What is research? Why do we undertake it?
Research is the means by which we find answers to
questions which we have set ou...
High quality of research?
It is based on the work of others
It can be replicated
It is generalizable to other settings
It ...
Language of Research
Theoretical and empirical
Social research is theoretical, meaning that much of it is
concerned with d...
Language of Research
Probabilistic
Statistics become so dominant in social research is that it
allows us to estimate proba...
Types of questions
Descriptive
A study designed primarily to describe what is going on or what
exists.
Relational
A study ...
Time in Research
Time is an important element of any research design.
Introduce one of the most fundamental distinctions i...
Types of Relationships
A relationship refers to the correspondence between two
variables.
The nature of the relationship
A...
Types of Relationships: Variables
A variable is any entity that can take on different values.
Anything that can vary can b...
Hypotheses
An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It
describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms
w...
Criteria for “good” hypothesis
Should be stated as a declaration not as a question
should explicitly state the expected re...
Types and Sources of Data
Types of Data
Quantitative
Qualitative

Sources of Data
Primary
Secondary
Notion of Research
Structure of Research
Process usually start with a broad area of interest
should be narrowed down
formulate a hypothesis o...
Research Process
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Mensur Boydaş: Vahdi Boydaş

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Mensur Boydaş: Vahdi Boydaş

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Mensur Boydaş: Vahdi Boydaş

  1. 1. What is research? Why do we undertake it? Research is the means by which we find answers to questions which we have set ourselves or which have been set for us by others Why? Personal experience unresolved problems arising from academic literature guiding action the need to monitor the effects of action already taken the desire to assess the level of satisfaction with a service
  2. 2. High quality of research? It is based on the work of others It can be replicated It is generalizable to other settings It is based on some logical rationale It is doable It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature It is incremental It is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society
  3. 3. Language of Research Theoretical and empirical Social research is theoretical, meaning that much of it is concerned with developing, exploring or testing the theories or ideas that social researchers have about how the world operates. But it is also empirical, meaning that it is based on observations and measurements of reality
  4. 4. Language of Research Probabilistic Statistics become so dominant in social research is that it allows us to estimate probabilities for the situations we study. Causal Most social research is interested in looking at causeeffect relationships. This doesn't mean that most studies actually study cause-effect relationships. There are some studies that simply observe and some others that explore relationships. If we want to change the world, we are automatically interested in causal relationships - ones that tell us how our causes affect the outcomes of interest.
  5. 5. Types of questions Descriptive A study designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. Relational A study designed to look at the relationships between two or more variables. Causal A study designed to determine whether one or more variables causes or affects one or more outcome variables. If we did a public opinion poll to try to determine whether a recent political advertising campaign changed voter preferences, we would essentially be studying whether the campaign (cause) changed the proportion of voters who would vote left or right (effect).
  6. 6. Time in Research Time is an important element of any research design. Introduce one of the most fundamental distinctions in research design: Cross-sectional : A study that takes place at a single point in time. In effect, we are taking a 'slice' or crosssection of whatever it is we're observing or measuring. Time series: A study that takes place over time.
  7. 7. Types of Relationships A relationship refers to the correspondence between two variables. The nature of the relationship A correlational relationship simply says that two things perform in a synchronized manner (third variable prob.). A causal relationship if the two variables are not only in correspondence, but that one causes the other. Patterns of Relationships No relationship Positive relationship Inverse relationship
  8. 8. Types of Relationships: Variables A variable is any entity that can take on different values. Anything that can vary can be considered a variable. Variables aren't always 'quantitative' or numerical. Another important distinction having to do with the term 'variable' is the distinction between an independent and dependent variable. This distinction is particularly relevant when you are investigating cause-effect relationships. the independent variable is what you (or nature) manipulates -- a treatment or program or cause. The dependent variable is what is affected by the independent variable -- your effects or outcomes.
  9. 9. Hypotheses An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. A single study may have one or many hypotheses. Actually, whenever we talk about an hypothesis, we are really thinking simultaneously about two hypotheses. Usually, we call the hypothesis that you support (your prediction) the alternative hypothesis, and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis.
  10. 10. Criteria for “good” hypothesis Should be stated as a declaration not as a question should explicitly state the expected relationship among variables should reflect the theory or literature it is based on should be brief and to the point should be testable
  11. 11. Types and Sources of Data Types of Data Quantitative Qualitative Sources of Data Primary Secondary
  12. 12. Notion of Research
  13. 13. Structure of Research Process usually start with a broad area of interest should be narrowed down formulate a hypothesis or a focus question now, it is possible to get engaged in measurement or observation collection of the basic data enables the researcher to understand the problem Even preliminary analysis of data might point out some of the conclusions attempt to address the original broad question
  14. 14. Research Process
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