. Training Presented By : Anish  & Mugdha Value One InfoTech Pvt. Ltd.
. Training <ul><li>Importance of PHP Security </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns of  PHP Security </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
. Training <ul><li>PHP is widely used language for web applications  </li></ul><ul><li>PHP is making headway into enterpri...
. Training INPUT  VALIDATION
. Training <ul><li>All user inputs are unreliable and can’t be trusted. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for validating any user inp...
. Training <ul><li>Most common source of vulnerabilities in PHP applications.  </li></ul><ul><li>Any input parameters are ...
. Training <ul><li>Disable register_globals in PHP.ini  ( Disabled by-default as of  PHP 4.2.0 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Alterna...
. Training <ul><li>Type sensitive validation conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because input is always a string, type sens...
. Training <ul><li>Code with error_reporting set to E_ALL. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to see warnings about the use ...
. Training <ul><li>Suffers from the loss of data problem, caused when the same parameter is provided by multiple input sou...
. Training <ul><li>All data passed to PHP (GET/POST/COOKIE) ends up being a string. Using strings where integers are neede...
. Training <ul><li>PHP comes with a ctype, extension that offers a very quick mechanism for validating string content. </l...
. Training <ul><li>What are Magic Quotes ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with it !! </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal...
. Training XSS
. Training <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) is a situation where by attacker injects HTML code, which is then displayed ...
. Training <ul><li>Prevention of XSS is as simple as filtering input data via one of  </li></ul><ul><li>the following: </l...
. Training <ul><li>$str = strip_tags($_POST['message']); </li></ul><ul><li>// encode any foreign & special chars </li></ul...
. Training SQL Injection
. Training <ul><li>SQL injection is similar to XSS, in the fact that not validated data  </li></ul><ul><li>is being used. ...
. Training <ul><li>If your database extension offers a specific escaping function then always use it; instead of other met...
. Training SQL Escaping in Practice <ul><li>// undo magic_quotes_gpc to avoid double escaping </li></ul><ul><li>if (get_ma...
. Training <ul><li>When un-quoted integers are passed to SQL queries, escaping functions won’t save you, since there are n...
. Training <ul><li>Prepared statements are a mechanism to secure and optimize execution of repeated queries. </li></ul><ul...
. Training <ul><li><?php </li></ul><ul><li>$data = &quot;Here is some text to index&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>pg_query($db,...
. Training Code Injection
. Training <ul><li>Code Injection is the execution of arbitrary local or remote code. </li></ul><ul><li>The two of the mos...
. Training <ul><li>Avoid using dynamic or relative paths/files in your code. Although somewhat less convenient; always use...
. Training <ul><li>work with a white-list of acceptable values. </li></ul><ul><li>//create an array of acceptable file nam...
. Training Session Security
. Training <ul><li>Sessions are a common tool for user tracking across a web site. </li></ul><ul><li>For the duration of a...
. Training <ul><li>To prevent session id theft, the id can be altered on every request, invalidating old values. </li></ul...
. Training <ul><li>Another session security technique is to compare the browser signature headers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>s...
. Training <ul><li>By default PHP sessions are stored as files inside the common / </li></ul><ul><li>tmp directory. </li><...
. Training Shared Hosting
. Training <ul><li>Most PHP applications run in shared environments where all  </li></ul><ul><li>users “share” the same we...
. Training <ul><li>PHP’s solution to this problem are 2 php.ini directives. </li></ul><ul><li>open_basedir  – limits file ...
. Training <ul><ul><ul><li>php|architect’s  Guide to PHP Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Ilia Alsh...
. Training
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PHP Security

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Mugdha & Anish - PHP Security

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PHP Security

  1. 1. . Training Presented By : Anish & Mugdha Value One InfoTech Pvt. Ltd.
