Consumer behavior-to-health-care-products


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Consumer behavior-to-health-care-products

  1. 1. Consumer behavior to health care products Title of the project Name and Address of the college Submitted by :(Your Name with class and semester) Project guide: (Guide‘s name ) Year of submission:
  2. 2. Certificate
  3. 3. Declaration
  4. 4. Acknowledgement
  5. 5. Executive Summary
  6. 6. Index (Table of Content)
  7. 7. Chapter I: Introduction and research Methodology 1.1 General IntroductionDefinition of health:The prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental andphysical well-being through the products and services offered by the medical and allied healthprofessions.Who is a healthy person?A healthy person is often described as someone who has a good diet gets a lot of exercise andavoids stress.What is a health product?Every person should take care of his health.Healthy life style and having healthy society is one of the main priorities of the people living inindia now.Fortunately, most of the people are born healthy but the main task is to be able to take care of thehealth which we have gained by the nature.In India people are having healthcare activities and they are being taught beginning from youngage in order to have habits of healthcare. Sports activities are widely used in schools. Children inearly age learn to do exercises and having fun playing team games like football, volleyball. Italso helps them in future to avoid harmful habits like smoking, alcohols and weak nutrition.Physical education is also inseparable part of university studying program.For adult people we have suitable jogging places and many stadiums. There are also a lot ofswimming pools for people who do not like jogging. And they widely use these priorities fortheir health care ambitions.Another part of healthcare process is to have good healthy food and diet. People have access to awide system of information by the means of internet, TV, magazine where they easily find a lotof useful articles about the diet and healthcare. Most of the people also prefer food and productswhich are cultivated in more natural condition and look healthy.Everybody here at least is willing to have pretty a good rest at the weekends spending time withfamily and friends it seems to help avoid stress after hard working week.Every person is free to choose his life style whether to be health or not but supporting people inhealthcare education leads to not only for social benefits but also healthy people and they cancreate health and strong community.
  8. 8. Healthy life styleNowadays life is becoming more and more stressful. People live under the pressure of variousproblems social, ecological, economical and others. They constantly suffer from stress, noise anddust in big cities especially urban places. In order to overcome all difficulties a person should bestrong and healthy, take care of physical and mental health. There are several ways to do that.Sport is of primary importance. The Greek used to say "a sound mind is in a sound body".Nowadays different kinds of sports become more accessible for people. Vast network of sportclubs offers a great choice of them having necessary equipments and trainers helping choose theright set of exercises. The most healthy kind of sports are swimming, jogging and yoga.Healthy lifestyle presupposes healthy food. Usually healthy food is simple. The daily menuincludes meat, fruits and vegetables, milk products. Fruits and vegetables contain differentvitamins and give us energy. People prefer milk to coffee, seafood to meat, vegetable soup tofatty broth. People go on a diet especially women. But some prefer to keep healthy life day tositting on a diet occasionally because some diet may appear harmful for our health.Also one must avoid eating in restaurants or cafes especially fast food. Homemade food shouldbe preferred. There are a lot of restaurants and cafes serving delicious diet meals. For a healthyperson theres no room for smoking, alcohol or drugs because they are sure to destroy both bodyand brain. To keep healthy and fit wed better avoid anxiety and stress, keep to healthy food andbe sportive.To avoid serious illness, sticking a wholesome lifestyles is of help. As we all know that thediseases come into being for long, not for a day. In other word, eating junk food, such ashamburger, for several days when workers are too busy to have dinners, it will not seriouslydamage those peoples health. However, if people keep this harmful habit every day, manydiseases will follow. Thats because the fast food diet is a major contributor to serious healthproblems such as obesity and heart disease. Therefore, the government should allocate moremoney to advocate the healthy lifestyle as citizens are taxpayers.On the other hand, the patients should be thought highly of by the government and given propertreatment. Even though the authorities have limited budget for many infrastructure facilitiesdevelopment, the quality of citizens living should be the priority. Only when the sick get betterafter treatment, can lift a sense of happiness among people. Furthermore, adequate treatments tothe ill convey the care from the society, which benefits the form of harmonious society.There are ways to prevent illness sound productive. But they need the support from government.With adequate money and being spent wisely, It is believed that the task of preventing diseases
  9. 9. could be fulfilled through prevention of wholesome lifestyle and proper treatment to the alreadyformed problemIntroduction to the projectThe project is based on the aspect of consumer behavior with respect to health care products inIndia. The project revolves around the consumer‘s behavior when it comes to purchasing anyhealth care product. The factors that influence the consumer to make his decision whilepurchasing a product are also discussed. As this is a research project, a research was conductedby survey method. A small survey was conducted which involved retailer of health careproducts, who shared their experience and idea of serving in this particular area. This projecttries to understand how much of the theory of consumer behavior is applied in practice and howmarketing can make a difference.A detail study on consumer behavior has been done by many theorists, which is discussed in theproject along with different methods of motivating consumers to buy. Detail information onhealth care products is also mentioned in the project report. Many organizations have comeforward with different products in the health sector. Today in India itself we have more than1500 companies which provide healthcare products. Many have emerged to become huge brands.Apart from that many foreign companies are also serving the Indian market with their productswhich are becoming popular with each day, and are becoming a threat for the local companies.The health care industry still needs to evolve a lot in India. We cannot be sure how the localcompanies compete with the foreign technology in the ever changing world. Consumers arebecoming more precise about the features they want in a product and when they do not find themin a local product they tend to go towards the foreign products.Consumer behaviorConsumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy products.It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. It attemptsto understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studiescharacteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in anattempt to understand peoples wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer fromgroups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general.Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing thethree distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for
  10. 10. customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning ofmarketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greaterimportance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management,personalization, customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorizedinto social choice and welfare functions.Each method for vote counting is assumed as a social function but if Arrow‘s possibility theoremis used for a social function, social welfare function is achieved. Some specifications of thesocial functions are decisiveness, neutrality, anonymity, monotonocity, unanimity, homogeneityand weak and strong Pareto optimality. No social choice function meets these requirements in anordinal scale simultaneously. The most important characteristic of a social function isidentification of the interactive effect of alternatives and creating a logical relation with theranks. Marketing provides services in order to satisfy customers. With that in mind, theproductive system is considered from its beginning at the production level, to the end of thecycle, the consumer.Belch and Belch define consumer behavior as the process and activities people engage in whensearching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services soas to satisfy their needs and desires.
