Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş

189
views

Published on

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş

Published in: Education

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
189
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Note to student: To print these slides:
    Select File/Print
    Under “Print What,” select your preference (suggested: handouts, either 3 or 4 or 6 per page)
    Under “Color/grayscale,” select either “Color” for a color printer or “Pure Black and White” for a black and white printer.
    Do NOT select “Grayscale,” as your slides will not be legible.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PowerPoint slides by Susan A. Peterson, Scottsdale Community College Chapter 10: Motivation m a n a g e m e n t 2e H i t t / B l a c k / P o r t e r
    • 2. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Analyze the motivational forces present in a specific situation Identify the sources of an individual’s motivation Differentiate between content and process theories of motivation and indicate how each can be helpful in analyzing a given motivational situation
    • 3. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 3 Learning Objectives Explain how job enrichment can influence an employee's motivation Compare and contrast the various approaches to reinforcement and describe their relative advantages and disadvantages for use by managers Describe how values and attitudes toward work can influence motivation
    • 4. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 4 What Is Motivation? Motivation: Is a set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior Can come from: - Internal “push” forces or - External “pull” forces
    • 5. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 5 Sources of Motivation Needs  For security  For self-esteem  For achievement  For power Attitudes  About self  About job  About supervisor  About organization Goals  Task completion  Performance level  Career advancement Needs  For security  For self-esteem  For achievement  For power Attitudes  About self  About job  About supervisor  About organization Goals  Task completion  Performance level  Career advancement INTERNAL (PUSH FORCES) INTERNAL (PUSH FORCES) EXTERNAL (PULL FORCES) EXTERNAL (PULL FORCES) Characteristics of THE INDIVIDUAL (examples) Characteristics of THE INDIVIDUAL (examples) Characteristics of THE WORK SITUATION (examples) Characteristics of THE WORK SITUATION (examples) Feedback  For security  For self-esteem Work load Tasks  Variety  Scope Discretion  How job is performed Feedback  For security  For self-esteem Work load Tasks  Variety  Scope Discretion  How job is performed Immediate social environment  Supervisor(s)  Workgroup members  Subordinates Organizational actions  Rewards and compensation  Availability of training  Pressure for high levels of output Immediate social environment  Supervisor(s)  Workgroup members  Subordinates Organizational actions  Rewards and compensation  Availability of training  Pressure for high levels of output Adapted from Exhibit 10.1 Characteristics of THE JOB (examples) Characteristics of THE JOB (examples)
    • 6. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 6 Motivation Theories How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees. How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees. Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Social Cognitive Theory Goal-Setting Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Social Cognitive Theory Goal-Setting Theory Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. Features in the work environment that satisfy a worker’s needs. Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. Features in the work environment that satisfy a worker’s needs. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy McClelland’s Acquired Need Theory Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Maslow’s Need Hierarchy McClelland’s Acquired Need Theory Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory FocusFocus TheoriesTheories Content TheoriesContent Theories Process TheoriesProcess Theories Adapted from Exhibit 10.2
    • 7. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 7 Content Theories of Motivation Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. Features in the work environment that satisfy a worker’s needs. Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. Features in the work environment that satisfy a worker’s needs. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy McClelland’s Acquired Need Theory Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Maslow’s Need Hierarchy McClelland’s Acquired Need Theory Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory FocusFocus TheoriesTheories Content TheoriesContent Theories Theories Focusing on INTERNAL Factors Theories Focusing on INTERNAL Factors Theory Focusing on EXTERNAL Factors Theory Focusing on EXTERNAL Factors
    • 8. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 8 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Humans have five needs arranged in hierarchy of strength and influence Individuals: Satisfy most basic (prepotent) needs first Move to the next level of needs after preceding needs is satisfied
    • 9. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 9 Alderfer’s ERG Theory ERG = existence, relatedness, growth Different levels of needs can be active at the same time People can move back to a lower level need even after a high level need has been met Growth Relatedness Existence
    • 10. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 10 Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Theories Highest-order needs Most essential (prepotent) needs Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Categories Alderfer’s Needs Hierarchy Categories Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Adapted from Exhibit 10.3
    • 11. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 11 Acquired Needs Theory Individuals have three “learned” needs: Power, affiliation, achievement People with need for achievement: - Work on tasks of moderate difficulty - Take moderate risks - Take personal responsibility for one’s own actions - Receive specific and concrete feedback on one’s own performance
