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Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Test Bank, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş,

Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Test Bank, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş,

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Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Test Bank, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş, Management, Hitt, Black, Porter, Test Bank, Vahdi Boydaş, Mensur Boydaş, Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATION Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____ is the set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. a. Motivation b. Expectancy c. Empowerment d. Socialization 2. Which of the following statements regarding internal forces of motivation is true? a. They are more important to understand than external forces of motivation. b. They are less important to understand than external forces of motivation. c. They are as important as external forces of motivation. d. They are seldom recognized by managers. 3. Which of the following is NOT a “pull” force of motivation? a. availability of training b. performance-level goals c. rewards and compensation d. pressure for high levels of output 4. Which of the following is NOT an internal motivational force? a. goals b. needs c. attitudes d. feedback 5. Characteristics of a job are considered _____ forces, which focus on _____. a. external or push; what happens in the work setting b. external or pull; what a person does in the work setting c. internal or push; what a person brings to his or her work d. internal or pull; what happens outside of the work setting 6. Which of the following is NOT a “push” force of motivation? a. security needs b. career advancement goals c. attitudes about the supervisor d. the amount and timing of feedback 169 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 7. According to your textbook, all of the following EXCEPT _____ can be used to form a useful framework for analyzing the sources of motivation in the workplace. a. the characteristics of the job b. the characteristics of the individual c. the characteristics of the work situation d. the characteristics of the business environment 8. _____ focus on the needs a person is trying to satisfy and the features of the work environment that seem to satisfy those needs. a. Process theories b. Content theories c. Situational theories d. Motivational theories 9. To begin motivating an apathetic associate, a manager informally questions her about her satisfaction with her job’s ability to provide safety, social interaction, self-respect, and opportunities for growth. What theory of motivation is this manager most likely trying to apply in working with the associate? a. Maslow’s need hierarchy b. Vroom’s expectancy theory c. Herzberg’s two-factor theory d. McClelland’s acquired needs theory 10. Which of the following is NOT a content theory? a. Maslow’s need hierarchy b. Vroom’s expectancy theory c. Herzberg’s two-factor theory d. McClelland’s acquired needs theory 11. A plant manager in a small factory wishes to raise morale in his workforce. The manager notes that the working conditions at the plant are safe, clean, and pleasant, and that recent expansion of the workforce has assured the employees that their jobs are secure. Which of the following actions should the manager take to ensure that the “belongingness” needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are satisfied? a. pay bonuses to workers who achieve specified goals b. publicly praise those workers who have been most productive c. set up after-work clubs, such as a softball team, to allow more social interaction d. foster the development of skills in workers who show talent in a particular area 12. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes all of the following categories EXCEPT _____. 170 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • a. safety b. relatedness c. physiological d. self actualization 13. McClelland’s acquired needs theory asserts that managers who work with high need achievers typically should NOT _____. a. expect them to take extreme risks b. assign moderately difficult tasks to them c. provide specific feedback on their performance d. assume they will take personal responsibility for their actions 14. According to Frederick Herzberg, _____ are elements associated with conditions surrounding the job. a. hygiene factors b. motivating factors c. economic factors d. environmental factors 15. A manager wishes to improve the job performance of a group of clerical workers. Based on Herzberg’s theory, _____ would be an appropriate motivator. a. providing them with a better health care plan b. setting up a break room where coworkers could socialize c. offering them opportunities for achievement and recognition d. redecorating their offices so that they are pleasant and comfortable 16. _____ focuses on core job attributes, critical psychological states, and expected outcomes. a. The equity model b. The expectancy model c. The two-factor model d. The job characteristics model 17. A manager is designing a new position for a head of training. Considering the job characteristics model, which of the following changes would be least likely to result in a rich and rewarding job? a. making the job cover a variety of tasks, from one-on-one training, to supervision and hiring of staff, to creating training materials b. making whoever holds the position responsible for consolidating and expanding training activities