St. Augustine
<ul><li>St. Augustine of Hippo was the earliest thinker to develop a distinctively Christian political and social philosop...
<ul><li>Augustine's response to classical political assumptions and claims therefore transcends 'normal' radicalism. His p...
<ul><li>Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the  City of God...
<ul><li>Augustine himself, in the passage from  The City of God  cited above, clearly foresaw a danger in philosophy.  The...
Medieval Europe <ul><li>Medieval  political philosophy in  Europe  was heavily influenced by  Christian  thinking. It had ...
Thomas Aquinas  (1225-1274) Thomas Aquinas  :  In synthesizing Christian theology and Peripatetic teaching, Aquinas conten...
<ul><li>Thomas Aquinas ' political philosophy, along with the broader philosophical teaching of which it is part, stands a...
<ul><li>As far as he is concerned, God no longer requires people to live according to the judicial precepts of the Old Law...
<ul><li>As far as he is concerned, God no longer requires people to live according to the judicial precepts of the Old Law...
<ul><li>Although it is not expressed in overtly political works, Aquinas' thoughts on political philosophy may be found wi...
<ul><li>Niccolò Machiavelli : First systematic analyses of: (1) how consent of a populace is negotiated between and among ...
European Renaissance <ul><li>During the  Renaissance  secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century o...
<ul><li>A minority (including  Jean-Jacques Rousseau ) could interpret The Prince as a satire meant to give the Medici aft...
<ul><li>Machiavelli provides some of the very same advice for leaders of republics that he does for leaders of principalit...
<ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Machiavelli’s advice to leaders that “it is better to be feared than loved” In...
<ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>The saying of Machiavelli’s that &quot;it is better to be feared than to be loved.&quot;...
Thank You Manuel D. Dinlayan II
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Philosophy

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Philosophy

  1. 1. St. Augustine
  2. 2. <ul><li>St. Augustine of Hippo was the earliest thinker to develop a distinctively Christian political and social philosophy. He does so mainly from the perspective of Platonism and Stoicism; but by introducing the biblical and Pauline conceptions of sin, grace and predestination he radically transforms the 'classical' understanding of the political. Humanity is not perfectible through participation in the life of a moral self-love community; indeed, there are no moral communities on earth. Humankind is fallen; we are slaves of and the destructive impulses generated by it. The State is no longer the matrix within which human beings can achieve ethical goods through co-operation with other rational and moral beings. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Augustine's response to classical political assumptions and claims therefore transcends 'normal' radicalism. His project is not that of drawing attention to weaknesses and inadequacies in our political arrangements with a view to recommending their abolition or improvement. Nor does he adopt the classical practice of delineating an ideal State. To his mind, all States are imperfect: they are the mechanisms whereby an imperfect world is regulated. They can provide justice and peace of a kind, but even the best earthly versions of justice and peace are not true justice and peace. It is precisely the impossibility of true justice on earth that makes the State necessary. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God (Civitas Dei) or the City of Man (Civitas Terrena). Augustine's The City of God is an influential work of this period that refuted the thesis, after the First Sack of Rome , that the Christian view could be realized on Earth at all - a view many Christian Romans held. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Augustine himself, in the passage from The City of God cited above, clearly foresaw a danger in philosophy. The defining of this danger is a principal task of political philosophy itself. Augustine himself, of course, wrote not as some stranger to philosophy. Very early in our literature he was aware of the limits of philosophy. He connected, as not accidental, the rejection of salvation with an attempt to set up a fabricated end for man, even when it takes, in agreement with the classics, the exalted form of a life of fine virtue for its own sake. He understood that if nature did not contain within itself its own completion, then to treat what is not God, what is not the end, as an end, all those beautiful things, is to imply that the world is subject to disorder because of man's relation to it. The corruption of philosophy somehow does not come from itself. It comes from its quest, wherein the philosopher chooses finally to reject as not worthy of consideration something encountered from outside philosophy though intelligibly related to the search for wisdom. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Medieval Europe <ul><li>Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking. It had much in common with the Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics also subordinated philosophy to theology . Perhaps the most influential political philosopher of the medieval period was St. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle 's works, which had only been preserved by the Muslims , along with the commentaries of Averroes . Aquinas's use of them set the agenda for scholastic political philosophy, and dominated European thought for centuries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Thomas Aquinas  : In synthesizing Christian theology and Peripatetic teaching, Aquinas contends that God's gift of higher reason, coupled with divine virtues and human law, provides the foundation for righteous government.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas ' political philosophy, along with the broader philosophical teaching of which it is part, stands at the crossroads between the Christian gospel and the Aristotelian political doctrine that was, in Aquinas' time, newly discovered in the Western world. In fact, Aquinas' whole developed system is often understood to be simply a modification of Aristotelian philosophy in light of the Christian gospel and with special emphasis upon those questions most relevant to Christianity, such as the nature of the divine, the human soul, and morality. This generalization would explain why Aquinas seems to eschew, even neglect, the subject of politics. Unlike his medieval Jewish and Islamic counterparts, Aquinas does not have to reconcile Aristotelianism with a concrete political and legal code specified in the sacred writings of his religion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>As far as he is concerned, God no longer requires people to live according to the judicial precepts of the Old Law ( Summa Theologiae [hereafter ST], I-II, 104.3), and so the question of formulating a comprehensive Christian political teaching that is faithful to biblical principles loses it urgency if not its very possibility. Unlike Judaism and Islam, Christianity does not involve specific requirements for conducting civil society. In fact, most Christians before Aquinas' time (such as St. Augustine) had interpreted Jesus' assertion that we should &quot;render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's&quot; ( Matthew 22:21) to mean that Christianity can flourish in any political regime so long as its authorities permit believers to &quot;render unto God the things that are God's.