Module 4 Outline Review of previous modules Complex Sentences: Conditional Clauses Writing: Completeness & Supporting your Topic Sentence Writing Assignments New Mini-Case Study – Responding to a Request for Proposal Timed Writing: Information Systems & Communication
Review of previous modules At the bottom of this page, look for a link to upload your Module 3 feedback document after you have addressed the comments. I hope that you found the comments helpful. Please do not hesitate to contact me with questions. In order for me to provide useful feedback, I will need your best writing. Please make sure that you allocate enough time to complete all the assignments.
Module 5 Topic 1 In the last two module, we learned about complex sentence structures and the necessary comma rules. In this module, we will discuss conditional clauses which are a a specific type of complex sentence. Conditionals are used to describe a cause and effect relationship between to clauses. Let’s take a look at the following sentences… If your boss asks you to stay late, you stay late. If you pass the US CPA exam, you will find a job easily. If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk. If it had been month end, I would have been working late. Dependent Clause = cause; Independent/Main Clause = effect or result What are the different verb tenses used in the dependent and independent clauses?
Likely or Unlikely? It is important to be able to distinguish if an event is likely or unlikely to happen. Decide if the following situations are likely or unlikely to occur. You win the lottery. It rains this weekend. (This may depend on where you live.) You get off work early. You pass the CPA exam. You get a good night’s sleep. When deciding which conditional form to use, you will need to determine the likeliness of the situation.
Conditionals There are four types of conditionals Second Conditional Third Conditional Zero Conditional First Conditional True / Factual Likely Unreal, Imaginary or Unlikely Did not happen
Zero Conditional - Fact We use the zero conditional to describe something that is a fact and is always true. Ex: If your boss asks you to stay late, you staylate. We form the Zero Conditional as follows: If + subject + simple present, subject + simple present
First Conditional - Likely We use the first conditional to describe something that will probably happen in the present or in the future. We can also call it the present real conditional. Ex: If you pass the U.S CPA exam, you will find an accounting job easily. We form the First Conditional as follows: If + subject + simple present, subject + will + base verb
Second Conditional - Unlikely We use the second conditional to describe something that will probably not happen in the present or future. We can also call it the unreal conditional. If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk. We form the Second Conditional as follows: If + subject + past simple, subject + would + (not) + base verb In an if-clause with be, we usually use were (not was) when the subject is I, he, she, or it. If I were you, I would not tell them.
Third Conditional – Unreal Past We use the third conditional to talk about things that did not happen, but that might have happened if the past had been different. Ex: If it had been month end, I would have been working late. Was it month end?.... No We form the Third Conditional as follows: If + subject + past perfect / past perfect cont., subject + would/could/might + have + past participle Always use have. Never use has. Have does not have to agree with the subject of the main clause.
Comma Rules If the if clause is before the main clause, we use a comma. If your boss asks you to stay late, you staylate. If you pass the U.S CPA exam, you will find an accounting job easily. If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk. If it had been month end, I would have been working late. When the if clause is after the main clause, we don’t use a comma. You staylate if your boss asks you to. You will find an accounting job easily if you pass the U.S CPA exam. Shareholders would be at risk if auditors did not exist. I would have been working late if it had been month end.
Replacements for IF Read the following sentence and see how if is replaced by other conditional words. The meaning stays the same. We will meet you tomorrow providing (that) no one has an objection. You can say what you like as long as you do not make any criticisms. Supposing (that) we decide to use the your services, how much would it cost? Even the best management teams will not be successful unless they are give the resources. (if…not)
Omitting IF If can be omitted from a conditional clause to shorten the sentence and place more emphasis on the result clause. When the if-clause contains were, had or should, if maybe omitted by moving the auxiliary verb in front of the subject. If it werelater in the month, we would be in a terrible mess. Were it later in the month, we would be in a terrible mess. If it had been month end, I would have been working late. Had it been month end, I would have been working late. If you should require any further information, do not hesitate to contact me. Should you require any further information, do not hesitate to contact me.