Basics of nuclear technology

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Basics of nuclear technology

  1. 1. Basics ofBasics of Nuclear TechnologyNuclear Technology
  2. 2. TopicsTopics  Introduction and DiscoveryIntroduction and Discovery  Nuclear fission, nuclear fusionNuclear fission, nuclear fusion  Chain ReactionChain Reaction  How Nuclear Power is generated, advantages andHow Nuclear Power is generated, advantages and disadvantagesdisadvantages  Which Fuel is More Energy Efficient?Which Fuel is More Energy Efficient?  Countries Generating Most Nuclear PowerCountries Generating Most Nuclear Power  Radiation Effects on HumansRadiation Effects on Humans  Long Term Effects on HumansLong Term Effects on Humans  Pros & ConsPros & Cons
  3. 3. Nuclear technology is technology that involvesNuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. It has foundthe reactions of atomic nuclei. It has found applications from smoke detectors to nuclearapplications from smoke detectors to nuclear reactors, and from gun sights to nuclearreactors, and from gun sights to nuclear weapons.weapons. IntroductionIntroduction
  4. 4.  1946 - AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) was established as part of the1946 - AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) was established as part of the Atomic Energy ActAtomic Energy Act  1949 - AEC authorized the construction of Experimental Breeder Reactor I1949 - AEC authorized the construction of Experimental Breeder Reactor I ( EBR-1) at a site in Idaho(USA)( EBR-1) at a site in Idaho(USA)  Early 1951 - A critical chain reaction was reached using uraniumEarly 1951 - A critical chain reaction was reached using uranium  A football sized core was created and kept at low power for four monthsA football sized core was created and kept at low power for four months until December 20, 1951until December 20, 1951  Power was gradually increased until the first usable amount of electricityPower was gradually increased until the first usable amount of electricity was generated, lighting four light bulbs and introducing nuclear generatedwas generated, lighting four light bulbs and introducing nuclear generated power for the first timepower for the first time Early BeginningsEarly Beginnings
  5. 5.  A few years later Idaho became the first city toA few years later Idaho became the first city to get the power supply from nuclear reactorget the power supply from nuclear reactor
  6. 6. Nuclear fission,Nuclear fission,  Nuclear fission :Nuclear fission :is a process, by which a heavyis a process, by which a heavy nuclide splits into two or more pieces. Fromnuclide splits into two or more pieces. From masses of nuclides, scientists knew that such amasses of nuclides, scientists knew that such a process would release a lot of energy.process would release a lot of energy.  Such a weapon would destroy the enemy inSuch a weapon would destroy the enemy in such a way that even the winner will be scared.such a way that even the winner will be scared.
  7. 7.  Two nuclei combine into one nucleus with theTwo nuclei combine into one nucleus with the emission of an element called nucleon isemission of an element called nucleon is calledcalled nuclear fusionnuclear fusion..  Nuclear fusion is an energy supplying processNuclear fusion is an energy supplying process which happens in the sun and the stars sincewhich happens in the sun and the stars since billions of years.billions of years.  The fusion process takes place at extraordinaryThe fusion process takes place at extraordinary high temperatures.high temperatures. Nuclear FusionNuclear Fusion
  8. 8. Chain ReactionChain Reaction  The neutrons produced by fission may strikeThe neutrons produced by fission may strike other uranium nuclei and produce moreother uranium nuclei and produce more neutrons. This multiplication process, or chainneutrons. This multiplication process, or chain reaction, happens in a split second and resultsreaction, happens in a split second and results in a release of a large amount of heat. Thein a release of a large amount of heat. The heat is used to generate electricity in a nuclearheat is used to generate electricity in a nuclear power plant.power plant.
  9. 9. How Nuclear Power is generatedHow Nuclear Power is generated  The reactor uses Uranium rods as fuel, and the heat isThe reactor uses Uranium rods as fuel, and the heat is generated bygenerated by nuclear fission:nuclear fission: neutrons smash into theneutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which split roughly innucleus of the uranium atoms, which split roughly in half and release energy in the form of heat.half and release energy in the form of heat.  Carbon dioxide gas or water is pumped through theCarbon dioxide gas or water is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away, this then heats water toreactor to take the heat away, this then heats water to make steam.make steam.  The steam drives turbines which drive generators.The steam drives turbines which drive generators.
  10. 10. Advantages of Nuclear PowerAdvantages of Nuclear Power  Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so it's notNuclear power costs about the same as coal, so it's not expensive to make.expensive to make.  Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it doesDoes not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.not contribute to the greenhouse effect.  Produces huge amounts of energy from smallProduces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel.amounts of fuel.  Produces small amounts of waste.Produces small amounts of waste.
  11. 11. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Although not much waste is produced, it is very, veryAlthough not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous.dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousandsIt must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away.of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. For all that time it must be kept safe fromFor all that time it must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else.earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult.This is difficult. Nuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has toNuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has to be spent on safety - if itbe spent on safety - if it doesdoes go wrong, a nucleargo wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster.accident can be a major disaster.