&quot; Although Jesus claimed to be a king, he was quick to add that his kingdom was not of this world ( John 18:36), and whereas St. Paul had exhorted Christians to obey the civil authorities and even to suffer injustice willingly, he never considered it necessary to discuss the nature of political justice itself. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>As far as he is concerned, God no longer requires people to live according to the judicial precepts of the Old Law ( Summa Theologiae [hereafter ST], I-II, 104.3), and so the question of formulating a comprehensive Christian political teaching that is faithful to biblical principles loses it urgency if not its very possibility. Unlike Judaism and Islam, Christianity does not involve specific requirements for conducting civil society. In fact, most Christians before Aquinas' time (such as St. Augustine) had interpreted Jesus' assertion that we should &quot;render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's&quot; ( Matthew 22:21) to mean that Christianity can flourish in any political regime so long as its authorities permit believers to &quot;render unto God the things that are God's.&quot; Although Jesus claimed to be a king, he was quick to add that his kingdom was not of this world ( John 18:36), and whereas St. Paul had exhorted Christians to obey the civil authorities and even to suffer injustice willingly, he never considered it necessary to discuss the nature of political justice itself. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Although it is not expressed in overtly political works, Aquinas' thoughts on political philosophy may be found within treatises that contain discussions of issues with far reaching political implications. In his celebrated Summa Theologiae , for instance, Aquinas engages in long discussions of law, the virtue of justice, the common good, economics, and the basis of morality. Even though not presented in the context of a comprehensive political teaching, these texts provide a crucial insight into Aquinas' understanding of politics and the place of political philosophy within his thought. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Niccolò Machiavelli : First systematic analyses of: (1) how consent of a populace is negotiated between and among rulers rather than simply a naturalistic (or theological) given of the structure of society; (2) precursor to the concept of ideology in articulating the epistemological structure of commands and law. </li></ul>
  13. 13. European Renaissance <ul><li>During the Renaissance secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century of theological political thought in Europe. While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire , the academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature. One of the most influential works during this burgeoning period was Niccolò Machiavelli 's The Prince , written between 1511-12 and published in 1532, after Machiavelli's death. That work, as well as The Discourses , a rigorous analysis of the classical period , did much to influence modern political thought in the West. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A minority (including Jean-Jacques Rousseau ) could interpret The Prince as a satire meant to give the Medici after their recapture of Florence and their subsequent expulsion of Machiavelli from Florence. [2] Though the work was written for the di Medici family in order to perhaps influence them to free him from exile, Machiavelli supported the Republic of Florence rather than the oligarchy of the di Medici family. At any rate, Machiavelli presents a pragmatic and somewhat consequentialist view of politics, whereby good and evil are mere means used to bring about an end, i.e. the secure and powerful state. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Machiavelli provides some of the very same advice for leaders of republics that he does for leaders of principalities. It discusses that, within &quot;The Prince&quot;, however, we find a much more personal approach to the topic of leadership. Specifically, we are given a template for how an individual in the position of a prince should behave if he wishes to retain power. In &quot;The Discourses&quot;, on the other hand, the writer explains that Machiavelli endeavors to weigh different forms of government and their limitations against one another, ultimately landing upon what he believes to be the three most viable forms of government. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Machiavelli’s advice to leaders that “it is better to be feared than loved” In the context of contemporary management, consider this modification of Machiavelli’s advice: “It is better for a leader to respected than love,” Would you agree or disagree with this statement? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>The saying of Machiavelli’s that &quot;it is better to be feared than to be loved.&quot; In my idea this is not quite what Machiavelli meant. His actual words arises a dispute whether it is better to be loved than feared, or the contrary. The reply is that one should like to be both the one and the other, but as it is difficult to bring them together, it is much safer to be feared than to be loved if one of the two has to be lacking. It is also noteworthy to point out that the word &quot;fear&quot; at the time Machiavelli was alive was less synonymous with its modern meaning than it was with the word &quot;respect.&quot; He was saying that a prince's throne is more secure if he is feared/respected but not loved than it is if he is loved but not feared/respected. Machiavelli does not say that a prince who is feared is the moral better of one who is loved. </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli’s ideas also are great to all students because it can give learning about politics and a leader's responsibilities. Now we can see the leader's view of point. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thank You Manuel D. Dinlayan II
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