  11. 11. Healthcare in IndiaA growing healthcare sectorThe healthcare industry in the country, which comprises hospital and allied sectors, is projectedto grow 23 per cent per annum. According to McKinsey & Co. a leading industrial andmanagement consulting organization, the Indian healthcare sector, including pharmaceutical,diagnostics and hospital services, is expected to more than double its revenues to Rs 2000 billionby 2010. Expenditure on healthcare services, including diagnostics, hospital occupancy andoutpatient consulting, the largest component of this spend is expected to grow more than 125%to Rs 1560 billion by 2012 from Rs 690 billion now. Healthcare is one of India‘s largest sectors,in terms of revenue and employment, and the sector is expanding rapidly. During the 1990s,Indian healthcare grew at a compound annual rate of 16%. Today the total value of the sector ismore than $34 billion. This translates to $34 per capita, or roughly 6% of GDP. By 2012, India‘shealthcare sector is projected to grow to nearly $40 billion.The private sector accounts for more than 80% of total healthcare spending in India. Unless thereis a decline in the combined federal and state government deficit, which currently stands atroughly 9%, the opportunity for significantly higher public health spending will be limited.One driver of growth in the healthcare sector is India‘s booming population, currently 1.1 billionand increasing at a 2% annual rate. By 2030, India is expected to surpass China as the world‘smost populous nation. By 2050, the population is projected to reach 1.6 billionExpanding middle classIndia traditionally has been a rural, agrarian economy. Nearly three quarters of the populationstill lives in rural areas, and as of 2004, an estimated 27.5% of Indians were living below thenational poverty line. Some 300 million people in India live on less than a dollar a day, andmore than 50% of all children are malnourished.Middle classRise of diseaseAnother factor driving the growth of India‘s healthcare sector is a rise in both infectious andchronic degenerative diseases. While ailments such as poliomyelitis, leprosy, and neonataltetanus will soon be eliminated, some communicable diseases once thought to be under control,such as dengue fever, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria, and pneumonia, have returned inforce or have developed a stubborn resistance to drugs. This troubling trend can be attributed inpart to substandard housing,inadequate water, sewage and waste management systems, acrumbling public health infrastructure, and increased air travel
  12. 12. PharmaceuticalsParalleling the rise of disease is the emergence of a robust pharmaceutical industry in India. TheIndian pharmaceutical market is one of the fastest growing markets in the world; sales increasedby 17.5% to $7.3 billion in 2006, according to IMS Health. Many factors, including a strongeconomy and the country‘s growing healthcare needs have contributed to the accelerated growth,which is especially strong in the over-the-counter OTC.The healthcare divideWhen it comes to healthcare, there are two Indias: the country that provides high-quality medicalcare to middle-class Indians and medical tourists, and the India in which the majority of thepopulation lives—a country whose residents have limited or no access to quality care.Today only 25% of the Indian population has access to Western (allopathic)medicine, which ispracticed mainly in urban areas, where two-thirds of India‘s hospitals and health centers arelocated. Many of the rural poor must rely on alternative forms of treatment, such as ayurvedicmedicine, unani and acupuncture.Opportunities within India healthcare sectorEmerging health insurance marketIn recent years, there has been a liberalization of the Indian healthcare sector to allow for amuch-needed private insurance market to emerge. Due to liberalization and a growing middleclass with increased spending power, there has been an increase in the number of insurancepolicies issued in the country. In 2001-02, 7.5 million policies were sold. By 2003-04, thenumber of policies issued had increased by 37%, to 10.3 million.Growth of telemedicineOnly 25% of India‘s specialist physicians reside in semi-urban areas, and a mere 3 % live inrural areas. As a result, rural areas, with a population approaching 700 million, continue to bedeprived of proper healthcare facilities.Healthcare infrastructure expansionAn enormous amount of private capital will be required in the coming years to enhance andexpand India‘s healthcare infrastructure to meet the needs of a growing population and an influxof medical tourists. Currently India has approximately 860 beds per million population. This isonly one-fifth of the world average, which is 3,960, according to the World Health Organization.It is estimated that 450,000 additional hospital beds will be required by 2010—an investment
  13. 13. estimated at $25.7 billion. The government is expected to contribute only 15-20% of the total,providing an enormous opportunity for private players to fill the gapMedical equipment marketThe rebuilding of India‘s healthcare infrastructure, combined with the emergence of medicaltourism and telemedicine, will drive strong demand for medical equipment, such as x-raymachines, CT scanners and electrocardiograph (EKG) machines. Leading internationalcompanies market most high value medical equipment, while only consumables anddisposableequipment are made locally. Many international companies have expanded their operations in theIndian market in recent years and established manufacturing facilities to assemble equipment forthe domestic market and export sales. The competition is expected to intensify with the entry ofmore global firms into the medical equipment marketplace. The government is encouraging thegrowth of this market, through policies such as a reduction in import duties on medicalequipment, higher depreciation on life-saving medical equipment (40%, up from 25%), anda number of other tax incentives.Pharmaceutical industry opportunitiesDespite widespread poverty and inadequate public healthcare provision, India has much to offerthe leading drug makers. An increase in lifestyle diseases resulting from the adoption ofunhealthy western diets, combined with a growing middle class that has more disposable incometo spend on treatment, will provide new opportunities for global pharmaceutical firms.ManufacturingIndia has emerged as a major supplier of several bulk drugs, producing these at lower pricescompared to formulation producers worldwide. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)already has approved 85 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and formulation plants inIndia, the highest such number outside the US. India is poised to become a major exporter ofpharmaceuticals, particularly generic and OTC drugs, to global markets. By 2010, India could beproducing 15% of the world‘s bulk pharmaceuticals and drug intermediates. However, achievingthat level of growth will require an estimated $1.2 billion investment in productioncapacity. Many multinational generics companies have been sourcing products from Indianmanufacturers for some years. Some also use Indian contract manufacturers to manufacture thefinished product. Contract manufacturing, currently estimated at $350 million, is expected toreach$1billion by 2010, according to CRISIL.Pharmaceutical researchPharmaceutical research is one area that is expected to achieve tremendous growth in the comingdecade, due to India‘s huge and growing population, low per capita drug usage, and increasing
  14. 14. incidence of disease. Global pharmaceutical alliances with Indian drug firms are finallybeginning to look like a two-way street, with major R&D deals.Clinical trialsIndia historically lacked the expertise to perform clinical trials, because most companies onlytested different processes for producing copycat versions of Western products, and the rules werequite lenient. Several drug makers have also been caught behaving unethically or even illegally.1.2 Objectives of study of the projectThis project aims to examine the problems and prospects of health services inIndia. The specific objectives of the study are as under: 1) Use appropriate strategies to write expository essays that employ supporting evidence; use information from primary and secondary sources; incorporate graphics where appropriate; anticipate and address readers‘ biases and expectations. 2) Understand and use research methodologies. 3) Formulate research questions, refine topics, develop a plan for research and organize what is known about the consumer behaviour to various health care services specially in relation to the children segment. 4) Select relevant sources when researching topics and appropriately include information from such sources; logically introduce and incorporate quotations; synthesize information in a logical sequence; identify different perspectives; identify complexities and discrepancies in information; and offer support for conclusions 5) To examine the status and problems of health services in India; 6) To study the access of health services across economic strata, gender and space 7) To examine the quality of health services in India
  15. 15. 1.3 Scope of Study1. The project justification informationThe project justification describes a problem to be resolved, an opportunity to be exploited, or abenefit to be obtained. You always derive the project justification from the strategic objectives ofthe project submitted. The following are examples of project justification:Market demandBusiness needCustomer requestTechnological advanceLegal requirementThe project justification needs to be be clear and precise, and it should include both qualitativeand quantitative measures.2. Identify the project productDefine possible solutions to your problem (for example, the project justification); specifically,identify the solution that you selected for your project. The project product is a summary of theproduct description and includes:Work required resolving the problem and achieving the benefits.Work that falls outside the project scope.Interactions with other products3. Identify the project deliverablesList the summary-level of products of the project for which full and satisfactory delivery wouldmark the completion of the project. These include the project deliverables4. Identify the project objectivesIdentify project objectives that have been stated aboveThe project objectives must:Address all the work within the scope of the project.Not address work outside the scope of the project. NOTE Unquantifiable objectives, such as customer satisfaction, involve high risk.
  16. 16. 1.4 Research Methodology1.4.1Formation of problem:India childrens health ignoredMore than half of Indian childrenunder the age of five do not getthe health care they need,according to a report by Save theChildren.It ranks India alongside Ghanawhen it comes to providing basichealth care to its children under fiveyears of age. Indian girls are more likely to die than boysThis report provides clear evidence of the poor state of nutrition among young children,women, and men in India. Young children in India suffer from some of the highestlevels of stunting, underweight, and wasting observed in any country in the world, and7 out of every 10 young children are anemic. Inadequate feeding practices for children make itdifficult to achieve the needed improvements in children‘s nutritional status, and nutritionprogrammers have been unable to make much headway in dealing with these serious nutritionalproblems.