c. tying the success of the training program to the company’s overall strategy of upgrading its workforce d. building a state-of-the-art training center and new offices for the training staff 171 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 18. _____ involves increasing the complexity of a job to provide a greater sense of responsibility, accomplishment, and achievement. a. Goal setting b. Job enrichment c. Job enhancement d. Positive reinforcement 19. While they agree that satisfaction is a factor in motivation, scholars note that there is little evidence that increasing employee satisfaction actually increases motivation. This has led them to criticize the _____ as being overly simplistic. a. equity theory b. expectancy theory c. two-factor theory d. hierarchy of needs theory 20. _____ asserts that individuals are likely to compare the ratios of inputs to outcomes they receive against the ratios of other people, such as colleagues or acquaintances. a. Acquired needs theory b. Equity theory c. Expectancy theory d. Two-factor theory 21. According to the job characteristics model, _____ is the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people. a. autonomy b. task identify c. task significance d. feedback from the job 22. Hackman and Oldham proposed that _____ is the degree to which a job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work. a. autonomy b. skill variety c. task identity d. task significance 23. Whereas _____ focus on which variables affect motivation, _____ focus on how the variables affect motivation. 172 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • a. content theories; process theories b. process theories; content theories c. equity theories; expectancy theories d. goal-setting theories; reinforcement theories 24. All of the following EXCEPT _____ are process theories of work motivation. a. goal-setting theory b. expectancy theory c. social cognitive theory d. acquired needs theory 25. Within the context of the job characteristics model, _____ is involved when a machine designer knows that her schematics are correct, as very few are rejected by the machine shop. a. skill variety b. task identify c. task significance d. feedback from the job 26. A low-level manager in a certain company finds out that a colleague who performs similar work is getting paid considerably more than he is. According to equity theory, which of the following is the LEAST likely way this worker might think in order to reduce his feelings of inequity? a. “Obviously I’m really not very good at what I do.” b. “I suppose her job must be a lot more demanding than mine.” c. “I’m not going to push myself anymore, since it does not get me anywhere.” d. “Oh well, at least I’m doing better than anyone else in my family ever did.” 27. The basic components of _____ are effort, performance, and outcomes. a. equity theory b. goal-setting theory c. expectancy theory d. social cognitive theory 28. Expectancy theory asserts that “instrumentality” or _____ is the probability that a particular level of performance will lead to particular outcomes or consequences. a. effort-to-outcome b. effort-to-consequences c. performance-to-effort d. performance-to-outcome 173 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 29. A software engineer believes that if she can complete her current project on time she will get the promotion to team leader that she strongly desires. However, she doubts that she can complete the project on time. Within the context of expectancy theory, what level of motivation would the engineer have and why? a. very high, since the level of expectancy and the level of valence are both high b. moderately high, as high levels of valence and instrumentality offset low expectancy levels c. moderate, since high levels of expectancy and high levels of valence will be balanced by the low level of instrumentality d. low, since the expectancy, instrumentality, and valence of the outcome must all be high for motivation 30. According to expectancy theory, valence, outcome, and performance interact in a multiplicative way to determine _____. a. the cost of a particular course of action b. the projected results of a particular task c. the anticipated value of a particular outcome d. the amount of effort a person will expend on a particular task 31. Self-efficacy is an individual’s confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize the _____ needed to execute a given task successfully within a specific context. a. motivation b. cognitive resources c. courses of action d. all of the above 32. From an expectancy theory perspective, a manager who wanted to boost motivation levels would be least likely to _____. a. identify rewards that are valued b. limit praise to encourage hard work c. dispense rewards directly following particular levels of performance d. strengthen employees’ beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards 33. Social cognitive theory proposes that all of the following EXCEPT _____ would increase an individual’s self-efficacy. a. being motivated to reduce feelings of inequity b. attributing success on similar tasks to his or her own capabilities c. the opportunity to observe and model others’ successful behavior d. statements from others that convince the person that he or she can be successful 174 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 34. Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory defines _____ as gaining knowledge by observing how others perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner. a. interactive mastery b. vicarious learning c. ocular discernment d. physiological observation 35. A call center manager hopes to improve the performance of her staff by decreasing the average time spent on a call. First, she sets up a performance board where the average length of a call for the previous week is posted and compared to the average call length for the previous four weeks. Then, she encourages the staff to reduce the average. According to goal-setting theory, how could she improve this scheme? a. She should make the goal easier. b. She should make the goal more specific. c. She should make the goal less specific. d. She should make the goal more elaborate. 36. Goal-setting research suggests that people will exert higher levels of effort when goals are _____. a. easy and general b. challenging and specific c. very difficult to attain and specific d. moderately easy to attain and general 37. A study jointly conducted on American and Israeli students showed that a lack of participation had a much more serious negative effect on the Israeli students than on the American students. The results of this study suggest that _____. a. goals will not have a positive effect on performance, unless they are properly set b. goals have little positive effect on performance, even if they are properly set c. participation in goal setting will be more effective in countries and cultures where collective decision making is the norm d. participation in goal setting will be more effective in countries and cultures where individualism is the norm 38. A production supervisor receives a bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. This is an example of _____. a. motivation b. negative reinforcement c. positive reinforcement d. equitable incentivization 175 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 39. Shortly after Christmas, a catalog company is besieged by complaints of poor service, so a task force designs an incentive plan to motivate associates to fill orders more quickly and more accurately. To be an effective positive reinforcement strategy, the proposed incentive plan should NOT be _____. a. equitable b. exclusive c. reversible d. visible 40. A sales representative is told that if he exceeds his sales for the last quarter by 20 percent then some of his more difficult clients will be transferred to another sales representative. This is an example of _____. a. extinction b. punishment c. negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement 41. When a manager uses _____ to lessen the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, he or she avoids providing any positive consequences as a result of that behavior. a. extinction b. reversibility c. enactive mastery d. negative reinforcement 42. Manager A takes the time to know her subordinates well enough so that she can adapt her motivational strategies to each; consequently, the work groups she supervises consistently perform very well. When Manager B resigns unexpectedly, a senior manager congratulates Manager A on her excellent managing skills and reassigns her to Manager B’s work groups. Although the reassignment is meant to demonstrate respect for Manager A’s abilities, it will likely function as a/an_____ and _____ the probability of her high performance. a. extinction; increase b. unintended punishment; decrease c. negative reinforcement; decrease d. positive reinforcement; increase 43. A shift manager at a fast-food restaurant is using _____ when she fines a habitually tardy crewmember the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late for work. a. extinction b. punishment c. negative reinforcement d. employment psychology 176 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 44. _____ increase the probability that people will repeat a behavior; _____ decrease the probability that people will repeat a behavior. a. Extinction and punishments; positive reinforcements and negative reinforcements b. Extinction and positive reinforcements; punishments and negative reinforcements c. Positive reinforcements and punishments; negative reinforcements and extinction d. Positive reinforcements and negative reinforcements; extinction and punishments 45. Which of the following is NOT a step in a program that systematically applies the principles of reinforcement theory to motivate employees? a. measure desired behaviors b. describe desired performance in broad, general terms c. evaluate the effectiveness of the program d. provide frequent positive consequences for specified desired behaviors 46. The direction of a group’s influence on the motivation of an individual in that group will likely depend on _____ of the group. a. the norms b. the cohesion c. the mission d. the valence 47. Which of the following is NOT a part of the immediate social environment that can influence employee motivation? a. subordinates b. safety issues c. supervisors d. workgroup peers 48. From a manager’s perspective, in-group influence_____ when the in-group’s norms oppose organizational norms. a. decreases motivation b. increases motivation c. neutralizes motivation d. eliminates motivation 49. From an expectancy theory framework of motivation, a reward system designed to promote competition and risk taking would be successful with _____workers. a. Arabic b. American c. Japanese d. Venezuelan 177 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • 50. Scholarly research has defined _____ as the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at a point in time. a. expectancy b. self-efficacy c. work centrality d. positive reinforcement Short Essay Questions 51. Identify the three basic categories of variables that determine motivation in the work setting. The three categories include the following: characteristics of the individual—needs, goals, and attitudes; characteristics of the job—feedback, workload, and variety and characteristics of the work situation—the social environment and organizational actions. 