    • 12. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 12 Two-Factor Theory Recognition Achievement Growth Responsibility Nature of the work Motivators: Factors directly related to doing a job Hygiene Factors: Elements associated with conditions surrounding the job Job Relations with co-workers Working conditions BenefitsCompensation Supervision Adapted from Exhibit 10.4
    • 13. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 13 Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators Hygiene-Factors Extrinsic factors related to conditions surrounding the job Hygiene-Factors Extrinsic factors related to conditions surrounding the job Motivators Intrinsic factors related to the doing of the job itself Motivators Intrinsic factors related to the doing of the job itself Neither satisfied nor dissatisfiedNeither satisfied nor dissatisfied From the state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, motivators can impel an employee’s motivation and performance to higher levels Hygiene factors must be satisfied first, leading to a state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Adapted from Exhibit 10.5
    • 14. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 14 Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance • Feedback • Autonomy Core Job Characteristics • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance • Feedback • Autonomy Critical Psychological States • Experienced meaningfulness of the work • Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work • Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Critical Psychological States • Experienced meaningfulness of the work • Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work • Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Outcomes High: • Internal work motivation • “Growth” satisfaction • Work effectiveness • General job satisfaction Outcomes High: • Internal work motivation • “Growth” satisfaction • Work effectiveness • General job satisfaction Adapted from Exhibit 10.6
    • 15. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 15 Skill Variety Skill Variety Core Job Characteristics Task Identity Task Identity Task Significance Task Significance The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person. The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person. The aerospace engineer must be able to create blueprints, calculate tolerances, provide leadership to the work group, and give presentations to upper management. The aerospace engineer must be able to create blueprints, calculate tolerances, provide leadership to the work group, and give presentations to upper management. The degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a viable outcome. The degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a viable outcome. The event manager handles all the plans for the annual executive retreat, attends the retreat, and receives information on its success from the participants. The event manager handles all the plans for the annual executive retreat, attends the retreat, and receives information on its success from the participants. The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large. The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large. The finance manager devises a new benefits plan to improve health coverage for all employees. The finance manager devises a new benefits plan to improve health coverage for all employees. Adapted from Exhibit 10.7 Core Job Characteristics Core Job Characteristics DefinitionDefinition ExampleExample
    • 16. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 16 AutonomyAutonomy Core Job Characteristics (cont.) Feedback from the Job Feedback from the Job The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. R&D scientists are linked via the company intranet, allowing them to post their ideas, ask questions, and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road. R&D scientists are linked via the company intranet, allowing them to post their ideas, ask questions, and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road. The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. The lathe operator knows he is cutting his pieces correctly, as very few are rejected by the workers in the next production area. The lathe operator knows he is cutting his pieces correctly, as very few are rejected by the workers in the next production area. Adapted from Exhibit 10.7 Core Job Characteristics Core Job Characteristics DefinitionDefinition ExampleExample
    • 17. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 17 Process Theories of Motivation How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees. How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees. Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Social Cognitive Theory Goal-Setting Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Social Cognitive Theory Goal-Setting Theory FocusFocus TheoriesTheories Process TheoriesProcess Theories
    • 18. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 18 Equity Theory Focuses on individuals’ comparisons of their own circumstances to those of others Inputs (age, experience, education, etc.) Outcomes (salary, benefits, titles, perks, etc.) Ratios of an individual’s input/outcome versus that ratio of another person or people
    • 19. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 19 Equity Theory Adapted from Exhibit 10.8 IF: IS: THEN: AND I AM MOTIVATED TO: The ratio of my outcomes to my inputs Equal to the ratio of the other’s outcomes to inputs I am satisfied Do nothing. The ratio of my outcomes to my inputs Less then (<) the ratio of the other’s outcomes to inputs I feel dissatisfied Choose between: Increasing my own outcomes Decreasing my own inputs Reevaluating the other’s inputs Changing the referent Leaving the situation
    • 20. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 20 Expectancy Theory Focuses on thought processes people use when faced with choosing among alternatives Three variables affect motivation: - Effort-to-performance (E  P): probability that certain effort leads to certain performance - Performance-to-outcome (P  O): probability that certain performance leads to certain outcome - Valence (V): anticipated value that a person attaches to the outcome Effort = (E  P) x (P  O) x V