  17. 17. Cumulative Distribution of Weight-for-Age Z-scores In a population with normal growth patterns for children (the blue line in the graph),about 2.3 percent of children under five years of age would be underweight (that is,more than two standard deviations below the median level that would be expectedin a healthy, well-nourished population). In contrast, in India the percentage ofchildren who are underweight is 19 times the expected level if measured by theWHO Child Growth Standards and 21 times the expected level if measured by theNCHS/WHO International Reference Population. At almost every level of the zscores,the nutritional status of children in India is much worse than the expectedlevel. The percentage of children who are stunted is also 19 times as high as would be -21expected in a healthy, well-nourished population (according to the internationalchild growth standards) and the percentage of children who are wasted is 8-9 timesthe expected level, depending on which growth standard is used.Cumulative Distribution of Height-for-Age Z-scores of Elite ChildrenNFHS-3 data can be used to examine the extent to which children in India growaccording to the WHO Child Growth Standards by selecting only children with elitecharacteristics and comparing them with children worldwide with normal growthpatterns. Elite children are defined as children whose mothers and fathers havesecondary or higher education, who live in households with electricity, a refrigerator, aTV, and an automobile or truck, who did not have diarrhoea or a cough or fever in thetwo weeks preceding the survey, who were exclusively breastfed if they were less thanfive months old, and who received complementary foods if they were at least fivemonths old. When only elite children are selected, the line for the cumulative distribution ofstunting moves most of the way over to the cumulative normal curve. Althoughthe elite cumulative distribution is still to the left of the normal curve (indicatingthat even elite children are more likely to be stunted than are children in theWHO standard), the analysis suggests that when Indian children are allowed toreach their full genetic potential in a favourable environment when properfeeding practices are followed, they grow and develop at a much more normalrate than the average child growing up in India today. If the analysis hadincluded additional variables that would permit elite children to be betterdefined, it is likely that the cumulative distribution would have moved evencloser to the cumulative normal distribution. Arguments that have previously been put forward that Indian children arenaturally much smaller than children elsewhere and that they are not necessarilyundernourished cannot be sustained in light of this analysis and similar research.
  18. 18. Basic health problems faced by people in india1. HeadacheOver 90% of people report having at least one headache a year. When these headaches are severeor frequent, such as with migraine, chronic tension-type, or cluster headaches, they can affectones work or social life. Headaches become totally disabling for a small number of sufferers. Health products used: Aspirin (Ecotrin®, Bayer®, Anacin®) Acetaminophen (Tylenol®) Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such asibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®), naproxen sodium (Aleve®), orketoprofen.2. Irritable Bowel SyndromeIrritable bowel syndrome involves fairly constant abdominal pain or cramping. The person alsohas a change in bowel habits such as diarrhea or constipation, or bouts of both diarrhea andconstipation. An exam from a specialist called a gastroenterologist is needed to rule out otherdiseases that may cause the same symptoms.Medicines used: Antidiarrheals, including diphenoxylate (such as Lomotil)and loperamide (such as Imodium),Lotronex, Calmactin (cilansetron) Drugs For Irritable Bowel Syndrome ConstipationAlosetron (Lotronex),chemical laxatives (such as Milk of Magnesia or ExLaxAmitizaZelnorm3.PainPain is caused by some chronic health problems such as rheumatic disease or sickle cell disease.With these diseases, frequent periods of pain can seriously decrease the persons quality of life.Pain can increase feelings of anxiety, depression, and helplessness.Also, anxiety and depression (and life stressors that cause them) may cause or increase pain.Health products used:Anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) Arcoxia (etoricoxib) Arthrofen (ibuprofen) Arthrotec (diclofenac, misoprostol) Axorid (ketoprofen, omeprazole) Brexidol (piroxicam) Brufen (ibuprofen)
  19. 19. Creams, gels and patches Axsain cream (capsaicin) Feldene gel (piroxicam) Pennsaid (diclofenac) Powergel (ketoprofen) Qutenza patches (capsaicin) Tiloket gel (ketoprofen)Strong opioid (morphine-related) painkillers Abstral tablets (fentanyl) Actiq lozenges (fentanyl) BuTrans patches (buprenorphine) Codeine phosphate syrup Codeine phosphate tablets Codipar (co-codamol)Other prescription painkillers Acupan (nefopam) Perfalgan infusion (paracetamol) Versatis medicated plasters (lidocaine)4.Reynaud’s DiseaseReynaud‘s disease affects the blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose.Attacks result from a narrowing of the blood vessels in these areas. When exposed tothe cold, patients notice skin discoloration. They also may experience tingling andnumbness in the affected areas. If these attacks continue, they can be painful or causeulceration of the skin.Health products used:CarduraAspercreme CreamPlendilMinipressNorvasc5. SmokingBecause of the negative health effects of cigarettes on the smoker and on others, manypeople try to quit. Nicotine addiction is hard to overcome. Most people who try to
  20. 20. stop smoking return to cigarettes within a year.Some evidence suggests that scheduled,reduced smoking plus multi-component behavior therapy is useful for smoking cessation.While other psychological approaches may be helpful for smoking cessation, theyhave not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatments listed here.Health products used:Nicopass lozengesNicopatchNicorette gumNicorette inhalatorNicorette microtabNicorette nasal sprayNicorette patchesNicorette quickmistNicotinell gum6.ObesityIn our looks-obsessed society, lots of people think that being overweight is an appearance issue.But being overweight is actually a medical concern because it can seriously affect a personshealth. The health problems that stem from being overweight go way beyond the ones we usuallyhear about, like diabetes and heart disease. Being overweight can also affect a persons joints,breathing, sleep, mood, and energy levels. So being overweight can impact a persons entirequality of life.Health products used:Byetta (Exenatide)Diazoxide (Proglycem)Diethylpropion (Tenuate)Naltrexone (Revia)Orlistat (Xenical)Topiramate (Topamax)
  21. 21. 1.4.2 HypothesisThe hypotheses of the study are as under:(i) Health services in India have not been accorded adequate priority in allocation of publicfunds.(ii) Health services are unevenly distributed across economic strata, location, (urban-rural),gender and regions in India.(iii) Commercialization and privatization of health services particularly afterthe post-Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization era has resulted in excluding a sizeablenumber of population particularly, sociallydisadvantaged groups like SCs, STs, Women and Poor from the coverage of health servicesprovided by the organized sector.(iv) Inadequate infrastructure, manpower and medicines adversely affect the provision andquality of health services of public organizations.