  12. 12.  Nuclear Energy from Uranium is notNuclear Energy from Uranium is not renewablerenewable
  13. 13. Which Fuel is More EnergyWhich Fuel is More Energy Efficient?Efficient? One uranium pellet (about 1 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm in length) generates the same amount of energy as:
  14. 14. Countries Generating Nuclear PowerCountries Generating Nuclear Power CountryCountry Total MWTotal MW USAUSA 99,78499,784 FranceFrance 58,49358,493 JapanJapan 38,87538,875 GermanyGermany 22,65722,657 RussiaRussia 19,84319,843 CanadaCanada 15,75515,755 UkraineUkraine 12,67912,679 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 11,72011,720 SwedenSweden 10,00210,002 South KoreaSouth Korea 8,1708,170
  15. 15. Radiation Effects on HumansRadiation Effects on Humans Certain body parts are more specifically affected byCertain body parts are more specifically affected by exposure to different types of radiation sources.exposure to different types of radiation sources. Several factors are involved in determining theSeveral factors are involved in determining the potential health effects of exposure to radiation.potential health effects of exposure to radiation. These include:These include: * The size of the dose (amount of energy deposited in* The size of the dose (amount of energy deposited in the body)the body) * The ability of the radiation to harm human tissue* The ability of the radiation to harm human tissue * Which organs are affected* Which organs are affected
  16. 16.  HairHair The losing of hair quickly and in clumpsThe losing of hair quickly and in clumps occurs with radiation exposure at 200 rems oroccurs with radiation exposure at 200 rems or higher.higher.  BrainBrain Since brain cells do not reproduce, they won'tSince brain cells do not reproduce, they won't be damaged directly unless the exposure isbe damaged directly unless the exposure is 5,000 rems or greater. Like the heart, radiation5,000 rems or greater. Like the heart, radiation kills nerve cells and small blood vessels, andkills nerve cells and small blood vessels, and can cause seizures and immediate death.can cause seizures and immediate death.
  17. 17.  ThyroidThyroid The thyroid gland is susceptible to radioactive iodine. InThe thyroid gland is susceptible to radioactive iodine. In sufficient amounts, radioactive iodine can destroy all or part ofsufficient amounts, radioactive iodine can destroy all or part of the thyroid. By taking potassium iodide can reduce the effectsthe thyroid. By taking potassium iodide can reduce the effects of exposure.of exposure.  Blood SystemBlood System When a person is exposed to around 100 rems, the blood'sWhen a person is exposed to around 100 rems, the blood's lymphocyte cell count will be reduced, leaving the victimlymphocyte cell count will be reduced, leaving the victim more susceptible to infection. This is often refered to as mildmore susceptible to infection. This is often refered to as mild radiation sickness. Early symptoms of radiation sicknessradiation sickness. Early symptoms of radiation sickness mimic those of flu and may go unnoticed unless a blood countmimic those of flu and may go unnoticed unless a blood count is done.According to data from Hiroshima and Nagaski, showis done.According to data from Hiroshima and Nagaski, show that symptoms may persist for up to 10 years and may alsothat symptoms may persist for up to 10 years and may also have an increased long-term risk for leukemia and lymphoma.have an increased long-term risk for leukemia and lymphoma. For more information, visit Radiation Effects ResearchFor more information, visit Radiation Effects Research Foundation.Foundation.
  18. 18.  HeartHeart Intense exposure to radioactive material at 1,000 to 5,000 remsIntense exposure to radioactive material at 1,000 to 5,000 rems would do immediate damage to small blood vessels andwould do immediate damage to small blood vessels and probably cause heart failure and death directly.probably cause heart failure and death directly.  Gastrointestinal TractGastrointestinal Tract Radiation damage to the intestinal tract lining will causeRadiation damage to the intestinal tract lining will cause nausea, bloody vomiting and diarrhea. This is occurs when thenausea, bloody vomiting and diarrhea. This is occurs when the victim's exposure is 200 rems or more. The radiation willvictim's exposure is 200 rems or more. The radiation will begin to destroy the cells in the body that divide rapidly.begin to destroy the cells in the body that divide rapidly. These including blood, GI tract, reproductive and hair cells,These including blood, GI tract, reproductive and hair cells, and harms their DNA and RNA of surviving cells.and harms their DNA and RNA of surviving cells.  Reproductive TractReproductive Tract Because reproductive tract cells divide rapidly, these areas ofBecause reproductive tract cells divide rapidly, these areas of the body can be damaged at rem levels as low as 200. Long-the body can be damaged at rem levels as low as 200. Long- term, some radiation sickness victims will become sterile.term, some radiation sickness victims will become sterile.
