Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş
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Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş

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  • Note to student: To print these slides: <br /> Select File/Print <br /> Under “Print What,” select your preference (suggested: handouts, either 3 or 4 or 6 per page) <br /> Under “Color/grayscale,” select either “Color” for a color printer or “Pure Black and White” for a black and white printer. <br /> Do NOT select “Grayscale,” as your slides will not be legible. <br />

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş Presentation Transcript

  • PowerPoint slides by Susan A. Peterson, Scottsdale Community College Chapter 9: Leadership m a n a g e m e n t 2e H i t t / B l a c k / P o r t e r
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define leadership and be able to discuss its significance in organizations Compare managing and leading and differentiate between them Analyze a leader’s sources of power and issues in using power effectively Describe and contrast the roles of the leader, followers, and the situation in the overall leadership process
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 3 Learning Objectives Discuss the extent to which national cultures create differences in effective leadership behaviors from one country to another Explain the conditions that can substitute for, or neutralize, effective leadership Plan how to improve your own leadership capabilities
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 4 What is Leadership? Organizational leadership Social influence process Attempts to influence other people in attaining some goal Leadership behavior: Can be shown by anyone Is expected of most managers Could be demonstrated more
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 5 What is Leadership? Effective leadership Influence that assists an organization to meet its goals and perform successfully Effective leaders: Enable people to accomplish more than if there had been no such leadership Unlock other people’s potential
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 6 Leading and Managing: The Same or Different? Leaders Create vision for organizations and units Promote major changes in goals and procedures Set and communicate new directions Inspire subordinates Managers Deal with interpersonal conflict Plan Organize Implement goals set by others (the leaders)
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 7 Leading and Managing: The Same or Different? Managing ought to involve most of the activities thought of as leading Organizations need their managers to incorporate leadership roles into their behavior Managers Adapted from Exhibit 9.1 Leaders Leaders and Managers
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 8 Leadership Across Different National Cultures Examples of leader attributes universally viewed as positive Examples of leader attributes universally viewed as positive + + Trustworthy + Encouraging + Honest + Decisive + Communicative + Dependable + + Trustworthy + Encouraging + Honest + Decisive + Communicative + Dependable Adapted from Exhibit 9.2 Examples of leader attributes universally viewed as negative Examples of leader attributes universally viewed as negative - - Noncooperative - Irritable - Dictatorial - Ruthless - Egocentric - Asocial - - Noncooperative - Irritable - Dictatorial - Ruthless - Egocentric - Asocial Examples of leader attributes viewed as positive or negative depending on the culture Examples of leader attributes viewed as positive or negative depending on the culture +/- +/- Ambitious +/- Individualistic +/- Cunning +/- Cautious +/- Class Conscious +/- Evasive +/- +/- Ambitious +/- Individualistic +/- Cunning +/- Cautious +/- Class Conscious +/- Evasive
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 9 Leadership and Power Power The capacity or ability to influence Power can: Lead to greater capacity to influence Be used to overcome resistance Be abused and lead to undesirable consequences Produce positive outcomes if used skillfully
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 10 Types of Power Based on a manager's rank in an organizational structure and given to the manager by superiors Based on a manager's rank in an organizational structure and given to the manager by superiors Based on a person's individual characteristics; stay with the individual regardless of his or her position in the organizational structure Based on a person's individual characteristics; stay with the individual regardless of his or her position in the organizational structure Position Power Position Power Personal Power Personal Power
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 11 Types of Power Legitimate—How much authority does the organization give to your position? Legitimate—How much authority does the organization give to your position? Reward—Are you able to give others the rewards they want? Reward—Are you able to give others the rewards they want? Coercive—Are you able to punish others or withhold rewards? Coercive—Are you able to punish others or withhold rewards? Expert—Do you have knowledge that others need? Expert—Do you have knowledge that others need? Referent—Do others respect you and want to be like you? Referent—Do others respect you and want to be like you? Position Power Position Power Personal Power Personal Power Adapted from Exhibit 9.3
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 12 Four Key Issues in Using Power How much power should be used? How can power be put to use? Which types of power should be used? Should power be shared? Adapted from Exhibit 10.2: Four Key Issues in Using Power Adapted from Exhibit 9.4
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 13 Types of Influence Tactics Rational Persuasion Rational Persuasion Uses logical arguments and factual evidence to show a proposal or request is feasible and relevant for attaining important task objectives Uses logical arguments and factual evidence to show a proposal or request is feasible and relevant for attaining important task objectives ApprisingApprising Explains how carrying out a request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target personally or help advance the target person’s career Explains how carrying out a request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target personally or help advance the target person’s career Inspirational Appeals Inspirational Appeals Makes an appeal to values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target person’s emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal Makes an appeal to values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target person’s emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal ConsultationConsultation Encourages the target to suggest improvements in a proposal or to help plan an activity or change for which the target person’s support and assistance are desired Encourages the target to suggest improvements in a proposal or to help plan an activity or change for which the target person’s support and assistance are desired Adapted from Exhibit 9.5