  22. 22. 1.4.3 Collection of data (primary & secondary)Primary data Data never gathered before. Advantage: find data you need to suit your purpose Disadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary data Collected after secondary data is collected Types of Primary Data used Demographic/Socioeconomic Age, Sex, Income, Marital Status, Occupation Psychological/Lifestyle Activities, Interests, Personality Traits Attitudes/Opinions Preferences, Views, Feelings, Inclinations Awareness/Knowledge Facts about product, features, price, uses Intentions Planned or Anticipated Behavior Motivations Why People Buy health products (Needs, Wants, Wishes, Ideal-Self) Behavior Purchase, Use, Timing, Traffic Flow
  23. 23. 1. Primary Data Gathered By: Communication Methods Interacting with respondents Asking for their opinions, attitudes, motivations, characteristics2. Communication Methods of Primary Data Collection Methods include: Surveys3. Sampling Techniques Population - total group of respondents that wants to be studied. Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety. Sample - selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.4. Sampling Techniques A probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected. simple random sample - anyone stratified sample - different groups (ages) cluster sample - different areas (cities) All are selected randomly for this research5. . Personal Interviews as a Data Collection Method (in-home and mall intercept)
  24. 24. 6. The Questionnaire circulated:QUESTIONNAIREINSTRUCTIONS: This is the study of factors effecting the buying of health drinks amongmothers. This will help me in understanding consumer behavior and preferences in the purchaseof health drinks. Please give your honest answers. This information will be kept confidential. Ishall appreciate your cooperation. Read the following questions carefully and tick the answerwhich you feel is appropriate.1. Do your child/ children drink milk regularly?A. Yes B. No2. If yes, how many times a day?A. Once B. 2 times C. More than 2 times3. Do he/ she prefer plain milk without any flavor/ supplement?A. Yes B. No4. Do you force your child/ children to drink milk regularly?A. Yes B. No C. Sometimes5. Do you think health drinks are important for your child/ children?A. Yes B. No C. Not sure6. What is it that you look for in a health drink?A. Nutrients B. Flavor C. Cost & availability D. All of these7. What all nutrients should a health drink provide?A. Vitamins (Vit A, C, D) B. Minerals (Calcium, Iron. Potassium)C. No particular nutrients preferred D. Both Vitamins and Minerals8. Does the following drinks in your view substitute for milk?1. Nestle fun shakes 2.Amul cool milk 3.Badam milkA. Yes B. No9. Are you aware of the facts that preservatives are being added to milk products?A. Yes B. No10. Do elders (grand parents) in your house object to the use of such substitutes to milk?A. Yes B. No11. Do you think that milk is a substitute for a regular meal?A. Yes B. No
  25. 25. 12. Do your child/ children influence you to buy a health drink just because they are attracted bythe ‗free gifts‘ or ‗toys‘ available with it or due to their favorite celebrity or cricketer endorsingthe ad for that brand?A. Yes B. No13. Which is the brand that you use?A.Horlicks B. Complan C. Bourn vita D. Boost E. If any other, specify14. What are the factors that led you to choose the above mentioned brand? Listed below aresome factors, rank them from 1 (most preferred) to 6 (least preferred)A. Cost [ ]B. Flavor [ ]C. Nutrients [ ]D. Advertisements [ ]E. Neighbors & Friends [ ]F. Packaging & Quantity [ ]15. To what extent does advertisements‘ influence your choice of health drinks?A. Very much B. Average C. Not at all16. Have you tried other brands in the market?A. Yes B. No17. Which other brand was satisfying according to you?A.Horlicks B. Complan C, Bourn vitaD. Boost E. If any other, specify18. Do you keep switching on products?A. Yes B. No19. Do you think health drinks boost energy through increased caloric consumption?A. Yes B. No20. What do you think are the benefits of drinking health drinks?A. Improves concentration & memoryB. Improves physical vigor (stamina, stronger muscles & bones)C. If any other benefit, specify
  26. 26. Secondary dataSecondary data can be obtained from two different research strands: Quantitative: Census, housing, social security as well as electoral statistics and other related databases. Qualitative: Semi-structured and structured interviews, focus groups transcripts, field notes, observation records and other personal, research-related documents.A clear benefit of using secondary data is that much of the background work needed has beenalready been carried out, for example: literature reviews, case studies might have been carriedout, published texts and statistic could have been already used elsewhere. This wealth ofbackground work means that secondary data generally have a pre-established degreeof validity and reliability which need not be re-examined by the researcher who is re-using suchdata.
  27. 27. 1.4.4. Research instrumentA growing healthcare sector:Healthcare is one of India‘s largest sectors, in terms of revenue and employment, and the sectoris expanding rapidly. During the 1990s,Indian healthcare grew at a compound annual rate of 16%. Today the total value of the sector ismore than $34 billion. This translates to $34 per capita, or roughly 6% of GDP. By 2012, India‘shealthcare sector is projected to grow to nearly $40 billion.The private sector accounts for more than 80% of total healthcare spending in India. Unless thereis a decline in the combined federal and state government deficit, which currently stands atroughly 9%, the opportunity for significantly higher public health spending will be limited.Growing population and economyOne driver of growth in the healthcare sector is India‘s booming population, currently 1.1 billionand increasing at a 2% annual rate. By 2030, India is expected to surpass China as the world‘smost populous nation. By 2050, the population is projected to reach 1.6 billion.This populationincrease is due in part to a decline in infant mortality, the result of better healthcare facilities andthe government‘s emphasis on eradicating diseases such as hepatitis and polio among infants. Inaddition, life expectancy is rapidly approaching the levels of the western world. By 2025, anestimated 189 million Indians will be at least 60 years of age—triple the number in 2004, thanksto greater affluence and better hygiene. The growing elderly population will place an enormousburden onIndia’s healthcare infrastructure.The Indian economy, estimated at roughly $1 trillion, is growing in tandem with the population.Goldman Sachs predicts that the Indian economy will expand by at least 5% annually for thenext 45 years (see chart), and that it will be the only emerging economy to maintain such arobust pace of growth.Expanding middle class
  28. 28. India traditionally has been a rural, agrarian economy. Nearly threequarters of the population stilllives in rural areas, and as of 2004, an estimated 27.5% of Indians were living below thenational poverty line.Some 300 million people in India live on less than a dollar a day, and more than 50% of allchildren are malnourished.Middle class % of entire population1998–99- 44.922001–02- 50.532009–10 -62.95However, India‘s thriving economy is driving urbanization and creating an expanding middleclass, with more disposable income to spend on healthcare. While per capita income was $620 in2005, over 150 million Indians have annual incomes of more than $1,000, and many who workin the business services sector earn as much as $20,000 a year. While this is a fraction of theincome that their US peers earn, it is the equivalent of more than $100,000 per year whenadjusted for purchasing power parity.More women are entering the workforce as well, further boosting the purchasing power of Indianhouseholds. Between 1991 and 2001, the percentage of women increased from 22% to 26% ofthe workforce, according to the latest Indian government census. Many of these women arehighly educated: the ratio of women to men who have a college degree or higher level ofeducation is 40:60.Thanks to rising income, today at least 50 million Indians can afford to buy Westernmedicines—a market only 20% smaller than that of the UK. If the economy continues to growfaster than the economies of the developed world, and the literacy rate keeps rising, much ofwestern and southernIndia will be middle class by 2020.Rise of diseaseAnother factor driving the growth of India‘s healthcare sector is a rise in both infectious andchronic degenerative diseases. While ailments such as poliomyelitis, leprosy, and neonataltetanus will soon be eliminated, some communicable diseases once thought to be under control,such as dengue fever, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria, and pneumonia, have returned in
