训练您对免疫学词汇的理解
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训练您对免疫学词汇的理解

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    训练您对免疫学词汇的理解 训练您对免疫学词汇的理解 Presentation Transcript

    • 训练您对免疫学词汇的理解
    • Medical Immunology 七年制本科双语教学材料 Terminology of Medical Immunology 福建医科大学免疫学系 2003.6.1
    • 说 明
      • 本幻灯上的免疫学词汇为学生必须掌握的基本专业词汇
      • 词汇解释来源 :英文名词后标点符号为句点( . )者源于欧美经典教科书— Ivan Roitt 等的 Immunology 及 Stites 等的 Medical Immunology ;英文名词后标点符号为冒号( : )者源于医学数据检索系统 Medline 的主题词 (Thesaurus) 的定义 (Term Definition) 。作为考试中的名词解释,前者太简单,主要应参考后者并结合教材综合答题。
      • 物质性名词的解释一般英包括 3 部分内容 : 来源 / 分布,化学本质,功能 / 意义。
    • Antigen Antigen. A molecule which reacts with preformed [ 预先形成 ] antibody and the specific receptors on T and B cells. Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
    • Epitopes Epitopes [ 表位 ] . The parts of an antigen which contact the antigen-binding sites of an antibody or the T-cell receptor. Epitopes or Antigenic Determinants : Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
    • Superantigens
      • Superantigens . Antigens which stimulate clones of T cells which have different antigen specificity, but which use the same TCR V genes.
      • Superantigens : Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent [ 有力的 ] activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient [ 短暂 ] expansion and subsequent death and anergy [ 无反应 ] of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
    • T-dependent/T- independent Antigens T-dependent antigens require immune recognition by both T and B cells to produce an immune response. T-independent antigens can directly stimulate B cells to produce specific antibody.
    • Antibody Antibody. A molecule produced by animals in response to antigen which has the particular property of combining specifically with the antigen which induced its formation. Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of [ 依靠 ] which they interact only with the antigen that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS), or with an antigen closely related to it.
    • Allotype Allotype [ 同种异型 ] . The protein of an allele [ 等位基因 ] which may be detectable as an antigen by another member of the same species [ 种 ] . Immunoglobulin Allotypes : Hereditary serologic types based on antigenic differences in the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulins due to allelic genes in the gene loci [ 位点 ] coding [ 编码 ] the chains. The Inv system applies to the kappa light chains, the Gm system applies to the heavy chains of IgG.
    • Antibody Diversity Antibody Diversity [ 多样性 ] : The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of antibodies, which enables the immune system to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters [ 遇到 ] .
    • C domains C domains [ 区域 ] . The constant domains of antibody and the T-cell receptor. These domains do not contribute to the antigen-binding site and show relatively little variability between receptor molecules. Constant [ 恒定 ] regions . The relatively invariant [ 不变 ] parts of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, and the alpha, beta, gamma and delta chains of The T-cell receptor.
    • Hypervariable region Hypervariable region . The most variable areas of the V domains of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor chains. These regions are clustered at the distal portion of the V domain and contribute to the antigen-binding site.
    • Idiotype Idiotype. The antigenic characteristic of the V region of an antibody. Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the immunoglobin VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
    • Immune Sera Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
    • Immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) Molecules which have domains homologous [ 同源 ] to those seen in immunoglobulins, including MHC class I and II molecules, the T-cell receptor, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, ICAMs, VCAM and some of the Fc receptors.
    • Monoclonal Antibodies Antibodies produced by clones of cells such as those isolated after hybridization [ 杂交 ] of activated B lymphocytes with neoplastic [ 瘤 ] cells. These hybrids [ 杂合物 ] are often referred to as hybridomas .[ 杂交瘤 ] Hybridoma. Cell line created in vitro by fusing two different cell types, usually lymphocytes, one of which is a tumour cell.
    • Opsonization A process by which phagocytosis [ 吞噬作用 ] is facilitated [ 促进 ] by the deposition [ 沉积 ] of opsonins ( 调理素 , e.g. antibody and C3b) on the antigen.
    • Complement A heat-sensitive complex system in fresh human and other sera which, in combination with antibodies, is important in the host defense mechanism against invading organisms. At least 20 distinct [ 不同 ] serum proteins operate within the complement system.
