PERSONALITY The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. "Personality" can be defined as an organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, emotions, interpersonal orientations motivations, and behaviors in various situations Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal,
Measurement of Personality Projected techniques Personality inventories Observation
OBSERVATION Observational skills play an import ant part in most assessment procedures. Sometimes the things that we obse rve confirm the persons self- report, and at other times the persons overt behavior appears to be at odds with what he or she says. Observational procedures may be either informal or formal.
Informal observations are prima rily qualitative. The clinician observes the environment in persons behavior and which it occurs without attempti ng to record the frequency or intensity of specific responses.
PROJECTED TECHNIQUESProjective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. Thematic Apperception Test(TAT) Drawing Test Rorschach test
Thematic Apperception Test TAT was developed by Henry Murray, a psychologist at Harvard (1938). Its adherents claim that it taps a subjects unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achieve ment, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities. There are 31 cards in the standard form of the TAT
Procedure The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject must a story. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented, including: What has led up to the event shown? What is happening at the moment? What the characters are feeling and thinking? What the outcome of the story was?
Rorschach test The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach (in 1922). The Rorschach test (also known as Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their
Goals of Rorschach test The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations, response tendencies, cognitive operations, affectivity, and personal/interpersonal perceptions.
There are ten official inkblots, each printed on a separate white card, approximately 18x24 cm in size. Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background.
PERSONALITY INVENTORIES A personality inventory is an assessment tool used to determine which of these personality types a person falls into. It is used as part of a self assessment done for career planning purposes.
Bell Adjustment Inventory The well known and widely used personality inventory is the Bell’s adjustment Inventory which measures four areas of adjustment home, health, social, emotional, separately as well as composite scores. Total numbers of items are 80. Do you have many headaches? Is your mother the dominant member of the family? Have you ever felt that someone was hypnotizing you and making you act against your will? Do you embarrassed when you have to enter a public assembly after everyone else has been seated? Do you feel there has been a lack of real affection and love in your home?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2; MMPI-A) is a written psychological assessment, or test, used to diagnose mental disorders. It was developed by J.C.McKinley & S.R. Hathway. It consists of 556 statements. The subject has to classify the statements into 3 categories--YES, NO, CANNOT SAY. It is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental
Number Abbreviation Description What is measured No. of items Concern with bodily 32 1 Hs Hypochondriasis symptoms 2 D Depression Depressive Symptoms 57 Awareness of problems and 60 3 Hy Hysteria vulnerabilities Conflict, struggle, anger, 50 4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate respect for societys rules Masculinity/ Stereotypical masculine or 5 MF feminine 56 Femininity interests/behaviors Level of trust, 40 6 Pa Paranoia suspiciousness, sensitivity Worry, Anxiety, tension, 48 7 Pt Psychasthenia doubts, obsessiveness Odd thinking and social 78 8 Sc Schizophrenia alienation 9 Ma Hypomania Level of excitability 46 10 Si Social Introversion People orientation 69
MEASUREMENT OF APTITUDE
APTITUDE Acquired or natural ability (usually measurable with aptitude tests), for learning and proficiency in a specific area or discipline. Aptitude is a natural ability to acquire relatively general or special types of skills or knowledge.
SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TESTS Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)SAT test is a first step to find out which college is best for study. The SAT exam serves as a platform to examine students on logical thinking and analytical abilities.
SAT test consists of three main sections: Critical Reading Section:The critical reading section includes reading passages and sentence completions. Writing Section:The writing section includes a short essay and multiple- choice questions on identifying errors and improving grammar and usage 3. Mathematics Section:The mathematics section includes questions on arithmetic operations, algebra, geometry, statistics and probability.
The SAT is made up of 10 sections A 25-minute essay Six 25-minute sections (mathematics, critical reading and writing) Two 20-minute sections (mathematics, critical reading and writing) A 10-minute multiple-choice writing section Scoring:Each section of SAT (critical reading, mathematics and writing) will be scored on a 200- to 800-point , for a possible total of 2400.
