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Dna fingerprinting

Dna fingerprinting



it is very important tool and technique for finding individual who is related or who is not related.

it is very important tool and technique for finding individual who is related or who is not related.



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    Dna fingerprinting Dna fingerprinting Presentation Transcript

    •  The process of DNA fingerprinting was invented by Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in 1985. He was knighted in 1994.
    •  The use of DNA sequences to identify individual persons is called DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling. Because some part genome are highly variable, each person DNA sequence is unique and, like a traditional fingerprinting, provides a distinctive characteristic that allows identification. Today most DNA FINGERPRINTIG utilizes microsetallites, or short tandem repeat (STRs)
    •  PCR – used to amplify DNA found at crime scene into an amount that can be analyzed  Microsatelliteare typically detected with PCR  The length of the amplified segment depends on the number of repeats • DNA from a person with more repeats will produce a longer amplified segment than will DNA from a person with fewer repeats. • DNA produced is identical to the original sample
    • The Process In a NutshellAmplified DNA samples are injected into acapillary. Fluorescent tags on the DNAfragments are excited by a laser, thefluorescence is recorded by a camera, andthis signal is converted into a “peak” by thecomputer software.
    • Applied Biosystems 310 GeneticAnalyzer
    • STR data X, Y, XY
    •  GeneScan® Genotyper® software GeneMapper® ID (GMID) FMBIO® Analysis Software, FMBIO® STaRCall™ AmpFLSTR™ Profiler Plus™
    •  Used by FBI They have taken 13 STR loci These system was used in to know people who died in the collapse of world trade center.
    •  Stage 1: Cells are broken down to release DNA Step 2:The DNA is cut into fragments using restriction enzymesStage 3: Fragments are separated on the basis of size using a process called gel electrophoresisStage 4: The pattern of fragment distribution is then analysed.
    • EcoR I EcoR I EcoR I EcoR I
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    • • Eliminate hydrogen bonds with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) A C T T G A T G A A C T
    • • Two methods for transferring DNA to a membrane – capillary – electrophoretic
    •  Immobilize DNA onto a permanent substrate Identify DNA sequence (gene) of interest
    •  A probe is a small (25-2000 bp) length of DNA or RNA  Complementary to the sequence (gene) of interest  Labeled for subsequent detection procedures
    •  How do we detect the probe?  Digoxigenin (DIG) U
    •  DIG-labeled probes emitting minute amounts of light (chemiluminescence) 32P-labeled probes emitting ß-particles Autoradiography film can detect this radiation
    •  DNA profiling is used to solve crimes and medical problems
    •  Blood Hair Saliva Semen Body tissue cells DNA samples have been obtained from vaginal cells after rape or intercourse.
    •  Colin Pitchfork was the first criminal caught based on DNA fingerprinting evidence. He was arrested in 1986 for the rape and murder of two girls and was sentenced in 1988.
    • In 2002 Elizabeth Hurley used DNA profiling to prove that Steve Bing was the fatherof her child Damien
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    • Thank you