  2. 2. . Training <ul><li>Importance of PHP Security </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns of PHP Security </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input Validation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Site Scripting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code Injection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Session Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Hosting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Topics of Discussion
  3. 3. . Training <ul><li>PHP is widely used language for web applications </li></ul><ul><li>PHP is making headway into enterprise as well as corporate </li></ul><ul><li>markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective & often overlooked measure to prevent malicious </li></ul><ul><li>users </li></ul><ul><li>PHP applications often end up working with sensitive data. </li></ul>Importance of PHP Security
  4. 4. . Training INPUT VALIDATION
  5. 5. . Training <ul><li>All user inputs are unreliable and can’t be trusted. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for validating any user input before use : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpected Modification by the user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional attempt to gain unauthorized access to the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to crash the application by the malicious users </li></ul></ul></ul>Input Validation
  6. 6. . Training <ul><li>Most common source of vulnerabilities in PHP applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Any input parameters are translated to variables :- </li></ul><ul><li>?foo=bar >> $foo = “bar”; </li></ul><ul><li>No way to determine the input source. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritized sources like cookies can overwrite GET values. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When register global is set ON, un-initialized variables can be “injected” via user inputs. </li></ul>Register Globals
  7. 7. . Training <ul><li>Disable register_globals in PHP.ini ( Disabled by-default as of PHP 4.2.0 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to Register Global : SUPER GLOBALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$_GET – data from get requests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_POST – post request data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_COOKIE – cookie information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_FILES – uploaded file data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_SERVER – server data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_ENV – environment variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_REQUEST – mix of GET, POST, COOKIE </li></ul></ul>Solutions To Register Globals
  8. 8. . Training <ul><li>Type sensitive validation conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because input is always a string, type sensitive compare to a Boolean or an integer will always fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>if ($authorized === TRUE) </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>// LOGIN SUCCESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  9. 9. . Training <ul><li>Code with error_reporting set to E_ALL. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to see warnings about the use of un-initialized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of constants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created via define() function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once set, remains defined until end of request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be made case-insensitive to avoid accidental access to a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different datum caused by case variance. </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  10. 10. . Training <ul><li>Suffers from the loss of data problem, caused when the same parameter is provided by multiple input sources. </li></ul><ul><li>PHP.ini: variables_order = GPCS (Last data source has highest priority) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>echo $_GET['id']; // 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>echo $_COOKIE['id']; // 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>echo $_REQUEST['id']; // 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the input method-specific superglobals intead of $_REQUEST </li></ul>Cons of $ REQUEST
  11. 11. . Training <ul><li>All data passed to PHP (GET/POST/COOKIE) ends up being a string. Using strings where integers are needed is not only inefficient but also dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Casting is a simple and very efficient way to ensure that variables contain numeric values. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of floating point number validation </li></ul><ul><li>if (!empty($_GET['price'])) { </li></ul><ul><li>$price = (float) $_GET['price']; </li></ul><ul><li>} else $price = 0; </li></ul>Numeric Data Validation
  12. 12. . Training <ul><li>PHP comes with a ctype, extension that offers a very quick mechanism for validating string content. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if (!ctype_alnum($_GET['login'])) { </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>echo &quot;Only A-Za-z0-9 are allowed.&quot;; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if (!ctype_alpha($_GET['captcha'])) { </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>echo &quot;Only A-Za-z are allowed.&quot;; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if (!ctype_xdigit($_GET['color'])) { </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>echo &quot;Only hexadecimal values are allowed&quot;; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul></ul>String Validation
  13. 13. . Training <ul><li>What are Magic Quotes ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with it !! </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal with it ?? </li></ul>Using Magic Quotes
  14. 14. . Training XSS