Graduate Record Examinations(GRE) Colleges and universities use the Graduate Record Examinations to evaluate students. It is conducted by Educational Testing Service (ETS). GRE tests a student’s verbal and quantitative skills largely through multiple choice type questions, and an essay writing section tests
It consists of 3 sections: Verbal Reasoning: The verbal section consists of text completions, sentence equivalence and reading comprehension passages Quantitative Reasoning: The quantitative section, the other multiple- choice section, consists of problem solving and quantitative comparison questions that test high-school level mathematics. Analytical Writing: The analytical writing section consists of two different essays, an "issue task" and an "argument task".
VOCATIONAL APTITUDE TESTS Mechanical Aptitude Test (MAT) for mechanics, machine operators , assembly line workers,etc. As different mechanical jobs require different abilities so variety of mechanical aptitude tests are available .e.g.How much weight is required to balance the lever?
Differential Aptitude Test It has proved more successful in predicting academic success and found useful for providing educational and vocational guidance. Individual or Group - 60 to 90 minutes per battery, Paper & Pencil
The test induced in the DAT are the following: Verbal Reasoning: Verbal reasoning ability is important for any work involving the communication of ideas or the interpretation of written material. Numerical Reasoning: This differential aptitude test measures your capability to interpret numerical relationships between different figures. Mathematical reasoning is also tested. Abstract Reasoning : This differential aptitude test measures your reasoning when you solve problems in terms of size, shape, position, quantity or other geometric figures and shapes. Logical thinking is involved.
Mechanical Reasoning: Mechanical Reasoning (MR) measures your ability to understand mechanical principles of machines, motion and devices. Space Relations: Space Relations (SP) measures your capability to analyze three dimensional figures. Language Differential: Language Usage Test is used to measure your ability to detect grammatical and other language errors (using present/past tense, direct/indirect speech, capitalization etc). This test is mainly used to screen candidates for jobs in journalism, review writing and management courses.
VALUES OF APTITUDE TESTING They are excellent predictors of future scholastic achievement They provide ways of comparing a child’s performance with that of other children in same situation. They provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses. They assess differences among individuals. They have uncovered hidden talents in
Introduction In Latin ,the word interest means it concerns or it matters. Interest is the feeling that prompts us to spontaneous activity . Once interests is aroused in studies, games, literature and good conduct, the child will consider no sacrifice and effort too great to attain proficiency .
Definition Interest is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object or an event or a process. An interest is a tendency to become absorbed in an experience and to continue it.’ A state of curiosity or concern about or attention to something:
IMPORTANCE OF INTERESTS IN DEVELOPMENT Ones interests offers the best clue for finding out ones motivation. The interests the younger children develop have a powerful influence on their behavior not only during childhood but also when they grow older. Interests in painting or music in adulthood ,usually orginate during childhood.
A girl who is the interested in matters of health or in the functioning of human body may aspire to be a nurse or doctor when she grows up, while a boy who has strong interest in sports may want to become an athletic coach
Uses Interest inventories are used to assess interests by a variety of institutions including high schools and college advising officers, social service agencies, employment agencies, consultations firms and community organizations.
MEASUREMENT OF INTEREST LASSI (Learning and Study Strategies Inventory) The LASSI is a 80-item assessment of students awareness about and use of learning and study strategies related to skill, will and self-regulation components of strategic learning.