    • Alternative pathway The activation pathways of the complement system involving C3 and factors B, D, P, H and I, which interact in the vicinity [ 邻近 ] of an activator surface to form an alternative pathway C3 convertase [ 转化酶 ] . The complement activation sequence initiated by the activation of complement factor C3, which is triggered [ 触发 ] by the interaction of microbial polysaccharides [ 多糖 ] and properdin [ 备解素 ] without participation of an antigen-antibody reaction.
    • Amplification loop The alternative complement activation pathway, which acts as a positive feedback loop when C3 is split [ 分裂 ] in the presence of an activator surface.  
    • C3 convertases The enzyme complexes C3b, 3b and C4b2a that cleave complement C3. The enzyme which in both the classical and alternate complement pathways cleaves [ 裂解 ] complement 3 into anaphylatoxin [ 过敏毒素 ] (C3a) and C3b.
    • MBL pathway Lectin[ 凝集素 ]pathway. A pathway of complement activation, initiated by mannan [ 甘露聚糖 ] -binding lectin (MBL), which intersects [ 相交 ] the classical pathway.
    • Membrane attack complex (MAC) The assembled [ 装配 ] terminal complement components C5b-C9 of the lytic [ 溶解的 ] pathway which becomes inserted into cell membranes.
    • Cytokines A generic term for soluble molecules which mediate interactions between cells. Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory [ 炎症 ] leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators [ 介质 ] . They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine [ 旁分泌 ] or autocrine [ 自分泌 ] rather than endocrine [ 内分泌 ] manner.
    • CSF CSFs (colony stimulating factors) . A group of cytokines which control The differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells [ 造血干细胞 ] . CSFs : Glycoproteins [ 糖蛋白 ] found in a subfraction [ 亚组分 ] of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation [ 增殖 ] of bone marrow cells in agar [ 琼脂 ] cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes [ 粒细胞 ] and/or macrophages. The factors include IL-3; G-CSF and GM-CSF.
    • IFN Interferons (IFNs). A group of molecules involved in signalling between cells of the immune system, and in protection against viral infections. Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant [ 恶性的 ] cells, impede [ 阻碍 ] multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
    • IL Interleukins (IL-l to IL-22) . A group of molecules involved in signaling [ 发信号 ] between cells of the immune system. Interleukins : Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli [ 炎症刺激 ] .
    • LKs Lymphokines. A generic term for molecules other than antibodies which are involved in signalling between cells of the immune system and are produced by lymphocytes (cf. interleukins).
    • tumour necrosis factor TNF . A cytokine released by activated macrophages that is structurally related to lymphotoxin [ 淋巴毒素 ] released by activated T cells. TNFs. A group of proinflammatory [ 致炎 ] cytokines encoded [ 编码 ] within the MHC. TNF: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated macrophages and other mammalian mononuclear leukocytes. It has necrotizing [ 致坏死 ] activity against tumor cell lines [ 细胞系 ] and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous [ 同源 ] to TNF-beta (Lymphotoxin), but they share two receptors.
    • CD
      • CD Antigens : Differentiation antigens[ 分化抗原 ] residing[ 定位 ] on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster[ 簇 ] of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations[ 亚群 ] of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation[ 命名 ].
      • CD markers . Cell surface molecules of leucocytes and platelets[ 血小板 ] that are distinguishable [ 可区别的 ] with monoclonal antibodies and may be used to differentiate[ 区别 ] different cell populations.
    • AM
      • Adhesion molecules . Cell surface molecules involved in the binding of cells to extracellular matrix[ 基质 ] or to neighbouring cells, where the principal function is adhesion, rather than cell activation, e.g. integrins[ 整合素 ] and selectins[ 选择素 ].
      • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). A group of proteins of the immunoglobulin supergene family involved in intercellular adhesion, including ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and PECAM.
      • Cell Adhesion Molecules : Surface ligands[ 配基 ], usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion[ 粘附 ]. Their functions include the assembly[ 组合 ] and interconnection of various vertebrate[ 脊椎动物 ] systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
      • B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). Two molecules which are present on antigen-presenting cells. They ligate[ 捆绑 ] CD28 on T cells and act as powerful co-stimulatory signals.