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 14 Types of Influence Tactics (cont.) ExchangeExchange Offers an incentive, suggests an exchange of favors, or indicates willingness to reciprocate at a later time if the target will do what the agent requests Offers an incentive, suggests an exchange of favors, or indicates willingness to reciprocate at a later time if the target will do what the agent requests CollaborationCollaboration Offers to provide relevant resources and assistance if the target will carry out a request or approve a proposed change Offers to provide relevant resources and assistance if the target will carry out a request or approve a proposed change Personal Appeals Personal Appeals Asks the target to carry out a request or support a proposal out of friendship, or asks for a personal favor before saying what it is Asks the target to carry out a request or support a proposal out of friendship, or asks for a personal favor before saying what it is IngratiationIngratiation Uses praise and flattery before or during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in the target’s ability to carry out a difficult request Uses praise and flattery before or during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in the target’s ability to carry out a difficult request Adapted from Exhibit 9.5
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 15 Types of Influence Tactics (cont.) Legitimating Tactics Legitimating Tactics Seeks to establish the legitimacy of a request or to verify authority to make it by referring to rules, formal policies, or official documents Seeks to establish the legitimacy of a request or to verify authority to make it by referring to rules, formal policies, or official documents PressurePressure Uses demands, threats, frequent checking, or persistent reminders to influence the target person Uses demands, threats, frequent checking, or persistent reminders to influence the target person Coalition Tactics Coalition Tactics Seeks the aid of others to persuade the target to do something or uses the support of others as a reason for the target to agree Seeks the aid of others to persuade the target to do something or uses the support of others as a reason for the target to agree Adapted from Exhibit 9.5
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 16 Locus of Leadership Three leadership variables: The leader The situation The followers Locus of leadership: Where the three variables intersect Leader SituationFollowers Locus of Leadership Adapted from Exhibit 9.6
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 17 Leaders’ Traits Drive Achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative Drive Achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative Emotional maturity Even tempered, calm under stress, unself-centered, nondefensive Emotional maturity Even tempered, calm under stress, unself-centered, nondefensive Self-confidence Set high goals for self and others, optimistic about overcoming obstacles (if taken to extreme, can lead to arrogance and sense of infallibility) Self-confidence Set high goals for self and others, optimistic about overcoming obstacles (if taken to extreme, can lead to arrogance and sense of infallibility) Motivation to Lead Desire to influence others, comfortable using power Motivation to Lead Desire to influence others, comfortable using power Honesty and Integrity Trustworthy, open, forthright Honesty and Integrity Trustworthy, open, forthright LeaderLeader Adapted from Exhibit 9.7
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 18 Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership Is a strong form of referent power Is based on individual inspirational qualities rather than formal power Generates followers who identify with charismatic leaders because of these exceptional qualities Is rare; very few people are considered truly “charismatic”
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 19 Attributes of Charismatic Leaders Adapted from Exhibit 11.10: Attributes of the Charismatic Leader Adapted from Exhibit 9.8
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 20 Leaders’ Skills TECHNICAL SKILLS Specialized knowledge TECHNICAL SKILLS Specialized knowledge INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical abilities CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical abilities
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 21 Leaders’ Skills TECHNICAL SKILLS Specialized knowledge TECHNICAL SKILLS Specialized knowledge INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical abilities CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical abilities EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Ability to “read” other people SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Ability to “read” other people Adapted from Exhibit 9.9
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 22 Leaders’ Behaviors Task Behaviors Specifies roles and tasks Schedules work Sets performance standards Develops procedures Task Behaviors Specifies roles and tasks Schedules work Sets performance standards Develops procedures People Behaviors Is friendly Is supportive Shows trust and confidence in subordinates Shows concern for subordinates’ welfare Gives recognition to subordinates for accomplishments People Behaviors Is friendly Is supportive Shows trust and confidence in subordinates Shows concern for subordinates’ welfare Gives recognition to subordinates for accomplishments Adapted from Exhibit 9.10
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 23 Approaches Based on Leaders’ BehaviorApproaches Based on Leaders’ Behavior BLAKE & MOUTON: MANAGERIAL GRID Best managers are both task- and people-oriented BLAKE & MOUTON: MANAGERIAL GRID Best managers are both task- and people-oriented TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Leaders who inspire followers to make major changes or to achieve at very high levels TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Leaders who inspire followers to make major changes or to achieve at very high levels TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Emphasizes the exchange of rewards for followers’ compliance TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Emphasizes the exchange of rewards for followers’ compliance AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP Model self-awareness and regulation and motivate followers to act more authentically too AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP Model self-awareness and regulation and motivate followers to act more authentically too Leadership Approaches
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 24 Managerial Grid Focuses on two leadership behaviors: concern for people and concern for results Leaders can be - High in both - Low in both - In the middle on both - High in one, low in the other Low High Low High Concern for Results ConcernforPeople 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Good Leaders Poor Leaders Mediocre Leaders