Anxiety Scale —Measures how tense or concerned a student is when approaching a task—a student feels panicky or globalizes the effects of an exam. LEARN to break larger tasks down in to smaller, more manageable tasks. Attitude Scale —Measures general motivation for succeeding in school. FOCUS on higher level goal setting and reassess how school fits in to the bigger picture. Concentration —Measures a students ability to focus (when studying and listening) and not being distracted. ASSESS where to sit in class and where to study. Information Processing —Measures a student’s ability to learn by the use of elaboration, creativity, and organization strategies. DEVELOP various approaches such as mnemonic devices and note-taking strategies. Motivation —Measures a student’s general motivation to perform specific tasks related to achieving success and the degree to which he accepts responsibility for daily
Self Testing —Measures a student’s ability to test her own level of understanding Selecting Main Ideas —Measures how well a student can identify important material. DEVELOP skills on how to separate out critical information by asking “What is really being asked?” or “What is the author or my professor really trying to say?” Study Aids —Assesses student’s use of resources to help him learn or retain information. Time Management —Measures a student’s ability to apply time management principles to academic situations. REFLECT on your behavior, your various energy levels, and procrastination by making a clear time management plan. Test Strategies —Assesses a student’s use of test preparation and test taking strategies
Self-Directed Search The SDS is a guide to educational and career planning. It was first developed by Dr. John Holland in 1971 and subsequently has been revised three times. The SDS is the most widely used interest inventory in the world. The test takes just 20-30 minutes to completeGroups It is based upon the theory that people can be loosely classified into six different groups: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social,
Realistic (R) people like realistic careers such as auto mechanic, aircraft controller, surveyor, electrician, and farmer.The R type usually has mechanical and athletic abilities, and likes to work outdoors and with tools and machines.. Investigative (I) people like investigative careers such as biologist, chemist, physicist, geologist, anthropologist, laboratory assistant, and medical technician.The I type usually has math and science abilities, and likes to work alone and to solve problems.
Artistic (A) people like artistic careers such as composer, musician, stage director, dancer, interior decorator, actor, and writer. The A type usually has artistic skills, enjoys creating original work, and has a good imagination.The A type generally likes to work with creative ideas and self-expression more than routines and rules. Social (S) people like social careers such as teacher, speech therapist, religious worker, counselor, clinical psychologist, and nurse.The S type generally likes to help, teach, and counsel people more than engage in
Enterprising (E) people like enterprising careers such as buyer, sports promoter, television producer, business executive, salesperson, travel agent, supervisor, and manager.The E type usually has leadership and public speaking abilities, is interested in money and politics, and likes to influence people. Conventional (C) people like conventional careers such as bookkeeper, financial analyst, banker, tax expert, secretary, and radio dispatcher.The C type has clerical and math abilities, likes to work indoors and to organize thing.
Intelligence Intelligence has been defined in different ways, including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, , reasoning , learning, retaining, planning, and problem solving. There are two major types of intelligence test, those administered to individuals and those administered to group
The two main individual intelligence tests are : Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Wechsler tests, - Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for adultsGroup-administered intelligence tests involve a series of different problems and are generally used in mass testing situations such as the military and schools. Examples of group tests are:
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5), Fifth EditionType Cognitive ability assessmentPurpose Individually administered assessment of intelligence and cognitive abilitiesMeasures Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working MemoryAges 2 to 85+ yearsTimes Approximately 5 minutes per subtest
FACTORS NON VERBAL VERBAL Nonverbal Fluid Reasoning Verbal Fluid ReasoningFluid Reasoning Activities: Object Series/Matrices Activities: Early Reasoning (2-(FR) (Routing) 3), Verbal Analogies (5-6) Nonverbal KnowledgeKnowledge Verbal Knowledge Activities: Procedural Knowledge(KN) Activities: Vocabulary (Routing) (2-3)Quantitative Nonverbal Quantitative Reasoning Verbal Quantitative ReasoningReasoning Activities: Quantitative Reasoning Activities: Quantitative(QR) (2-6) Reasoning (2-6) Nonverbal Visual-SpatialVisual-Spatial Verbal Visual-Spatial Processing ProcessingProcessing Activities: Position and Direction Activities: Form Board (1-2), Form(VS) (2-6) Patterns (3-6) Verbal Working MemoryWorking Memory Nonverbal Working Memory Activities: Memory for(WM) Activities: Block Span (2-6) Sentences (2-3), Last Word (4-6)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents. It is currently in its fourth edition (WAIS-IV). Indices and scalesThere are four index scores representing major components of intelligence: Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) Working Memory Index (WMI) Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) Processing Speed Index (PSI)
SUBTESTSThe Verbal Comprehension Index includes four tests: Similarities: Abstract verbal reasoning (e.g., "In what way are an apple and a pear alike?") Vocabulary: The degree to which one has learned, been able to comprehend and verbally express vocabulary (e.g., "What is a guitar?") Information : Degree of general information acquired from culture (e.g., "Who is the president of Russia?") Comprehension [Supplemental]: Ability to deal with abstract social conventions, rules and expressions (e.g., "What does Kill 2 birds with 1 stone metaphorically mean?")
