Module 4 Outline Review of previous modules Sentence Structure Part 2 Cohesion and Sentence Connectors Sentence Structure Errors Writing: Organization & Coherence Paragraph Structure Topic Sentences Feedback on Mini-Case Study Writing Assignments Revise Mini-Case Study Timed Writing: Financial Management
Review of previous modules At the bottom of this page, look for a link to upload your Module 2 feedback document after you have addressed the comments. I hope that you found the comments helpful. Please do not hesitate to contact me with questions. In order for me to provide useful feedback, I will need your best writing. Please make sure that you allocate enough time to complete all the assignments. The last section of Module 4 is feedback of your mini-case studies. Please read this section carefully in order to revise your writing.
Let’s begin this module….
Module 4 Topic 1 In the last module, we learned about the different types of sentences: Simple (SV, SSV, SVV, SSVV) Compound (SV, + Coordinating Conjunction + SV) Complex (SV + subordinator + SV / subordinator + SV, + SV) In this module, we will discuss another way of connecting simple sentences to create better cohesion in your writing.
What is Cohesion? A paragraph has cohesion when all the supporting sentences connect to each other in their support of the topic sentence. The methods of connecting sentences to each other are called cohesive devices. The following are 4 types of cohesive devices connectors definite articles personal pronouns demonstrative pronouns
4 Types of Cohesive Devices Connectors: FANBOYS, subordinators, transitions, and prepositional phrases Definite articles: “The” The use of the word “the” indicates you are talking about the same book in both sentences. Example: I bought a history book yesterday. I needed the history book for my class. personal pronouns: The use of “he” indicates” you are talking about John. Example: John is a history teacher. He just got a job at the local high school.
4 Types of Cohesive Devices Demonstrative Adjective and Pronouns (This / That / These / Those) The use of “these” indicates you are talking about the Wampanoag people. Example: The history of the Wampanoag people is typical. These peoplelost land and their way of life. Let’s focus on the first type of cohesive device…connectors.
Cohesive Device #1 - Connectors We have already learned about: Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinators This module will focus on: transitions or sentence connectors prepositional phrases
Transitions or Sentence Connectors Transitions are connectors that you use to make two simple sentences into one. Many transitions words can go at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of sentence. Transition words should be set off by commas. If a short single-syllable transition (then, now, first) comes at the beginning of a sentence, a comma is not necessary.
Comma Rules - Examples Notice that the transition word (however) is always separated from the rest of the sentence by either a period or a comma. I was not feeling well. However, I stayed up late to complete Module 3. I was not feeling well. I, however, stayed up late to complete Module 3. I was not feeling well. I stayed up late to complete Module 3, however.
Semicolon Rule for transition words To show a stronger connection between two sentences, replace a period with a semicolon. Independent clause ; transition , Independent. clause For example: I was not feeling well. However, I stayed up late to complete Module 3. I was not feeling well; however, I stayed up late to complete Module 3.
Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its object, which is always a noun. Nouns can be single words, phrases, or gerunds. Unlike mangoes, apples can be bought all year long. Blind people use their fingers to read instead of their eyes. In addition to baking, Mary also enjoys tasting.
Useful Prepositional Phrase
Punctuation Rules for Prepositional Phrases The punctuation for a prepositional phrase is similar to a complex sentence. If the prepositional phrase comes at the beginning of a clause, a comma is necessary. Despite the calories, I can’t resist chocolate. If the prepositional phrase comes at the end of the clause, a comma is not necessary. I cannot resist chocolate despite the calories.