  29. 29. force or have developed a stubborn resistance to drugs. This troubling trend can be attributed inpart to substandard housing, inadequate water, sewage and waste management systems, acrumbling public health infrastructure, and increased air travel.In addition to battling infectious diseases, India is grappling with the Emergence of diseasessuch as AIDS as well as food- and water-borne Illnesses. And as Indians live more affluent livesand adopt unhealthy Western diets that are high in fat and sugar, the country is experiencing aRise in lifestyle diseases such as hypertension, cancer, and diabetes, which is reaching epidemicproportions (see sidebar, The Indian Diabetes Epidemic).Over the next 5-10 years, lifestyle diseases are expected to grow at a faster rate than infectiousdiseases in India, and to result in an increase in cost per treatment. Wellness programs targeted atthe workplace, where many sedentary jobs are contributing to an erosion of employees‘ health,could help to reduce the rising incidence of lifestyle diseases. PharmaceuticalsParalleling therise of disease is the emergence of a robust pharmaceutical industry in India. The Indianpharmaceutical market is one of the fastest growing markets in the world; sales increased by17.5% to $7.3 billion in 2006, according to IMS Health. Many factors, including a strongeconomy and the country‘s growing healthcare needs have contributed to the accelerated growth,which is especially strong in the over-the-counter (OTC) market.Overall, the domestic pharmaceutical industry is highly fragmented; more than 10,000 firmscollectively control about 70% of the market. Only three foreign multinationals rank in the top10 companies, as measured by sales, and collectively they have only 11.9% of the marketbetween them.But many of the local players are generics producers specializing in anti-infective, and as theillnesses of affluence and age increase, the demand for innovative new pharmaceuticals will rise.The federal government uses price controls to ensure that vital drugs are affordable to the Indianpopulation. Under the proposed pharmaceutical policy 2006, the government revealed itsintention to raise the number of essential drugs under price controls from 79 to nearly 354, whichwould The Indian Dia bring almost a third of the industry under price controls and adverselyimpact foreign pharmaceutical firms that want to business in India.It is an ongoing challenge tobalance the commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies with the broader social objectiveof curing disease and preventing epidemics that could decimate the Indian population.Deteriorating infrastructureIndia‘s healthcare infrastructure has not kept pace with the economy‘s growth. The physicalinfrastructure is woefully inadequate to meet today‘s healthcare demands, much less tomorrow‘s.While India has several centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited in
  30. 30. their ability to drive healthcare standards because of the poor condition of the infrastructure inthe vast majority of the country.Of the 15,393 hospitals in India in 2002, roughly two-thirds were public. After years of under-funding, most public health facilities provide only basic care. With a few exceptions, such as theAll India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS), public health facilities are inefficient,inadequately managed and staffed, and have poorly maintained medical equipment.The number of public health facilities also is inadequate. For instance, India needs 74,150community health centers per million population but has less than half that number. In addition,at least 11 Indian states do not have laboratories for testing drugs, and more than half of existinglaboratories are not properly equipped or staffed.The principal responsibility for public health funding lies with the state governments, whichprovide about 80% of public funding. The federal government contributes another 15%, mostlythrough national health programs.However, the total healthcare financing by the public sector is dwarfed by private sectorspending. In 2003, fee-charging private companies accounted for 82% of India‘s $30.5 billionexpenditure on healthcare. This is an extremely high proportion by international standards.Private firms are now thought to provide about 60% of all outpatient care in India and as much as40% of all in-patient care. It is estimated that nearly 70% of all hospitals and 40% of hospitalbeds in the country are in the private sector.A Report on the Market SurveyMarket survey is the best source of gathering the information from the users end so In order toget a good current market‘s report I have conducted a market survey which gives us a good andclear information on what effect does the advertisement have on the consumer, and whichadvertising strategy can get the consumer enforced to childrensThe method of collecting the data was a combination of all three Likert scale, Dichotomous andMultiple choices. I took survey of 50 people and following is the specimen copy of ‘Marketsurvey form’. The report of the survey is being made in the form of pie diagram in order tounderstand it much better. The survey was conducted and the major focus was the Guardian allgender as they are the major consumers.
  31. 31. The Magniittude offThe Magn ude o complete A to Z Nutrition 84% 16%From the pie its very clear that the survey states that the majority of childrens , that is out of 50people 84% children and 16% chindrens don‘t drink. So it‘s very clear that the market forcomplete A to Z NutritionThe Regularity of Consuming complete a to Z Nutrition DAILY 52% WEEKLY 14% FORTNIGHTLY MONTHLY 10% NEVER 18% 6%
  32. 32. From the diagram it is very clear that the majority of childens (52%) consume complete A to Z Nutrition at least once in a week, then the next highest number of drinker in to the monthly category (18%), then the in to daily (14%) and then the people who drink it fortnightly (6%). There were few childrens who never ever drinks it and which sums up to only 10% of the totaland which is an negligible amount. The company should focus more on the people who fall in tothe category weekly consumption and make them fall into the category of daily consumer, which will surely help them increase their sales.Whatt Becomes A Magnett Forr chiilldrren To DrriinkWha Becomes A Magne Fo ch d en To D nk complete A to ZNutrition 35% TASTE 45% QUENCH MY TRUST 13% FOR FUN 7% TREND7% Taste 45% complete A to Z Nutrition 35% for fun 13% trendThe study clearly speaks that the majority of the market consist of the childrens who consumethis drink 7% Taste 45% complete A to Z Nutrition 35% forfun 13% trend
  33. 33. advertise their product as one, which quenches 7% Taste 45% complete A to ZNutrition just like Bonvita ++ a product by Horlicks & Boost ect, which advertises itsproduct as “Boost is the secrete of my energy – Sachin ” which will help in most of thechildrens. 44% 56%The market speaks, that the both the Brand of GKS Boost & Horlicks are moving neck to neckin the market, but still Horlicks is in more demand as compared to Boost as per the survey.Horlicks 56% of the childrens market and where as Boost is lagging behind by just fewpercents. 44%.
  34. 34. Whatt Makes A Chiilldrens Favoriitte Driink Mostt Wantted By Chiilldrens???Wha Makes A Ch drens Favor e Dr nk Mos Wan ed By Ch drens???Examplle Bourn viitta++ Horlliicks,, Boostt,, compllaiin brands 12%Examp e Bourn v a++ Hor cks Boos comp a n brands 12%Examplle ffor miilld ffllavor Mallttova Miilld ffllavor Viiva GKS brands 10%Examp e or m d avor Ma ova M d avor V va GKS brands 10%Tastte 30%Tas e 30%Add 16%Add 16%Otthers 32%O hers 32% 16% STRONG TASTE 32% MILD TASTE 30% TASTE 12% ADVERTSING *OTHERS 10% *Does The Adverttiisementts Cajjolle Peoplle???Does The Adver semen s Ca o e Peop e??? 8% TO GREAT EXTENT 50% LITTLE BIT 42% NOT AT ALL
  35. 35. The maximum amount of people don‘t get coaxed by the advertisement and change theirpreference, the amount of people who gets effected by the ads are very few which hold just 8%of the market.Whatt Rolle Does The Brand Ambassador Pllay? Do They Persuade Buyers???Wha Ro e Does The Brand Ambassador P ay? Do They Persuade Buyers??? 72% TO A GREAT 44% EXTENT LITTLE BIT 36% 20% NOT AT ALL 28% YES NOFigure 1(the one on the left hand side) indicates that till what extent does the brand ambassadoraffect the peopleFigure 2 (the one on the right hand side) indicates that does it coax people to change theirpreferences.The survey says that the people aren‘t affected much by who is the brand ambassador of theproduct as the majority of people‘s answers are negative in both the cases.
  36. 36. Chapter I: Factors influencing consumer behaviorConsumer purchases are influenced strongly by these four factors.v 1. Cultural Factorv 2. Social Factorv 3. Personal Factorv 4. Psychological Factor.01. Cultural Factor:- Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii) Social Class o Culture:-  The set of basic values perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of a person‘s wants and behavior. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. o Sub Culture :-  A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.  Each culture contains smaller sub cultures a group of people with shared value system based on common life experiences and situations. Sub culture includes nationalities, religions, racial group and geographic regions. Many sub culture make up important market segments and marketers often design products. o Social Class:-  Almost every society has some form of social structure; social classes are society‘s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests and behavior.02. Social Factors:- A consumer‘s behavior is also influenced by social factors, such as the (i) Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status o Groups :-  Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals.  A person‘s behavior is influenced by many small groups. Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called membership groups.