  15. 15. . Training <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) is a situation where by attacker injects HTML code, which is then displayed on the page without further validation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to embarrassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session take-over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User tracking by 3rd parties </li></ul></ul>Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  16. 16. . Training <ul><li>Prevention of XSS is as simple as filtering input data via one of </li></ul><ul><li>the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>htmlspecialchars() </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Encodes ‘, “, <, >, & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>htmlentities() </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Convert anything that there is HTML entity for. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strip_tags() </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Strips anything that resembles HTML tag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag allowances in strip_tags() are dangerous, because attributes of those tags are not being validated in any way. </li></ul></ul>Preventing XSS
  17. 17. . Training <ul><li>$str = strip_tags($_POST['message']); </li></ul><ul><li>// encode any foreign & special chars </li></ul><ul><li>$str = htmlentities($str); </li></ul><ul><li>// strip tags can be told to &quot;keep&quot; certain tags </li></ul><ul><li>$str = strip_tags($_POST['message'], '<b><p><i><u>'); </li></ul><ul><li>// tag allowance problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><u onmouseover=&quot;alert('JavaScript is allowed');&quot;> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><b style=&quot;font-size: 500px&quot;>Lot's of text</b> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></u> </li></ul></ul></ul>Preventing XSS
  18. 18. . Training SQL Injection
  19. 19. . Training <ul><li>SQL injection is similar to XSS, in the fact that not validated data </li></ul><ul><li>is being used. But in this case this data is passed to the database. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary query execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of existing values. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary data injection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>// consider this query, it will delete all records from users </li></ul><ul><li>$name = “mugdha’; DELETE FROM users;”; </li></ul><ul><li>mysql_query(“SELECT * FROM users WHERE name =’{$name}’”); </li></ul>SQL Injection
  20. 20. . Training <ul><li>If your database extension offers a specific escaping function then always use it; instead of other methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mysql_escape_string() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mysql_real_escape_string() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PostgreSQL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pg_escape_string() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pg_escape_bytea() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SQLite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sqlite_escape_string() </li></ul></ul></ul>SQL Escaping
  21. 21. . Training SQL Escaping in Practice <ul><li>// undo magic_quotes_gpc to avoid double escaping </li></ul><ul><li>if (get_magic_quotes_gpc()) { </li></ul><ul><li>$_GET['name'] = stripslashes($_GET['name']; </li></ul><ul><li>$_POST['binary'] = stripslashes($_GET['binary']); </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>$name = pg_escape_string($_GET['name']); </li></ul><ul><li>$binary = pg_escape_bytea($_POST['binary']); </li></ul><ul><li>pg_query($db, &quot;INSERT INTO tbl (name,image) </li></ul><ul><li>VALUES('{$name}', '{$image}')&quot;); </li></ul>
  22. 22. . Training <ul><li>When un-quoted integers are passed to SQL queries, escaping functions won’t save you, since there are no special chars to escape. </li></ul><ul><li>http://example.com/db.php?id=0;DELETE%20FROM%20users </li></ul><ul><li><?php </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$id = sqlite_escape_string($_GET['id']); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>// $id is still 0;DELETE FROM users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sqlite_query($db,&quot;SELECT * FROM users WHERE id={$id}&quot;); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>// Bye Bye user data... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>?> </li></ul>Escaping Shortfall
  23. 23. . Training <ul><li>Prepared statements are a mechanism to secure and optimize execution of repeated queries. </li></ul><ul><li>Works by making SQL “compile” the query and then substitute in the changing values for each execution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased performance, one compile vs one per query. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better security, data is “type set” will never be evaluated as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separate query. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by most database systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MySQL users will need to use version 4.1 or higher. </li></ul><ul><li>SQLite extension does not support this either. </li></ul>Prepared Statements
  24. 24. . Training <ul><li><?php </li></ul><ul><li>$data = &quot;Here is some text to index&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>pg_query($db, &quot;PREPARE my_stmt (text) AS </li></ul><ul><li>INSERT INTO search_idx (word) VALUES($1)&quot;); </li></ul><ul><li>foreach (explode(&quot; &quot;, $data) as $word) { // no is escaping needed </li></ul><ul><li>pg_query($db, &quot;EXECUTE my_stmt({$word})&quot;); </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>// de-allocte the prepared statement </li></ul><ul><li>pg_query($db, &quot;DEALLOCATE my_stmt&quot;); </li></ul><ul><li>?> </li></ul><ul><li>Unless explicitly removed, prepared statements “stay alive” </li></ul><ul><li>between persistent connections. </li></ul>Prepared Statements
  25. 25. . Training Code Injection