      B7
      • CD2 Antigens : Glycoprotein[ 糖蛋白 ] members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion[ 粘附 ] and activation[ 活化 ]. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes[ 胸腺细胞 ], and function as co-receptors or accessory[ 辅佐 ] molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
      CD2
      • Fc receptors . Surface molecules on a variety of cells that bind to the Fc regions of immunoglobulins. They are antibody class specific and isotype [ 同种型 ] selective.
      • Fc Receptors : Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable ,可结晶 ) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
      FcR
      • MHC (major histocompatibility complex). A genetic region found in all mammals[ 哺乳动物 ] whose products are primarily responsible for the rapid rejection of grafts[ 移植物 ] between individuals, and function in signalling between lymphocytes and cells expressing antigen.
      • MHC or Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) transplantation antigens, genes which control the structure of the immune response-associated antigens, the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement .
      MHC
      • HLA = The human major histocompatibility complex
      • HLA Antigens : Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides[ 多肽 ] or glycoproteins[ 糖蛋白 ] found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
      HLA
      • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I : Large transmembrane[ 跨膜 ], polymorphic[ 多态 ] glycoproteins noncovalently[ 非共价 ] associated with nonpolymorphic beta 2-microglobulin [ 微球蛋白 ]. In humans, three structural genes on chromosome 6 [6 号染色体 ] code for the HLA-A; HLA-B and HLA-C antigens. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated[ 有核 ] cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera[ 同种异型抗血清 ]. These antigens are recognized during graft rejection and restrict cell-mediated lysis[ 溶解 ] of virus-infected cells. They are primarily associated with rheumatologic[ 风湿 ] diseases and certain malignant [ 恶性的 ] disorders.
      HLA-I
      • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II : Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation[ 变化 ] in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal[ 上皮 ] cells, and sperm[ 精子 ] and are thought to mediate the competence[ 活性 ] of and cellular cooperation in the immune response.
      HLA-II
      • Ir gene . A group of immune response (Ir) genes determining the level of an immune response to a particular antigen or foreign stimulus. A number of them are found in the major histocompatibility complex.
      Ir gene
      • MHC Class II Genes : Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
      MHC-II
      • ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). A cytotoxic reaction in which Fc receptor- bearing killer cells recognize target cells via[ 经由,通过 ] specific antibodies.
      • ADCC : The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction[ 毁坏 ] by non-sensitized effector cells [ 效应细胞 ]. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IgG whose Fc portion is intact[ 完整 ]. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional [ 传统 ] B- or T-cell markers[ 标记 ], or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear[ 多形核 ] leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
      ADCC
      • Antigen receptors . The lymphocyte receptors for antigens including the T-cell receptor (TCR) and surface immunoglobulin on B cells which acts as the B cell's antigen receptor (BCR).
      Antigen Receptors
      • Antigen presentation . The process by which certain cells in the body (antigen-presenting cells) express antigen on their cell surface in a form recognizable by lymphocytes.
      Antigen presentation
      • Antigen processing . The conversion[ 转化 ] of an antigen into a form in which it can be recognized by lymphocytes.
      Antigen processing
      • APCs (antigen-presenting cells). A variety of cell types which carry antigen in a form that can stimulate lymphocytes.
      • Antigen-Presenting Cells : Heterogeneous[ 异质的 ] group of immunocompetent [ 免疫活性 ] cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
      APCs
      • B-cell-co-receptor complex . A group of cell surface molecules consisting of complement receptor type 2 (CD21), CD81 and CD19, which act as a co-stimulatory receptor on mature B cells.  
      • B-cell-receptor complex (BCR). B-cell surface immunoglobulin and its associated signalling molecules, CD79a and CD79b.
      BCR
      • CDRs (complementary-determining regions). The sections of an antibody or T-cell receptor V region responsible for antigen or antigen-MHC binding.
      • CDR or Complementarity [ 互补 ] Determining Regions : Three regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the Ig VARIABLE REGION [ 可变区 ] that are highly divergent [ 分开的 ]. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors.
      CDRs
      • Cytotoxic T cells . Cells which can kill virally infected targets expressing antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules.
      Tc
      • Dendritic cells . A set of cells present in tissues, which capture antigens and migrate[ 迁徙 ] to The lymph nodes and spleen, where they are particularly active in presenting The processed antigen to T cells. Dendritic cells can be derived from [ 源自 ] either the lymphoid or mononuclear phagocyte lineages[ 谱系 ].