  37. 37.  Some are primary groups; includes family, friends, neighbors and co- workers. Some are secondary groups, which are more formal and have less regular interaction. These include organizations like religious groups, professional association and trade unions. o Family:-  Family members can strongly influence buyer behavior. The family is the most important consumer buying organization society and it has been researched extensively. Marketers are interested in the roles, and influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products and services. o Roles and Status :-  A person belongs to many groups, family, clubs, and organizations.  The person‘s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status.  For example. Mr. X plays the role of father; in his family he plays the role of husband, in his company, he plays the role of manager, etc. A Role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.03. Personal Factors:- It includes: (i) Age and life cycle stage (ii) Occupation (iii) Economic situation (iv) Life- Style (v) Personality and self concept. o Age and Life cycle Stage:-  People change the goods and services they buy over their lifetimes. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation are often age related. Buying is also shaped by the stage of the family life cycle. o Occupation :-  A person‘s occupation affects the goods and services bought. Blue collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, whereas white-collar workers buy more business suits. A Co. can even specialize in making products needed by a given occupational group. Thus, computer software companies will design different products for brand managers, accountants, engineers, lawyers, and doctors. o Economic situation :-  A person‘s economic situation will affect product choice. o Life Style :-  Life Style is a person‘s Pattern of living, understanding themselves, Business, Products) o Personality and Self concept :-  Each person‘s distinct personality influences his or her buying behavior. Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one‘s own environment.
  38. 38. 04. Psychological Factors:- It includes: (i) Motivation (ii) Perception (iii) Learning (iv) Beliefs and attitudeso Motivation :-§ Motive (drive) a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction ofthe need o Perception :-§ The process by which people select, Organize, and interpret information to form a meaningfulpicture of the world.o Learning:- § Changes in an individual‘s behavior arising from experience.o Beliefs and attitudes :-§ Belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.§ Attitude, a Person‘s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendenciestowards an object or idea.
  39. 39. Chapter 3:Psychological processes involved in consumer behaviorThe starting point for understanding consumer behavior is the stimulus-response model.Marketing and environmental stimuli enter the consumer‘s consciousness, and a set ofpsychological processes combine with certain consumer characteristics to result in decisionprocesses and purchase decisions. The marketer‘s task is to understand what happens in theconsumer‘s consciousness between the arrival of the outside marketing stimuli and the ultimatepurchase decisions. Four key psychological processes (i) Motivation, (ii) Perception, (iii)Learning and (iv) Memory - fundamentally influence consumer responses.1) Motivation:We all have many needs at any given time. Some needs are biogenic; they arise fromphysiological states of tension such as hunger, thirst or discomfort. Other needs are psychogenic;they arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition, esteem, orbelonging. A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity to driveus to act. Motivation has both direction – we select one goal over another – and intensity – thevigor with which we pursue the goal.2) Perception: A motivated person is ready to act. How he or she acts is influenced by his or her view of thesituation. In marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality, because it‘s perceptionsthat the affect consumers actual behavior. Perception is the process by which we select, organize,and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. The key point is thatit depends not only on the physical stimuli, but also on the stimuli‘s relationship to thesurrounding field and on condition within each of us. One person might perceive a fast-talkingsalesperson as aggressive and in sincere; another, as intelligent and helpful. Each will responddifferently to the salesperson.In marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality, as it is perceptions that will affectconsumer‘s actual behavior. People can emerge with different perceptions of the same objectbecause of three perceptual processes: selective attention, selective distortion and selectiveretention.
  40. 40. 3) Learning: When we act we learn. Learning includes changes in our behavior arising from experience. Mosthuman behavior is learned, although much learning is incidental. Learning theorists believe thatlearning is produced through the interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement.Two popular approaches to learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning.A drive is strong internal stimulus impelling action. Cues are minor stimuli that determine when,where and how a person responds. Suppose you buy an HP computer. If your experience isrewarding, your response to computers and HP will be positively reinforced. Later on, when youwant to buy a printer, you may assume that because HP makes good computers, HP also makesgood printers. In other words, you generalize your response to similar stimuli. A countertendencyto generalization is discrimination. Discrimination means we have learned to recognizedifferences in sets of similar stimuli and can adjust our responses accordingly.Learning theory teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating itwith strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement. A new companycan enter the market by appealing to the same drives that competitors use and by providingsimilar cues, because buyers are more likely to transfer loyalty to similar brands or the companymight design its brand to appeal to different set of drives and offer strong cue inducements toswitch.4) MemoryAll the information and experiences we encounter as we go through life can end up in our long –term memory. Cognitive psychologists distinguish between short- term memory (STM) –temporary and limited repository of information – and long term memory (LTM) – a morepermanent, essentially unlimited repository. Most widely accepted views of long – term memory structure assume we form some kind ofassociative model. For example, the associative network memory model views LTM as a set ofnodes and links. Nodes are stored information connected by links that vary in strength. Any typeof information can be stored in the memory network, including verbal, visual, abstract, andcontextual. A spreading activation process from node to node determines how much we retrieveand what information we can actually recall in any given situation. When a node becomes
  41. 41. activated because we‘re encoding external information or retrieving internal information fromLTM, other nodes are also activated if they‘re strongly enough associated with that node.In this model, we think of consumer brand knowledge as a node in memory with a variety oflinked associations. The strength and organization of these associations will be importantdeterminants of the information we can recall about the brand. Brand associations consist of allbrand-related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so onthat become linked to the brand node.We can think of marketing as a way of making sure consumers have the right types of productand services experiences to create the right brand knowledge structures and maintain them inmemory. Companies such as Procter & Gamble like to create mental maps of consumers thatdepict their knowledge of a particular brand in terms of the key associations that are likely to betriggered in marketing setting, and their relative strength, favorability, and uniqueness toconsumers.The buying decision process: The five stage modelBuyer decision processes are the decision making processes undertaken by consumers in regardto a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.More generally, decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action fromamong multiple alternatives. Common examples include shopping and deciding what to eat.Decision making is said to be a psychological construct. This means that although we can never"see" a decision, we can infer from observable behavior that a decision has been made. Thereforewe conclude that a psychological event that we call "decision making" has occurred. It is aconstruction that imputes commitment to action. That is, based on observable actions, we assumethat people have made a commitment to effect the action.In general there are three ways of analyzing consumer buying decisions. They are:Economic models - These models are largely quantitative and are based on the assumptions ofrationality and near perfect knowledge. The consumer is seen to maximize their utility.Psychological models - These models concentrate on psychological and cognitive processes suchas motivation and need recognition. They are qualitative rather than quantitative and build onsociological factors like cultural influences and family influences.Consumer behavior models - These are practical models used by marketers. They typically blendboth economic and psychological models.Marketing scholars have developed a ―stage model‖ of the buying – decision process.
  42. 42. The consumer passes through five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation ofalternatives, purchase decision, and post purchase behavior. Clearly, the buying process startslong before the actual purchase and has consequences long afterwards.Consumers don‘t always pass through all five stages in buying a product. They may skip orreserve some. When you buy your regular brand of toothpaste, you go directly from the need fortoothpaste to the purchase decision, skipping information search and evaluation.1) Problem recognitionThe buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem of need triggered by internal orexternal stimuli. With an internal stimulus, one of the person‘s normal needs – hunger, thirst, sex– rises to a threshold level and becomes a drive; or a need can be aroused by an externalstimulus. A person may admire a neighbor‘s new car or see television ad for a Hawaiianvacation, which triggers thoughts about the possibility of making a purchase.Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need by gatheringinformation from a number of consumers. They can then develop marketing strategies thattrigger consumer interest. Particularly for discretion purchases such as luxury goods, vacationpackages, and entertainment options, marketers may need to increase consumer motivation so apotential purchase gets serious consideration.2) Information SearchSurprisingly, consumers often search for limited amounts of information. Surveys have shownthat for durables, half of all consumers look at only one store, and only 30% look at more thanone brand of appliances. We can distinguish between two levels of involvement with search. Themilder search state is called heightened attention. At the next level, the person may enter anactive information search: looking for reading material, phoning friends, going online, andvisiting stores to learn about the product.
