphocyte progenitor CD8 T cell Dendritic cell
  16. 16. <ul><li>A collection of cells and molecules that protect the body against infection, malignancy and damaged cells </li></ul>What is the immune system
  17. 17. <ul><li>A molecule that can be recognised by the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Usually foreign to the body although our own molecules can serve as antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins eg: Grass pollen, egg albumin. bacterial endotoxin, </li></ul><ul><li>Haptens eg: Nickel salts which bind to proteins </li></ul>Antigen
  18. 18. <ul><li>Specialised molecules that recognise and bind to antigens </li></ul><ul><li>All antibodies are immunoglobulins </li></ul>Antibody
  19. 19. B Lymphocytes <ul><li>10% of blood mononuclear cells </li></ul><ul><li>Make immunoglobulin (antibody) </li></ul><ul><li>Each B cell only makes antibody of one specificity </li></ul><ul><li>B cells that make antibody are called plasma cells </li></ul>Plasma cell B cell B cell
  20. 20. Immunoglobulin Antigen Hinge Combining site Epitope Heavy chain Light chain

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