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 25 Transformational Leadership Transformational leaders Empower and coach followers Motivate followers to: - Ignore self-interest - Work for the larger good of the organization - Achieve significant accomplishments - Make major changes
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 26 Transactional Leadership Transactional leadership Is more passive Emphasizes exchange or rewards or benefits for compliance with leader’s requests Appeals to followers’ self- interests to motivate their performance
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 27 Adapted from Exhibit 11.11: Transformation versus Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership Leader gains subordinates’ compliance by: Leader gains subordinates’ compliance by: Appeals focus on:Appeals focus on: Type of planned change: Type of planned change: Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership Inspiring, empowering, and coaching followers Inspiring, empowering, and coaching followers Exchange of rewards and benefits Exchange of rewards and benefits Organizational and “common good” interests Organizational and “common good” interests Self-interestSelf-interest Major organizational change Major organizational change Routine changesRoutine changes Adapted from Exhibit 9.11
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 28 Guidelines for Transformational Leadership Develop a clear and appealing vision Develop a strategy for attaining the vision Articulate and promote the vision Act confident and optimistic Express confidence in followers Use early success in small steps to build confidence Celebrate successes Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values Lead by example Adapted from Exhibit 9.12
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 29 Followers’ Behaviors Important points about followers: They may be as informed as leaders They may share power with leaders Usually have lower formal authority, though power differences have decreased They affect the leader’s style and success
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 30 Approaches Based on Followers’ BehaviorApproaches Based on Followers’ Behavior HERSEY AND BLANCHARD: SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL Focuses followers’ “readiness” to engage in learning new tasks HERSEY AND BLANCHARD: SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL Focuses followers’ “readiness” to engage in learning new tasks LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY Focuses on types of relationships between a leader and a follower LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY Focuses on types of relationships between a leader and a follower Leadership Approaches
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 31 Situational Leadership Model Leadership behaviors depend on “readiness” of followers - Ability in a specific task - Motivation to undertake the new task Leadership behaviors - Supportiveness (people orientation) - Directiveness (task orientation)
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 32 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Quality of the leader-member relationship can influence behavior of subordinates Leader should build strong, mutually beneficial relationship Relationship goes through stages: - Stranger - Acquaintance - Maturity
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 33 Role- Implementation High Almost Unlimited Team Leader-Member Relationships Role- Making Medium Limited Role- Finding Low None Self Relationship- building phase Quality of leader- member exchange Amounts of reciprocal Influence Focus of interest Stranger Relationship characteristics Relationship characteristics Relationship stage Relationship stage Maturity Time Acquaintance Adapted from Exhibit 9.13
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 34 The Situation Situational variables affecting leadership are: Tasks to be performed - If task changes, leadership style changes - Unstructured task done by experts  supportive leadership - Structured task done by inexperienced people  directive leadership Organizational context - Immediate work group + larger organization - Organizational culture dictates leadership style
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 35 Approaches Based on SituationApproaches Based on Situation FIEDLER: CONTINTENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL Focuses on type of leader and the degree of favorability of the situation FIEDLER: CONTINTENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL Focuses on type of leader and the degree of favorability of the situation HOUSE: PATH-GOAL THEORY Use leadership approach based on both subordinate skills and situation HOUSE: PATH-GOAL THEORY Use leadership approach based on both subordinate skills and situation Leadership Approaches
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 36 Leadership Contingency Theory Premise: Leadership effectiveness depends on 1) favorability of situation and 2) type of leader FAVORABLE SITUATION • Good subordinate relationships • Highly structured task • High amount of position power UNFAVORABLE SITUATION • Poor subordinate relationships • Unstructured task • Leader lacks position power TASK-ORIENTED LEADERS Do best when the situation is either: • Highly favorable, or • Highly unfavorable PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERS Do best when the situation is either: • Moderately favorable, or • Moderately unfavorable
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 37 Leader’s job is to increase subordinate satisfaction and effort Assumes that: - One leadership approach will work better in some task situations than others - Leaders can modify their styles to suit the situation Two basic leadership behaviors: - Supportive - Directive Path-Goal Theory
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 38 The task is: Frustrating, boring, stressful, structured, and routine Subordinates are: Highly experienced and competent The task is: Interesting but ambiguous, nonstressful, unstructured, varied Subordinates are: inexperienced Directive Leadership Style (Task oriented) Supportive Leadership Style (Person oriented) Goal (i.e., increased performance) IF AND IF AND Path-Goal Theory Adapted from Exhibit 9.14
  • © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 39 Substitutes for Leadership Adapted from Exhibit 5.2: Factors of Moral Intensity Direct Feedback from Task Direct Feedback from Task Cohesive work group Cohesive work group Advisory or Staff Support Advisory or Staff Support Intrinsically Satisfying Task Intrinsically Satisfying Task Ability, Experience, Training Ability, Experience, Training Professional Orientation Professional Orientation Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for Leadership Adapted from Exhibit 9.14