85% Pass/Fail A F B C+ 93%Assessment, Scoring, and Evaluation S D
Process of EvaluationThe general pattern of educational evaluation consists of four important steps.1.Selection and Clarification of Objectives : Evaluation and teaching should start with the clear formulation and statement of all educational objectives.2. Gathering of data in Terms of the Objectives : The gathering of data on pupil progress and evidence relating to stages of growth and development in terms of the objectives. This involves some kind of measurement procedure which might shed light on learning.
3.Ordering of Data : It will be necessary for the teacher to bring the data together in some systematic manner so that an appraisal can be made on the basis of all evidence available4. Judgement: When the first three steps have been completed, teachers will make judgements by means of the collected data and with respect to the identified objectives
TYPES OF EVALUATIONClassified in following ways: Based on frequency of conducting Based on the nature of measurement Based on method of interpreting results
FORMATIVE EVALUATION A formative evaluation (sometimes referred to as internal) is a method for judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming (in progress). Monitor how well the instructional goals and objectives are being met. Its main purpose is to catch deficiencies so that the proper learning interventions can take place.
Formative evaluation is individualized by comparison of the students achievement during the various stages of course or curriculum, Formative evaluation puts the student against himself and not by comparison with other students. This enable the student to control his learning behavior at every point of course and seek appropriate teacher guidance. Formative evaluation is also useful in analyzing learning materials, student learning and achievements, and teacher effectiveness
Summative evaluation A summative evaluation (sometimes referred to as external) is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities (summation). The focus is on the outcome. Summative evaluation refers to assigning a grade for students achievement at the end of the course or instructional program.
Formative evaluation Summative evaluationEvaluation is performed to determine how Evaluation is performed simply to grade thewell students have mastered various students at the end of courseelement.Deals with only a segment Deals with the whole in detailed manner.Test can be administered after completion Test can be given after the completion ofof the units. the course/programImmediate feedback Feedback not possible immediatelyDiagnostic and progress test can be Achievement examination can bepossible possoble.Weakness and strenghts of the students Success and failure of the students will becan be understand possible.
Maximum performance evaluation Determines what an individual can do when performing at their best. Determines a person’s abilities and how well an individual perform when motivated to obtain high score as possible.
Typical performance evaluation Determines what an individual will do under natural conditions i.e. their typical behavior. How does an individual usually behave in normal or routine situations.? Indicates what an individual will do rather than what they can do.
Criterion-Referenced Evaluation Evaluation of performance by judging an individuals behavior, performance, or knowledge against specific criteria or standards. Based on a predetermined set of criteria. For instance, 90% and up = A 80% to 89.99% = B 70% to 79.99% = C 60% to 69.99% = D 59.99% and below = F
Determine individual performance in comparison to some standard or criterion. It enable us to describe what an individual can do, without reference to other’s performance.
Norm-referenced Evaluation Norm-referenced measures are designed to compare students performance according to relative position in some known group. It determine individual performance in comparison to others. it is inappropriate to use NRMs to determine the effectiveness of educational programs and to provide diagnostic information for individual students
Norm and Criterion Compared Criterion-Referenced Norm-ReferencedDimension Tests Tests •To rank each student with •To determine whether each student has respect to the achieved specific skills or concepts. achievement of others in broad Purpose •To find out how much students know areas of knowledge. before instruction begins and after it has •To discriminate between high finished. and low achievers. Measures broad skill areas Measures specific skills which make up a sampled from a variety of Content designated curriculum. These skills are textbooks, syllabi, and the identified by teachers and curriculum judgments of curriculum experts.
•Each skill is usually tested Each skill is tested by at least four by less than four items. Items items in order to obtain an adequate vary in difficulty. Item sample of studentCharacteristics performance and to minimize the effect •Items are selected that of guessing. discriminate between high and low achievers. •Each individual is compared with other examinees and •Each individual is compared with a assigned a score--usually preset standard for acceptable expressed as, a grade . achievement. Score •The performance of other examinees is •Student achievement isInterpretation irrelevant reported for broad skill areas, •A students score is usually expressed as although some norm- a percentage. referenced tests do report student achievement for individual skills.