  43. 43. 3) Evaluation of AlternativesHow does the consumer process competitive brand information and make a final valuejudgment? No single process is used by all consumers, or by any one consumer in all buyingsituations. There are several processes, and the most current models see the consumer formingjudgments largely on a conscious and rational basis.Some basic concepts will help us understand consumer evaluation processes: First, the consumeris trying to satisfy a need. Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits from the productsolution. Third, the consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilitiesfor delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need. The attributes of interests to buyers vary byproduct.Consumers will pay the most attention to attributes that deliver the sought – after benefits. Wecan often segment the market for a product according to attributes important to differentconsumer groups.4) Purchase Decision In the evaluation stage, the consumer forms preferences among the brands in the choice set. Theconsumer may also form an intention to buy the most preferred brand. In executing a purchaseintention, the consumer may make up to five sub-decisions: brand, dealer, quantity, timing, andpayment method.5) Post purchase behaviorAfter the purchase, the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certaindisquieting features of hearing favorable things about other brands and will be alert toinformation that supports his or her decision. Marketing communications should supply beliefsand evaluations that reinforce the consumer‘s choice and help him feel good about the brand.The marketer‘s job therefore does not end with the purchase. Marketers must monitor postpurchase satisfaction, post purchase actions, and post purchase product uses.
  44. 44. Following is a brief description of major health care companies:1) PfizerPfizer Incorporated is a pharmaceutical company, ranking number one in sales in the world. Thecompany is based in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. Itproduces Lipitor (atorvastatin, used to lower blood cholesterol); the neuropathicpain/fibromyalgia drug Lyrica (pregabalin); the oral antifungal medication Diflucan(fluconazole), the antibiotic Zithromax (azithromycin), Viagra (sildenafil) for erectiledysfunction, and the anti-inflammatory Celebrex (celecoxib) (also known as Celebra in somecountries outside the USA and Canada, mainly in South America).Pfizers shares were made a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average on April 8, 2004.Pfizer pleaded guilty in 2009 to the largest health care fraud in U.S. history and received thelargest criminal penalty ever levied for illegal marketing of four of its drugs. Called a repeatoffender, this was Pfizers fourth such settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in theprevious ten years.On January 26, 2009, Pfizer agreed to buy pharmaceutical giant Wyeth for US$68 billion, a dealfinanced with cash, shares and loans. The deal was completed on October 15, 2009.ProductsThe following is a list of key prescription pharmaceutical products. The names shown are allregistered trademarks of Pfizer Diflucan (fluconazole) for antifungal drug. Ellence (epirubicin) for cancer and chemotherapy drug. Eraxis (anidulafungin) for antifungal drug. Exubera (inhalable insulin) for diabetes, and insulin therapies. Genotropin (Growth hormone) for N/A. Geodon (ziprasidone) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Inspra (eplerenone) for diuretics. Lipitor, Sortis (atorvastatin) forcholesterol.
  45. 45. Lyrica (pregabalin) for neuropathic pain. Macugen (pegaptanib) for N/A Norvasc (amlodipine) for hypertension Neurontin (gabapentin) for neuropathic pain. Rebif (interferon beta-1a) for Multiple Sclerosis Relpax (eletriptan) for including the sulfonamide group of migraine..
  46. 46. 2) GlaxoSmithKlineGlaxoSmithKline plc is a British pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. GSK isthe worlds second largest pharmaceutical company, by employees; and a research-basedcompany with a wide portfolio of pharmaceutical products covering anti-invectives, centralnervous system, respiratory, gastro-intestinal/metabolic, oncology, and vaccines products. It alsohas a Consumer Healthcare operation comprising leading oral healthcare products, nutritionaldrinks, and over the counter medicines. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is aconstituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Products NUTRITIONAL VENDING OTC
  47. 47. The companys products include: Aquafresh NiQuitin Sensodyne Goodys Powder Panadol Panadol night Nicorette Geritol Gly-Oxide Vesicare Augmentin Boost Nicoderm NiQuitin Vesicare
  48. 48. 3) Novartis Novartis International AG is a multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, ranking number one in revenues, which accounted over $53 billion in 2008, and number three in sales, which accounted 36.173 billon in 2008. Novartis is one of the largest healthcare companies in the world and a leading giant among pharmaceutical companies. Novartis manufactures drugs such as clozapine (Clozaril), diclofenac (Voltaren), carbamazepine (Tegretol), valsartan (Diovan), imatinib mesylate (Gleevec / Glivec),ciclosporin (Neoral / Sandimmun), letrozole (Femara), methylphenidate (Ritalin), terbinafine (Lamisil), and others. Novartis owns Sandoz, a large manufacturer of generic drugs. The company formerly owned the Gerber Products Company, a major infant and baby products producer, but sold it to Nestlé on 1 September 2007. Novartis is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) and of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA). Products Pharmaceuticals§ Comtan- $420 M (2007)- Parkinsons disease§ Diovan- $5.0 B sales[21] (2007)- Hypertension§ Exjade- $357 M (2007) - Iron chelator§ Femara- $937 M (2007)- Breast cancer§ Gleevec- $3.1 B- for Chronic myeloid leukemia§ Lescol- $665 M (2007)- cholestrol Consumer health (OTC)§ Benefiber§ Buckleys cold and cough formula§ Bufferin§ Comtrex cold and cough§ Denavir/Vectavir
  49. 49. 4) AmwayAmway is a direct selling company and manufacturer that use multi-level marketing to sell avariety of products, primarily in the health, beauty, and home care markets. Amway was foundedin 1959 by Jay Van Andel and Richard DeVos. Based in Ada, Michigan, the company andfamily of companies under Alticor reported sales growth of 2.3%, reaching US$8.4 billion forthe year ending December 31, 2009. Its product lines include home care products, personal careproducts, jewelry, electronics, Nutrilite dietary supplements, water purifiers, air purifiers,insurance and cosmetics. In 2004, Health & Beauty products accounted for nearly 60% ofworldwide sales. Amway conducts business through a number of affiliated companies in morethan ninety countries and territories around the world. It is ranked by Forbes as one of the largestprivate companies in the United States and by Deloitte as one of the largest retailers in the world.ProductsBrandsAmways product line grew from LOC, with the laundry detergent SA8 added in 1960, and laterthe hair care product Satinique (1965) and Artistry (1968). Today Amway manufactures over450 products, with manufacturing facilities in Ada, Michigan, China, and India, as well asNutrilite organic farms in California, Washington State, Mexico, and Brazil. In addition Amwayaffiliates market products from hundreds of other manufacturers offering everything from books(e.g. Barnes & Noble, North America) to wine (World of Wine, Europe).Household cleanersAmway is best known in North America for its original cleaning products, LOC, SA8 clotheswashing products and Dish Drops dish cleaning products. In the January 2007 issue of ConsumerReports, SA8 with Bioquest was rated as the best performing laundry detergent, scoring 99 outof a possible 100. Consumer Reports did however criticise SA8s pricing, which was disputed byAmway. In 2008, Amways cleaning products were named Favourite of Experts by anindependent consumer survey in Ukraine.Health and beautyThe majority of Amways sales today come from the Health & Beauty sector and in NorthAmerica the Amway Global/Quixtar website is ranked the #1 Health & Beauty website byInternet Retailer. In South Korea Amway is ranked one of the top two companies in toiletries andcosmetics.[citation needed] Amways health & beauty brands include Artistry, Time Defiance,Satinique, Tolsom, Body Series, Glister, Moiskin (South America), Nutrilite, Nutriway(Scandinavia and Australia/New Zealand), eSpring, Atmosphere and iCook as well as XL andXS Energy drinks.