      • Dendritic Cells : Immunocompetent cells of the lymphoid and hemopoietic[ 造血 ] systems and skin. They are also called interdigitating[ 并指 ], reticular[ 网状 ], and veiled[ 隐蔽 ] cells. They function morphologically[ 形态 ] and phenotypically[ 表现型 ] by processing antigens or presenting them to T-cells, thereby stimulating cellular immunity.
      DC
      • Helper (TH) cells . A functional subclass[ 亚群 ] of T cells which can help to generate cytotoxic T cells and cooperate with B cells in the production of antibody responses. Helper cells recognize antigen in association with class II MHC molecules.
      • Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes : Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate[ 启动 ] a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
      TH
      • Lymphokine activated killer cells (LAKs). Cytotoxic cells generated ex vivo[ 体外 ], by stimulation with IL-2, and possibly other cytokines.
      • LAK cells (Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells): Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are interleukin-2-activated NK cells that have no MHC restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients.
      LAK
      • NK (natural killer) cells . A group of lymphocytes which have the intrinsic[ 固有 ] ability to recognize and destroy some vitally infected cells and some tumour cells.
      NK
      • Stem Cells [ 干细胞 ]: Relatively undifferentiated [ 未分化 ] cells that retain[ 保有 ] the ability to divide and proliferate[ 增殖 ] throughout postnatal[ 出生后 ] life to provide progenitor[ 祖先 ] cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
      SC
      • T cells . Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus[ 胸腺 ] and are central[ 中枢 ] to the control and development of immune responses. The principal subgroups are cytotoxic T cells (Tc) and T-helper cells (TH0, TH1 and TH2).  
      • T-cell receptor (TCR). The T-cell antigen receptor consisting of either an alpha beta dimmer [ 二聚体 ] (TCR-2) or a gamma delta dimer (TCR-1) associated with the CD3 molecular complex.
      TC(R)
      • Immunity : Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
      Immunity
      • Apoptosis [ 凋亡 ]. Programmed cell death, which involves nuclear fragmentation [ 裂解 ] and condensation [ 凝缩 ] of cytoplasm [ 细胞浆 ], plasma membranes and organelles [ 细胞器 ] to apoptotic bodies [ 凋亡小体 ].
      • Apoptosis : One of the two mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (the other being the pathological process of NECROSIS 坏死 ). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically[ 本质上 ] programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic[ 形态学的 ] changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin[ 染色质 ] cleavage [ 裂解 ] at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
      Apopotosis
      • Class I/II restriction . The observation that immunologically active cells will only cooperate effectively when they share MHC haplotypes[ 单倍型 ] at either the class I or class II loci.
      • Genetic restriction . The term used to describe the observation that lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells cooperate most effectively when they share particular MHC haplotypes[ 单元型 ].
      • MHC restriction . A characteristic of many immune reactions in which cells cooperate most effectively with other cells that share an MHC haplotype[ 单倍体,单元型 ].
      Class I/II restricition
      • Co-stimulation . The signals required for the activation of a lymphocyte, in addition to The antigen-specific signal delivered via their antigen receptors. CD28 is an important co-stimulatory molecule for T cells and CD40 for B cells.
      •  
      Co-stimulation
      • Granzymes [ 颗粒酶 ]. Granule-associated enzymes of cytotoxic T cells and large granular lymphocytes.
      Granzymes
      • NF-kapaB . A transcription[ 转录 ] factor which is widely used by different leukocyte populations to signal activation- sometimes called the master-switch[ 总开关 ] of the immune system.
      NF-kapaB
      • Perforin [ 穿孔素 ]. A granule-associated molecule of cytotoxic cells, homologous to complement C9. It can form pores on the membrane of a target cell.
      Perforin
      • Primary response . The immune response (cellular or humoral) following an initial[ 最初 ] encounter[ 相遇 ] with a particular antigen.
      Primary response
      • Secondary response . The immune response which follows a second or subsequent[ 后来 ] encounter with a particular antigen.
      Secondary response
      • Immune Tolerance : The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
      • Tolerance . A state[ 状态 ] of specific immunological unresponsiveness.
      Immune Tolerance
      • Central tolerance [ 中枢耐受 ]. Tolerance of T cells or B cells induced during their development in the thymus or bone marrow [ 骨髓 ].