The Working Memory Index is obtained from three tests: Digit span: attention, concentration, mental control (e.g., Repeat the numbers 1-2-3 in reverse sequence) Arithmetic: Concentration while manipulating mental mathematical problems (e.g., "How many 45-cent stamps can you buy for a dollar?") Letter-Number Sequencing [Supplemental]: attention and working memory (e.g., Repeat the sequence Q-1-B-3-J-2, but place the numbers in numerical order and then the letters in
The Processing Speed Index includes three tests Symbol Search: Visual perception, speed Coding: Visual-motor coordination, motor and mental speed
The Perceptual Reasoning Index comprises five tests Block Design: Spatial perception, visual abstract processing & problem solving Visual Puzzles: non-verbal reasoning Picture Completion [Supplemental]: Ability to quickly perceive visual details Figure Weights [Supplemental]: quantitative and analogical reasoning.
Foam Board test
Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-II The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-II (MAB-II) assesses aptitudes and intelligence. Administer to: 16 years old and older Administration time: 100 minutes Number of items: 335 items
The MAB-II assesses 10 distinct domains of human intellectual functioning, grouped into two (2) broader categories, as follows: Verbal: Information, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, Vocabulary Performance: Digit Symbol, Picture Completion, Spatial, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly
Cognitive Abilities Test The Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT, CAT) is designed to measure students’ learned reasoning abilities in the three areas most linked to academic success in school: Verbal, Quantitative and Nonverbal.
Verbal Battery Three sub-tests are administered in the verbal section. Each test has approximately 20 questions and the student is given ten minutes to complete each sub-test. Verbal ClassificationExample: green blue red. Choices: color; crayon, paint, yellow, rainbow. Sentence CompletionExample: Apples on trees. Choices: fall; grow; show; bloom; spread. Verbal Analogies Example: new (is to) old : wet (is to) Choices: rain; drip; hot; sun; dry
Quantitative Battery The Quantitative Battery tests the students quantitative reasoning and problem solving ability and provides an appraisal of the students general level of abstract reasoning. Three tests are administered in the quantitative battery. The first test has twenty-five questions and students are given 8 minutes to finish. The second has 20 questions with a 10 minute testing time. The third has fifteen questions with a 12 minute testing time.