  19. 19. Long Term Effects on HumansLong Term Effects on Humans The effects- including leukemia, cancer, and manyThe effects- including leukemia, cancer, and many others- appear two, three, even ten years later.others- appear two, three, even ten years later.  Blood DisordersBlood Disorders According to Japanese data, there was an increase inAccording to Japanese data, there was an increase in anemia among persons exposed to the bomb. In someanemia among persons exposed to the bomb. In some cases, the decrease in white and red blood cells lastedcases, the decrease in white and red blood cells lasted for up to ten years after the bombing.for up to ten years after the bombing.
  20. 20.  CataractsCataracts There was an increase in cataract rate of the survivorsThere was an increase in cataract rate of the survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who were partly shieldedat Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who were partly shielded and suffered partial hair loss.and suffered partial hair loss.  Malignant TumorsMalignant Tumors A prevalent type of tumor is leukemia. The cancerA prevalent type of tumor is leukemia. The cancer incidence among survivors of Hiroshima andincidence among survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is significantly larger than that of theNagasaki is significantly larger than that of the general population, and a significant correlationgeneral population, and a significant correlation between exposure level and degree of incidence hasbetween exposure level and degree of incidence has been reported for thyroid cancer, breast cancer, lungbeen reported for thyroid cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and cancer of the salivary gland. Often acancer, and cancer of the salivary gland. Often a decade or more passes before radiation-causeddecade or more passes before radiation-caused malignancies appear.malignancies appear.
  21. 21.  KeloidsKeloids Beginning in early 1946, scar tissue coveringBeginning in early 1946, scar tissue covering apparently healed burns began to swell andapparently healed burns began to swell and grow abnormally. Mounds of raised andgrow abnormally. Mounds of raised and twisted flesh, called keloids, were found in 50twisted flesh, called keloids, were found in 50 to 60 percent of those burned by directto 60 percent of those burned by direct exposure to the heat rays within 1.2 miles ofexposure to the heat rays within 1.2 miles of the hypocenter. Keloids are believed to bethe hypocenter. Keloids are believed to be related to the effects of radiation.related to the effects of radiation.
  22. 22. Pros / AdvantagesPros / Advantages  Medical ApplicationsMedical Applications The medical applications of nuclearThe medical applications of nuclear technology are divided into diagnostics andtechnology are divided into diagnostics and radiation treatment.radiation treatment.  Radiation therapy is an effective treatment forRadiation therapy is an effective treatment for cancercancer • Provides almost 20% of world’s electricity (8% in U.S.)
  23. 23.  Industrial applicationsIndustrial applications Oil and Gas Exploration- Nuclear well loggingOil and Gas Exploration- Nuclear well logging is used to help predict the commercial viabilityis used to help predict the commercial viability of new or existing wells. The technologyof new or existing wells. The technology involves the use of a neutron or gamma-rayinvolves the use of a neutron or gamma-ray source and a radiation detector which aresource and a radiation detector which are lowered into boreholes to determine thelowered into boreholes to determine the properties of the surrounding rock such asproperties of the surrounding rock such as porosity and lithography.porosity and lithography.
  24. 24.  Road ConstructionRoad Construction - Nuclear- Nuclear moisture/density gauges are used to determinemoisture/density gauges are used to determine the density of soils, asphalt, and concrete.the density of soils, asphalt, and concrete. Typically a Cesium-137 source is used.Typically a Cesium-137 source is used.  Commercial applicationsCommercial applications An ionization smoke detector includes a tinyAn ionization smoke detector includes a tiny mass of radioactive americium-241, which is amass of radioactive americium-241, which is a source of alpha radiation. Tritium is used withsource of alpha radiation. Tritium is used with phosphor in rifle sights to increase nighttimephosphor in rifle sights to increase nighttime firing accuracy. Luminescent exit signs use thefiring accuracy. Luminescent exit signs use the same technology.same technology.
  25. 25.  Food irradiation is the process of exposingFood irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation in order to destroyfood to ionizing radiation in order to destroy microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insectsmicroorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insects that might be present in the food.that might be present in the food.
  26. 26.  March 6, 2006 — United States - NuclearMarch 6, 2006 — United States - Nuclear material leakmaterial leak Thirty-five liters of a highly enriched uraniumThirty-five liters of a highly enriched uranium solution leaked during transfer into a lab atsolution leaked during transfer into a lab at Nuclear Fuel Services Erwin Plant. TheNuclear Fuel Services Erwin Plant. The incident caused a seven-month shutdown and aincident caused a seven-month shutdown and a required public hearing on the licensing of therequired public hearing on the licensing of the plant.plant. Cons / Disadvantages
  27. 27.  February 2003: Oak Ridge, During the finalFebruary 2003: Oak Ridge, During the final testing of a new saltless uranium processingtesting of a new saltless uranium processing method, there was a small explosion followedmethod, there was a small explosion followed by a fire. The explosion occurred in anby a fire. The explosion occurred in an unvented vessel containing unreacted calcium,unvented vessel containing unreacted calcium, water and depleted uranium.water and depleted uranium.  The Hiroshima, Nagasaki event in the secondThe Hiroshima, Nagasaki event in the second world war.world war.

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