      Central tolerance
      • Clonal Deletion [ 删除,耗竭 ]: Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature[ 不成熟 ] lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
      Clonal Deletion
      • Hypersensitivity . An inordinately[ 异常 ] strong immune response, which causes more damage than the antigen or pathogen [ 病原体 ] which induced the response.
      • Hypersensitivity or allergy : Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
      Hypersensitivity
      • Allergy [ 变态反应,变应性 ]. Originally defined as altered reactivity on second contact with antigen; now usually refers to a Type I hypersensitivity reaction.
      • Hypersensitivity or allergy : Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
      Allergy
      • Anaphylaxis [ 过敏症 ]. An antigen-specific immune reaction mediated primarily by IgE which results in vasodilation[ 血管舒张 ] and constriction[ 收缩 ] of smooth muscle, including those of the bronchus[ 支气管 ], and which may result in death.
      • Anaphylaxis : An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria[ 荨麻疹 ], respiratory distress[ 困苦 ], vascular collapse[ 虚脱 ], systemic shock, and death.
      Anaphylaxis
      • Immediate [ 速发 ] Hypersensitivity : Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging[ 攻击,挑战 ] antigen due to the release of histamine[ 组胺 ] which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability[ 血管通透性 ].
      Immediate Hypersensitivity
      • Cell Degranulation [ 脱颗粒 ]: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES ,分泌性囊泡 ). This occurs, for example, in mast cells [ 肥大细胞 ], basophils[ 嗜碱性粒细胞 ], neutrophils[ 嗜中性粒细胞 ], eosinophils[ 嗜酸性粒细胞 ], and platelets[ 血小板 ] when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS[ 胞吐作用 ].
      Cell Degranulation
      • DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity). This term includes the delayed skin reactions associated with Type IV hypersensitivity.
      DTH
      • Autoimmunity . Immune recognition and reaction against the individual's own tissue.
      • Autoimmunity : Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
      Autoimmunity
      • Immune-complex . The product of an antigen-antibody reaction which may also contain components[ 组分 ] of the complement system.
      • Antigen-Antibody Complex : The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition[ 沉积 ] of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES .
      Immune-complex
      • Rheumatoid Factor [ 类风湿因子 ]: Antibodies directed against antigenic determinants, i.e., Gm (gamma chain), in the Fc region of Ig G, found in the serum of about 80% of patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis, but in only about 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid factors may be IgM, IgG, or IgA antibodies, although other serological tests measure only IgM. Rheumatoid factors also occur in other connective tissue diseases and infectious diseases.
      Rheumatoid Factor
      • SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus ,系统性红斑狼疮 ). An autoimmune disease (non-organ specific) of humans usually involving anti-nuclear antibodies [ 抗核抗体 ].
      • SLE or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A chronic[ 慢性 ], relapsing[ 复发性 ], inflammatory, and often febrile[ 发热的 ] multisystemic disorder of connective tissue [ 结缔组织 ], characterized principally by involvement[ 累及 ] of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes [ 浆膜 ].
      SLE
      • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A progressive immune deficiency caused by infection of CD4 T cells with the human retrovirus[ 逆转录病毒 ] HIV[ 人类免疫缺陷病毒 ].
      • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [ 获得性免疫缺陷综合征 ]: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility[ 易感性 ] to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms [ 恶性肿瘤 ]. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting ,消瘦 ) and dementia[ 痴呆,智力衰退 ].
      AIDS
      • SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency). A group of genetic conditions leading to major deficiencies or absence of both B cells and T cells.
      • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency : Group of rare congenital[ 先天 ] disorders characterized by impairment[ 残缺 ] of both humoral[ 体液 ] and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia[ 白细胞减少症 ], and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited[ 遗传 ] as an X-linked or autosomal[ 常染色体 ] recessive[ 隐性 ] defect.
      SCID
      • Tumor Antigens : Generic term for both Tumor-Specific Antigens and Tumor-Associated Antigens.
      Tumor Antigens
      • Tumor Specific Antigens : Antigens expressed exclusively by tumor cells. Few of them are identified because of the immune responses they induce are hardly detectable.