Quantitative RelationsThe student is given two problems numbered one and two with three answer choices. The student is to solve the two problemsExample: 1. 0+3 2. 3+0 Choices: a) 1 is greater than 2; b) 1 is less than 2; c) 1 is equal to 2. Number SeriesExample: 5; 10; 15; 20 Choices: 25; 30; 35; 40; 45. Equation BuildingThe student is given numbers and signs. The student is asked to combine the numbers and signs to get a solution that is an answer choice.Example: 1 2 3 - x
Non-Verbal BatteryThe tests in the nonverbal battery are between fifteen and twenty-five questions each and students are given ten minutes for each test. Figure ClassificationThe student is given three figures that are alike in some way. They are given three answer choices and five pictures to choose from. They are asked to decide which figure goes best with the three answer choices. Example: The student is given three items that are odd shaped but each one has 4 sides and is black. Choices: a black circle; a black triangle; a 4 sided white object; a black 4 sided object; six-sided white object. Figure AnalogiesThe student is given three figures. The first two figures go together; the third figure goes with one of the answer
Figure AnalysisThe student is shown how a square piece of dark paper is folded and where holes are punched in it. The student is to figure out how the paper will look when it is unfolded. Example: If a dark piece of paper is folded in the center from top to bottom and a hole is punched in the bottom right hand corner, what will the piece of paper look like when it is unfolded? Choices: A) one hole in the bottom right hand corner; B) one hole in the bottom right hand corner and one in the top right hand corner; C) one hole in the top right hand corner; D) one hole in the bottom right hand corner and one in the bottom left hand corner; E) one hole in the bottom right hand corner
MEASUREMENT OFSOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Socioeconomic status Assessment of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect in community based studies. Evaluation of SES of a family would mean the categorization of the family in respect of defined variables such as education, occupation, economic status, physical assets, social position, etc
Kuppuswamys SES Classification is based on education, occupation & income of family head EDUCATIONProfessional degree, PG and above 7Graduate 6Intermediate or pass high school 5diplomaHigh school certificate 4Middle school completion 3Primary school 2Illiterate 1
Per capita income (Rs. per month)Original income Modified 12>2000 >21660 101000-1999 10830-21659 6750-999 8122-10829 4500-749 5415-8121 3300-499 3249-5414 2101-299 1093-3248 1<100 < 1093
The total score is graded asfollows:Upper 26-29Upper middle 16-25Lower middle 11-15Upper lower 5-10Lower <5
VISUAL HANDICAP It means being partially sighted, having low vision, being legally blind, and being totally blind, these terms are used in the educational context to describe students with visual impairments. Visual impairment is vision loss of a person having reduced vision, a handicap that constitutes a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from disease, trauma or a congenital or degenerative condition that cannot be corrected by conventional means, including refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
VISUAL HANDICAP SignsWatery eyesReddened eyelidsRubs eyes excessivelyBlink more frequentlyComplaints about headache following classroom eye walkPlace eye close to learning material
SNELLEN CHART A standard eye chart is necessary to make comparisons and to record peoples visual acuity. The most common chart used in most doctors offices is the Snellen eye chart.
Intelligence testing for the visually impaired A variety of IQ tests are available for the visually impaired. Testing conditions An appropriate testing environment is one where there are few distractions and adequate lighting. The examinee should be allowed time to become comfortable and familiar with the room setting. The examiner must take some time in order to describe any testing materials that are part of the test. Examinees should be given the opportunity to experience touching the materials before the test starts. Wherever there is typed material it should be
Haptic intelligence test: for adult blindThe Haptic intelligence test is is a performance-based intelligence measure for blind and partially sighted adults and can be completed in up to an hour and a half. It is a tactile performance testIt consists of the following subtests:- Dot symbol: analyzing dot patterns Object assembly: assembling puzzle parts such as cubes Pattern board: examining and reproducing peg board patterns Bead arithmetic: solving arithmetic problems
Cognitive test for the blind (CTB) The CTB assesses cognitive functions including measures of abstract reasoning, auditory language functions, memory and spatial abilities. It consists of : auditory analysis, immediate digit recall, language comprehension and memory,, vocabulary.
HEARING HANDICAPPED Deafness: Temporary or permanent impairment or loss of hearing. Hearing impairement: is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. Deaf-blindness: means a combination of hearing and visual impairments which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for
Tests Audiometry : An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). A tuning fork may be used. The tuning fork is tapped and held in the air on each side of the head to test the ability to hear by air conduction. It is tapped and placed against the mastoid bone behind each ear to test bone conduction.
SLOW LEARNER They exhibit due to more psychological processes involved in understanding and in using spoken of written language referred to as perceptual problems, brain injuries, dyslexia , developmental aphasia. Slow learners means educational retardation and intellectual score between 75-90.
MEASUREMENT Detroit test of hearing aptitude: The DTLA-4 is one of the oldest and most respected tests that evaluate specific mental abilities of individuals ages 6 to 17.Scales & Forms Word Opposites Reversed Letters Basic Information Story Sequences Design Sequences Sentence Imitation Design Reproduction