  50. 50. 5) Johnson & JohnsonJohnson & Johnson is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumerpackaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. Its common stock is a component of the DowJones Industrial Average and the company is listed among the Fortune 500. Johnson & Johnsonis known for its corporate reputation, consistently ranking at the top of Harris InteractiveNational Corporate Reputation Survey, ranking as the worlds most respected company byBarrons Magazine, and was the first corporation awarded the Benjamin Franklin Award forPublic Diplomacy by the U.S. State Department for its funding of international educationprograms. A suit brought by the United States Department of Justice in 2010, however, allegesthat the company from 1999 to 2004 illegally marketed drugs to Omnicare, a pharmacy thatdispenses the drugs in nursing homes.The corporations headquarters is located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States. Itsconsumer division is located in Skillman, New Jersey. The corporation includes some 250subsidiary companies with operations in over 57 countries. Its products are sold in over 175countries. J&J had worldwide pharmaceutical sales of $24.6 billion for the full-year 2008.Johnson & Johnsons brands include numerous household names of medications and first aidsupplies. Among its well-known consumer products are the Band-Aid Brand line of bandages,Tylenol medications, Johnsons baby products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean &Clear facial wash and Acuvue contact lenses.
  53. 53. Additional infoAyurvedic productsHerbal productsMedicinesBeauty equipmentCosmetic & makeup productsHair care productsSkin care productsEye care productsBody care productsMedical equipment &suppliesEar care productsNail careBaby careChildren careWeight lossNursing productsAccording to American Marketing Association, ―Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer,
  54. 54. customer and public to the marketer through information-information used to identify and define marketingopportunities and problems, generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance;and improve understanding of marketing as a process.‖Marketing Research is systematic problem analysis, model building and fact finding for the purpose of importandecision making and control in the marketing of goods and services.Marketing Research is a well-planned, systematic process which implies that it needs planning at all the stages.It uses scientific method. It is an objective process as it attempts to provide accurate authentic information.Marketing Research is sometimes defined as the application of scientific method in the solution of marketingproblems.Marketing Research plays a very significant role in identifying the needs of customers andmeeting them in best possible way. The main task of Marketing Research is systematic gatheringand analysis of information.Before we proceed further, it is essential to clarify the relationship and difference betweenMarketing Research and Marketing Information System (MIS). Whatever information aregenerated by Marketing Research from internal sources, external sources, marketing intelligenceagencies-consist the part of MIS.MIS is a set of formalized procedures for generating, analyzing, storing and distributinginformation to marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis. 1. While Marketing Research is done with a specific purpose in mind with information being generated when it is conducted, MIS information is generated continuously. 2. MIS is continuous entity while Marketing Research is a ad-hoc system. 3. While in Marketing Research information is for specific purpose, so it is not rigid; in MIS information is more rigid and structured.Marketing Research is essential for strategic market planning and decision making. It helps afirm in identifying what are the market opportunities and constraints, in developing andimplementing market strategies, and in evaluating the effectiveness of marketing plans.Marketing Research is a growing and widely used business activity as the sellers need to knowmore about their final consumers but are generally widely separated from those consumers.Marketing Research is a necessary link between marketing decision makers and the markets inwhich they operate.Marketing Research includes various important principles for generating information which isuseful to managers. These principles relate to the timeliness and importance of data, thesignificance of defining objectives cautiously and clearly, and the need to avoid conductingresearch to support decisions already made.Marketing Research is of use to the following:- 1. Producers a. To know about his product potential in the market vis-à-vis the total product; b. New Products;
  55. 55. c. Various brands; d. Pricing; e. Market Structures and selection of product strategy, etc. 2. Business and Government Marketing Research helps businesses and government in focusing attention on the complex nature of problems faced by them. For example: a. Determination of Gross National Product; Price indices, and per capita income; b. Expenditure levels and budgeting; c. Agricultural Pricing; d. The economic policies of Government; and e. Operational and planning problems of business and industry. 3. Market Research Agencies Marketing Research is being used extensively by professionals to help conducting various studies in Marketing Research. Most prominent agencies being:- a. Linta India Ltd; b. British Market Research Bureau (BMRB); c. Hindustan Thompson Associate Ltd; d.; e. MARGConclusionAs the new decade creeps in and the new century approaches, a time hascome to reflect upon and predict the consumers behavior in themarketplace. Many things have changed since the end of mass marketingand the beginning of market segmentation. Under mass marketing, HenryFord gave the consumer the Ford in any color as long as it was black. AfterWorld War II, marketers switched from making products they wanted tomake products the consumer wanted. Finding out what the consumerwants to purchase and why, is what consumer behavior is all about.Our theoretical models of how consumers make purchase decisions haveevolved from the economic paradigm of the 1940s, through the irrationalconsumer of the 1950s and 1960s, to the information processor of the1970s, up to the 1980s cognitive miser. Tomorrows consumers willundoubtedly have a distinctive theoretical decision model that will grow outof the future decision making environment.When it comes to healthcare product the consumer tends to react in almostsame manner as he reacts while purchasing any other product in themarket. But the new generation consumers tend to be more aware of the
  56. 56. products available in the market. They are aware of its features and knowexactly what they want. The health care can be roughly divided into twosections namely, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.For the research I conducted a small survey to find out what scenario isfollowed in Aurangabad when it comes to purchasing any health careproduct. I found that, like any metropolitan city Aurangabad too has a widerange of products which include foreign as well as Indian products. I had ahypothesis in mind that mostly the foreign cosmetic products are preferredthan any local Indian product, which proved to be wrong. I was astonishedto hear that mostly people prefer Indian products as they suit their skin andalso have a good quality. I surveyed the major areas in Aurangabad whichare popular and mostly crowded. The survey involved a questionnairewhich had 8 questions with respect to the consumer’s behavior when hepurchases a health care product. The survey was conducted keeping inmind the major retail sellers of health care products.The retailers had one thing in common to say; now the price is not a majorissue for purchasing the product. They all agreed that the consumer is moreconcerned about the quality and the brand name of the product than theprice. People are aware of all the brands available in the market and knowwhat to purchase. The retailers also believed that advertisements have amajor impact on the consumer and he demand what he had seen in an adon T.V. I must say that the companies advertising for their products aregaining much attention in the market and are consumed more often.The Indian healthcare sector can be viewed as a glass half empty or a glasshalf full. The challenges the sector faces are substantial, from the need toimprove physical infrastructure to the necessity of providing healthinsurance and ensuring the availability of trained medical personnel. Butthe opportunities are equally compelling, from developing newinfrastructure and providing medical equipment to delivering telemedicinesolutions and conducting cost-effective clinical trials. For companies thatview the Indian healthcare sector as a glass half full, the potentialis enormous.In Aurangabad the products of Himalaya, Johnson & Johnson’s, Hindustanlever, Ponds, Lakme, Ayur, and Nisha herbal are more popular. It can beseen that if a product gives good result the consumer is more attracted to itand is willing to spend any amount to get it. My only suggestion to thehealth care organizations is that they concentrate on the quality of theproduct and advertise it as much as possible, and for sure the product willbe recognized and preferred over others.
  57. 57. biblographySource: CRIS Infac, 2005 Emerging Market Report: Health in India 2007 Market Report: Health in India 2007Pandeya, Radhieka. ―Outside the Sick Bay,‖ Business Standard,June 28, 2007Emerging Market Report: Health in India 2007