52. Explain Maslow’s need hierarchy. Maslow suggested that our needs are arranged in a hierarchy, in the following order: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. He said that people focus on satisfying higher-level needs, only when their most basic needs have been met. If basic needs were to become threatened, then people would refocus on lower-level needs; moreover, they would decrease their efforts to satisfy social, esteem, and achievement needs until the threat to basic needs had passed. 53. Discuss Alderfer’s ERG theory. The ERG theory presumes that different levels of needs can be active at the same time; a lower-level need does not have to be completely or even mostly satisfied before higher- level needs can emerge. In addition, a person may reject to focusing on a lower-level need if he or she is frustrated in trying to satisfy a higher-level need, even if that lower- level need has already been satisfied. 54. Within the context of the two-factor theory, what are “motivators” and “hygiene factors”? Motivators are intrinsic factors directly related to doing a job; for example, the nature of the work itself, responsibility level, personal growth, and the sense of achievement or recognition directly received from doing the work. Hygiene factors are extrinsic to doing 178 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • the job, pertaining instead to the conditions surrounding it; for instance, supervision, relations with coworkers, working conditions, and company policies related to benefits and compensation. 55. What is equity theory? Equity theory proposes that individuals compare their circumstances with those of others, and that such comparisons may motivate certain kinds of behaviors. This theory assumes that people know what kind of effort and skills they put into their jobs and what kinds of outcomes they receive from their employer. The theory also assumes that individuals are likely to compare their input/outcome ratios with the input/outcome ratios of colleagues or acquaintances. These comparisons determine whether an individual feels equitably treated. If the comparisons result in feelings of inequity toward others, then the individual making the observation will be motivated to take steps to reduce those feelings. 56. How can managers use expectancy theory to influence the motivation of employees? Managers can potentially influence the motivation of employees in the following ways: identifying rewards that are valued; strengthening employee’s beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards; helping employees understand where they should direct their efforts; rewarding employees immediately after they reach targeted levels of performance; and providing rewards that are consistent with realistic expectations. 57. What is self-efficacy? How can it be increased? Self-efficacy is an individual’s confidence that he or she can complete a certain task successfully. Self-efficacy can be increased through vicarious learning/modeling, enactive mastery experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological and psychological stimulation. 58. Describe the relationship between goal-setting theory and management. Goal-setting theory assumes that human action is directed by goals and targets. Therefore, if managers can influence goals and targets, they can directly affect performance. The level at which goals are set is a potentially powerful determinant of motivation, and obtaining a person’s commitment to particular goals is critical. Despite regular findings supporting a goal-setting approach, it is not clear whether goals that are set through a process of participation result in higher levels of performance than goals assigned by a supervisor or manager. However, research has shown that setting goals has a positive effect on performance, no matter how those goals are set. 59. What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement? 179 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)
  • Positive reinforcement strengthens behavior by adding rewards after a particular behavior occurs in order to increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of undesirable consequences following a behavior; that is, consequences a person performing an act does not want. The removal of the consequences can increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated. 60. What influence does the situational context have on behavior? Situational context consists of three elements: the immediate work group, supervisors and subordinates, and the organization’s culture. The immediate work group can motivate a worker in the direction of that group’s norms. If those norms support the organization’s goals, the group is likely to increase the motivation of its members to perform. When the norms oppose the organization’s goals, the group is likely to decrease the motivation of its members to perform. The influence of an organization’s culture on motivation is exercised primarily through norms; that is, how the organization expects its employees to behave. The more an individual wants to remain part of an organization, the more he or she will be influenced by the organization’s culture. 180 Copyright © (2009) Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as (Prentice Hall)