  26. 26. . Training <ul><li>Code Injection is the execution of arbitrary local or remote code. </li></ul><ul><li>The two of the most common sources of code injection are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic paths/files used in require/include statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eval(): A major source of code injection is the improper validation of eval(). </li></ul></ul>Code Injection
  27. 27. . Training <ul><li>Avoid using dynamic or relative paths/files in your code. Although somewhat less convenient; always use full paths, defined by constants, which will prevent attacks like these: </li></ul><ul><li><?php </li></ul><ul><ul><li>//dynamic path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_GET['path'] = ‘http://bad_site.org’; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include &quot;{$_GET['path']}/header.inc&quot;; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>//dynamic file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_GET[‘interface’] = ‘../../../../../etc/passwd’; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>require‘home/mbr/profile/templates_c/interfaces/’.$_GET[‘interface’]; </li></ul><ul><li>?> </li></ul><ul><li>There are some other ways to secure include or require calls... </li></ul>Code Injection Prevention
  28. 28. . Training <ul><li>work with a white-list of acceptable values. </li></ul><ul><li>//create an array of acceptable file names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$tmpl = array(); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreach(glob(&quot;templates/*.tmpl&quot;) as $v) { </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$tmpl[md5($v)] = $v; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if (isset($tmpl[$_GET['path']])) { </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$fp = fopen($tmpl[$_GET['path']], &quot;r&quot;); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul>Code Injection Prevention
  29. 29. . Training Session Security
  30. 30. . Training <ul><li>Sessions are a common tool for user tracking across a web site. </li></ul><ul><li>For the duration of a visit, the session is effectively the user’s identity. </li></ul><ul><li>If an active session can be obtained by 3rd party, it can assume the identity of the user who’s session was compromised. </li></ul>Session Security
  31. 31. . Training <ul><li>To prevent session id theft, the id can be altered on every request, invalidating old values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li><?php </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>session_start(); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if (!empty($_SESSION)) { // not a new session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>session_regenerate_id(TRUE); // make new session id </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>?> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because the session changes on every request, the “back” button </li></ul><ul><li>in a browser will no longer work, as it will make a request with </li></ul><ul><li>the old session id. </li></ul>Securing Session ID
  32. 32. . Training <ul><li>Another session security technique is to compare the browser signature headers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>session_start(); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$chk = @md5( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$_SERVER['HTTP_ACCEPT_CHARSET'] . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$_SERVER['HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING'] . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$_SERVER['HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE'] . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']); </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if (empty($_SESSION)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$_SESSION['key'] = $chk; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>else if ($_SESSION['key'] != $chk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>session_destroy(); </li></ul></ul>Session Validation
  33. 33. . Training <ul><li>By default PHP sessions are stored as files inside the common / </li></ul><ul><li>tmp directory. </li></ul><ul><li>This often means any user on the system could see active sessions and “acquire” them or even modify their content. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate session storage directory via </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>session.save_path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database storage mechanism, mysql, pgsql, oci, sqlite. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Custom session handler allowing data storage anywhere. </li></ul></ul></ul>Safer Session Storage
  34. 34. . Training Shared Hosting
  35. 35. . Training <ul><li>Most PHP applications run in shared environments where all </li></ul><ul><li>users “share” the same web server instances. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that all files that are involved in serving content must </li></ul><ul><li> be accessible to the web server (world readable). </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently it means that any user could read the content of files of all other users. </li></ul>Shared Hosting
  36. 36. . Training <ul><li>PHP’s solution to this problem are 2 php.ini directives. </li></ul><ul><li>open_basedir – limits file access to one or more specified directories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively Efficient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomplicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>safe_mode – limits file access based on uid/gid of running script </li></ul><ul><li>and file to be accessed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and complex approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be bypassed with little effort. </li></ul></ul>The PHP Solution
  37. 37. . Training <ul><ul><ul><li>php|architect’s Guide to PHP Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Ilia Alshanetsky </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential PHP Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Chris Shiflett </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>References
  38. 38. . Training
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