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What is Gerund and Infinitive?

What is Gerund and Infinitive?

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  • 1. Gerunds and Infinitives By: Mansor Bin Esa
  • 2. What is the gerund? • A gerund is the ING form of the verb. • Examples: • • • • • Playing Swimming Going Running Being
  • 3. When do we use the GERUND? • After certain verbs • Instead of a noun • After prepositions
  • 4. 1. After certain verbs • Enjoy • • • • • I enjoy reading I was enjoying reading She has enjoyed reading You will enjoy reading We have been enjoying reading
  • 5. Certain verbs are followed by the gerund • After ‘enjoy’ ‘fancy’ ‘discuss’ ‘dislike’ ‘finish’ • The second verb is ALWAYS in the gerund • • • • • I enjoy reading I fancy watching movies We discussed going on holiday together I dislike waiting for buses We’ve finished preparing for the meeting
  • 6. Certain verbs are followed by the gerund • Mind I don’t mind coming early • Suggest • He suggested staying home (NOT suggested to) • Recommend • He recommended meeting earlier • Kept • He kept working although he felt ill. • Avoid • She avoided talking to her boss
  • 7. Another way we use a gerund • After certain verbs • Instead of a noun • After prepositions
  • 8. Examples • Smoking isn’t allowed here • Swimming is very good exercise
  • 9. A third way to use gerunds • After certain verbs • Instead of a noun • After prepositions
  • 10. Examples • I drank a cup of coffee before leaving. • It’s a good idea to brush your teeth after eating
  • 11. Gerunds after prepositions in phrasal verbs • I gave up smoking. • I agree with playing soccer. • She complains about bullying. • They decided against attending the meeting. • Sara dreams of becoming a rock star.
  • 12. We use ‘to+infinitive’: • After certain verbs • After many adjectives • To show purpose
  • 13. Ecamples • He decided to leave early. Can be in any tense
  • 14. Examples • He decided to leave early. The second verb is always with ‘to+infinitive’
  • 15. More verbs that take ‘to+infinitive’ • Agree • • Ask • • I hope to pass the exam. Learn • • He plans to buy a new car. Hope • • She asked to leave early. Plan • • She agreed to give a presentation. They are learning to sing. Want • I want to come to the party.
  • 16. More examples of verbs that take the infinitive • Would like • I would like to see you tonight. • Promise • I promised not to be late. (Make negative by adding ‘not’ before the infinitive)
  • 17. More examples on verbs that take the infinitive • Pleased • I’m pleased to meet you!
  • 18. We use the ‘to+infinitive’ • After certain verbs • After many adjectives • To show purpose
  • 19. Examples: • Happy • • I’m happy to see you! Right • • Wrong • • The teacher was careful to speak clearly. Lucky • • They were wrong to leave the building. Careful • • She was right to leave early. He was lucky to get a scholarship. Likely • It’s likely to snow tonight.
  • 20. We use the ‘to+infinitive’ • After certain verbs • After many adjectives • To show purpose
  • 21. (we use the infinitive to say why we do something) • I came to the US to study. • I went home to have lunch. • (NOT: for have lunch)
  • 22. Gerund OR infinitive with NO CHANGE IN MEANING  Some verbs take either G/or INF with no change in meaning: • Start • It started to rain./ = It started raining. • Continue: • I continued to work./ = I continued working • Begin: • She began to sing/ she began singing • Prefer: • I prefer eating at home./ I prefer to eat at home.
  • 23. Gerund of infinitive WITH change in meaning • Some verbs either take the GR or INF but WITH change in meaning: • Stop + gerund (when you stop the action or activity) • Stop + ‘to+infinitive’ (when you stop something to do something else)
  • 24. Examples – (Stop + Gerund) • Stop (gerund): • She stopped working. • She stopped smoking. • She stopped studying. (=she stopped doing the verb)
  • 25. Stop + ‘to+infinitive’ • I stopped to have lunch • I stopped to say hello. (=I stopped doing the first action because of the second)
  • 26. Remember + Gerund/Infinitive • Remember + gerund (To talk about past actions) • Remember + ‘to+infinitive) • (when someone remembers/has to remember something they have to do)
  • 27. Remember + gerund • He remembers going to the beach. (in his head) • I remember locking the door.
  • 28. Remember + ‘to+infinitive’ • Please remember to buy milk! (the person needs to remember buying milk when at the store) • He remembered to meet her. (First, he arranged a meeting with her. Then he remembered to go to the meeting.)
  • 29. Try + infinitive • Used when we don’t succeed in doing the action: • I tried to open the window, but it was stuck! • (=I failed at the action) • He tried to eat salad every day, but I often go for the Pizza. (=failed at the attempt, eating salad is the goal, but he didn’t succeed)
  • 30. Try + gerund • Used when we do the action but it doesn’t help us to achieve the goal: • I tried opening the window, but the room was still hot. (this mean I opened the window easily, as an experiment to see if it would make the room cooler)