      Tumor Specific Antigens
      • Tumor-Associated Antigens : Tumor non-specific antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They may also exist in normal cells and other tissues but markedly increase in cell canceration[ 癌变 ]. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay [ 放射免疫测定 ] employing monoclonal antibodies. Fetal antigens such as alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are the typical representative members of this category.
      Tumor-Associated Antigens
    • AFP
      • alpha-Fetoproteins or AFP ( 甲胎蛋白 ): The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo [ 胚胎发育 ] and the dominant[ 占优势的 ] serum proteins in early embryonic life. They reappear in the adult serum during certain pathologic states, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma.
      • Adoptive[ 过继 ] Immunotherapy : Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression[ 退化 ]. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating[ 浸润 ] lymphocytes(TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy.
      Adoptive Immunotherapy
      • Allograft [ 同种异基因移植 ] or Homologous Transplantation : Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate[ 不相干的 ] individuals in contradistinction to [ 区别于 ] isogeneic [ 同基因, syngenic] transplantation for genetically identical[ 同一 ] individuals.
      Allograft
      • Host vs Graft Reaction (HVGR, 宿主抗移植物反应 ): The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
      • Graft Rejection : An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic[ 同种异体 ] transplant[ 移植物 ], whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient[ 受者 ].
      HVGR
      • GVH (graft versus host) disease .
      • A condition caused by allogeneic donor [ 供者 ] lymphocytes reacting against host tissue in an immunologically compromised[ 损害 ] recipient.
      GVH
      • Histocompatibility [ 组织相容性 ] antigens: The antigens primarily responsible for rejection of genetically different tissues are know as histocompatibility (i.e., tissue compatibility) antigen and the genes encoding these antigens are referred to as histocompatibility genes.
      • 对遗传背景不同的组织的排斥起主要作用的抗原叫做组织相容性抗原。编码这些抗原的基因称为组织相容性基因。
      Histocompatibility
    • Direct Recognition
      • Direct Recognition [ 直接识别 ] : Unique antigen recognition by T cells in transplantation. Conventional T-cell responses against foreign proteins require that such antigens are processed into peptides and presented on the surface of the recipient's APCs in association with MHC molecules. The transplant situation is unique in that foreign MHC molecules can directly activate T cells. Via their T-cell receptors (TCRs), the recipient's T cells involved in rejection recognize donor-derived peptides in association with the MHC antigens expressed on the graft.
      • 通常 T 细胞对外源性蛋白的应答需要这些抗原被加工成多肽并与受者 MHC 分子结合呈现在受者 APC 表面。移植的独特情况在于,外源性 MHC 分子能够直接活化 T 细胞。参与排斥的受者 T 细胞通过其 TCRs 识别源于供者肽和表达在移植物细胞上的 MHC 抗原。
      • Indirect Recognition [ 间接识别 ] : Normal physiological route[ 途径, manner 方式 ] of antigen recognition in transplantation. In this case, the recipient's APCs take in, process and present the deciduous [departed, shedding 脱落的 ] graft peptides in a form of self-MHC:graft peptide complex for the recognition of recipient's T cells.
      Indirect Recognition
      • ELISA or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay : An sensitive immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled[ 标记 ] with an enzyme[ 酶 ] marker such as horseradish peroxidase[HRP ,辣根过氧化物酶 ]. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate[ 免疫吸附基质 ], they both retain[ 保有 ] their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically[ 光度计 ] or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
      ELISA
      • Immunoenzyme Techniques : Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
      Immunoenzyme Techniques
      • Rosetting [ 玫瑰花结 ]. A technique for identifying or isolating cells by mixing them with particles or cells to which they bind (e.g. sheep erythrocytes to human T cells). The rosettes consist of a central cell surrounded by bound cells.
      Rosetting
      • Vaccination[ 疫苗接种 ] . A general term for immunization against infectious disease, originally derived from immunization against smallpox[ 天花 ] which uses the Vaccinia virus[ 痘苗病毒 ].
      Vaccination
      • Western blotting : Synonymous[ 同义 ] with immunoblotting
      • Western Blotting : Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically[ 电泳 ] separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel[ 电泳凝胶 ] to strips of nitrocellulose[ 硝化纤维素 ] paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes[ 探针 ].
      • Immunoblotting [ 免疫印迹 ]: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying[ 定量 ] immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified[ 鉴定 ] by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging[ 标识 ] it with labeled antibodies.
      Western blotting
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