    • 21. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 21 E  P (I believe high effort will lead to good performance) E  P (I believe high effort will lead to good performance) P  O (I believe high performance will lead to recognition from my supervisor) P  O (I believe high performance will lead to recognition from my supervisor) Components of Expectancy Theory EffortEffort PerformancePerformance Outcome (V: I do or do not value recognition from my supervisor) Outcome (V: I do or do not value recognition from my supervisor) E = effort P = performance O = outcome V = valence Adapted from Exhibit 10.9
    • 22. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 22 Expectancy Theory To influence employee motivation, managers should: Identify rewards that are valued Strengthen beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards Clarify subordinates’ understanding of exactly where they should direct their efforts Make sure that the desired rewards under your control are given directly following particular levels of performance Provide levels and amounts of rewards that are consistent with a realistic level of expected rewards
    • 23. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 23 Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy: A person’s confidence that he or she can accomplish a given task in a specific situation High self-efficacy beliefs are associated with better work-related performance
    • 24. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 24 Self-efficacySelf-efficacySelf-efficacy Social Cognitive Theory: Methods to Increase Self-efficacy Vicarious Learning Vicarious Learning Physiological or Psychological Arousal Physiological or Psychological Arousal Verbal Persuasion Verbal Persuasion Enactive Mastery Enactive Mastery Self-efficacySelf-efficacy Adapted from Exhibit 10.10
    • 25. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 25 Goal-Setting Theory Human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions Two basic premises: - More challenging (higher or harder) goals, if accepted, result in higher levels of effort than easier goals - Specific goals result in higher levels of effort than vague goals
    • 26. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 26 Reinforcements and Consequences Motivation Technique Motivation Technique To encourage good behavior or performance To encourage good behavior or performance To discourage poor behavior or performance To discourage poor behavior or performance Positive Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement PunishmentPunishment ExtinctionExtinction
    • 27. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 27 Reinforcements and Consequences Desirable consequences that increase the likelihood of behavior being repeated in the future Rewards given should be: - Equitable - Efficient - Available - Not exclusive - Visible - Reversible Positive Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Example: Salesperson performs well gets an extra bonus for the year Example: Salesperson performs well gets an extra bonus for the year
    • 28. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 28 Reinforcements and Consequences Removal of undesirable consequences that increase the likelihood of behavior being repeated in the future Can backfire if used incorrectly Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Example: Salesperson who performs well is removed from territory that has difficult customers Example: Salesperson who performs well is removed from territory that has difficult customers
    • 29. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 29 Reinforcements and Consequences Unwanted consequences following undesirable behavior to decrease the likelihood that it will be repeated Punishments are discouraged in most organizations today, as they may be inappropriate or too negative PunishmentPunishment Example: Salesperson who performs poorly is fired or demoted Example: Salesperson who performs poorly is fired or demoted
    • 30. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 30 Reinforcements and Consequences The absence of positive consequences for behavior, lessening the likelihood of that behavior in the future ExtinctionExtinction Example: Salesperson tells a tasteless joke and is ignored in the hopes of discouraging such joking Example: Salesperson tells a tasteless joke and is ignored in the hopes of discouraging such joking
    • 31. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 31 Reinforcement Approaches Adapted from Exhibit 10.11 Reinforcement Approach Managerial Action Effect Example Positive reinforcement Provide desirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Highway construction supervisor receives bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. Negative reinforcement Remove undesirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Management stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them. Punishment Provide undesirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Habitually tardy crew member is fined the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late to work. Extinction Remove desirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Group member stops making unsolicited suggestions when team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings.
    • 32. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 32 1. Specify desired performance precisely 2. Measure desired behaviors 3. Provide frequent positive consequences for specified behaviors 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the program Planned Programs of Positive Reinforcement
    • 33. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 33 Social Influences on Motivation Organization’s Culture Organization’s Culture Supervisors And Subordinates Supervisors And Subordinates Immediate Work Group Immediate Work Group MotivationMotivation
    • 34. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 34 Influence of Values and Attitudes Toward Work Values - Affect what kinds of behaviors individuals will find rewarding and satisfying Attitudes toward work - Work centrality - Degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual - Differs between cultures
    • 35. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 35 Differences in Core Values CORE VALUES American Japanese Arabic Competition Risk-taking Material possessions Freedom Group harmony Belonging Reputation Family security Religious belief Social recognition Adapted from Exhibit 10.12
    • 36. © 2008 Prentice-Hall Business Publishing 36 Work Centrality: Country Differences 4.79 5.20 4.89 4.29 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 United States Japan Israel Germany Adapted from Exhibit 10.13