Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged, blood cells called platelets often clump at the injury site to try to repair the artery, leading to inflammation. Over time, fatty deposits (plaques) made of cholesterol and other cellular waste products also accumulate at the injury and harden, narrowing your arteries. The organs and tissues connected to the blocked arteries then don't receive enough blood to function properly.Eventually pieces of the fatty deposits may rupture and enter your bloodstream. This can cause a blood clot to form and damage your organs, such as in a heart attack. A blood clot can also travel to other parts of your body and partially or totally block blood flow to another organ.
Following injury to endothelium, there is accumulation of LDL. Following by oxidation of LDL. There is adhesion & migration of blood monocytes, transforation to macrophages.Adhesion of plateles.Relaease of cytokines and other factors from platelets and macrophages.
Atheroma of arteries (arteriosclerosis) – Adren., Am. iod., Am. vanad., Ant. ars., Arn., Ars., Ars. iod., Aur. iod., Aur., Aur. m. n., Bar. c., Bar. m., Cact., Calc. fl., Chin. s., Con., Crat., Ergotin, Glon., Iodothyr., Kali iod., Kali sal., Lach., Lith. c., Nat. iod., Phos., Plumb. iod., Plumb. m., Polygon. av., Sec., Stront. c., Stront. iod., Stroph., Sumb., Vanad.CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (Acute insufficiency of the left ventricle leading to pulmonary edema) (11) : am-c., ant-t., apis, ars., carb-v., dig., kali-c., lach., nat-m., phos., sulph.Tissue remediesArteriosclerosis66 Natriumphosphoricum, Silicea terra, NatriumsulphuricumHigh blood pressure due to arteriosclerosis67Calcareaflourica, Ferrumphosphoricum
Baryta Mur – hypertension and vascular degeneration; arteriosclerosis where high systolic pressure with a comparatively low diastolic tension is attended by cerebral and cardiac symptoms; large blood vessel and aorta is involved; in duration and narrowing of cardiac orifice with pain immediately after eating
Arteriosclerosis - Homoeopathic & miasmatic view
Dr. Manshi Mankiwala
M.Sc. Public Health, M.D. Homeopath
Atherosclerosis is a specific type of
arteriosclerosis, but the terms are often used
Atherosclerosis refers to the build up of fats in and
on your artery walls (plaques), which can restrict
These plaques can also burst, causing a blood
clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered
a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in
your body. Atherosclerosis is a preventable and
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is typically seen in medium and
large arteries of the lower extremity. Characterized by
fibrosis of the intima and calcification of the media. The
lumen of the vessel may be obliterated or markedly
Medial calcific sclerosis (Monckeberg’s calcific sclerosis)
is seen mostly in the elderly, commonly in arteries of the
extremities. Characterized by calcification of the Tunica
media but without thickening of the intima or narrowing of
the vessel lumen.
A similar form of an intramural calcification, presenting the
picture of an early phase of arteriosclerosis, appears to be
induced by a number of drugs that have an antiproliferative
mechanism of action
Major Components of Plaque
Cells (Macrophages & other WBCs)
Lipid ( Intra / extra cellular Cholesterol)
Major Processes in Plaque
Intimal Thickening (proliferation of smooth
muscles and elastin & collagen formation)
Injury to the endothelium ( dysfunctional endothelium)
Chronic inflammatory changes
Migration of smooth muscle cells from media & intima
Proliferation of smooth muscle cell in intima
Increased production of elastin, collagen
Enhanced lipid accumulation
Carotid & Cerebral Circulation
TIA if arterial narrowing is aggravated by mural
Celiary & Mesentric Arterial circulation
Nephrosclerosis leads to gradual renal failure
Iliac or femoral artery aneurysms
Vessel occlusion by plaque / thrombus, which can lead
to ulceration / gangrene of the part
Coronary Artery Disease
Symptoms of coronary artery disease (where the heart
arteries are narrowed) are usually brought on by
physical exercise, exposure to cold weather, anger, or
stress. The most common symptoms include:
Chest pain (generally a heavy, squeezing, or crushing
sensation with possible burning or stabbing pains)
Abdominal, neck, back, jaw, or shoulder/arm pain
Shortness of breath
Cerebrovascular disease (where the arteries that supply
the brain with blood) are narrowed can cause transient
ischemic attack (a sudden loss of brain function with
complete recovery within 24 hours) and stroke.
Symptoms may include:
Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body
Trouble speaking or understanding speech
Loss of vision in one eye
Difficultty in walking
Loss of balance or coordination
Sudden severe headache
Peripheral Artery Disease
Peripheral artery disease affects the arteries that
supply the arms and legs with oxygen rich blood.
Symptoms may include:
Pain, aching, cramps, numbness or sense of fatigue in
the leg muscles (intermittent claudication)
"Bruits" (blowing sounds can hear with a stethoscope
that indicate turbulence in blood flow)
Smooth, shiny skin surface
Skin that is cold to the touch
Menstrual irregularity with premenstrual water retention and
swelling of breasts.
High uric acid, high cholesterol, alterration of lipid metabolism
leading to deposits of cholesterol and lipoproteins on blood
Hypertension that results from damage to the vascular bed of the
kidneys and salt and water retention.
Rheumatoid arthritis with abnormal globulin processes also fall
into this category.
Abnormal growth of hair, generalized as well as local.
Stone formation and deposition of calcium in normal tissues.
all expressions of Gouty-Rheumatic Constitutions.
All these tend to be worse in cold damp weather and by rest.
Gouty conditions, worse with over-indulgence in food and wine.
Pain in the insertions of long tendons, muscular aches and pains,
recurrent fibrositis in large muscles
The physical responses in sycosis are erratic, wandering, Metastatic
of inflammatory processes.
Hardening of elastic lamina and intimal proliferation.
Atheroma developed in large arteries results in narrowing of lumen
Increased peripheral resistance resulting from thickness of walls of
The sycotic patients are fleshy and puffy, their obesity contributing to
complaint of dyspnoea.
Pains in electric shocks, radiates from precordium to the shoulder
scapula. soreness or tenderness over precordial region.
Heat and change of waether<;
> from gentle exercise, exept of rheumatic origin.
Pulse is slow, feeble and soft.
Cardiac dropsy, tachycardia, thrombosis, embolism, MI
aberrant, allergic, hypertrophic, spasmodic
tuberculosis exists in the family history or in the
patient’s own history.
Profuse perspiration with musty odour
Emaciation with ravenous appetite
Cracks and fissures of the skin
Premature greying of hair
chronic inflammation of the skin, mucous
membranes, serous membranes, subcutaneous
tissues, lungs etc.
Easy suppuration and delayed healing
Joint get easily sprained.
Cramps in lower extremities.
Aggravation: Night, from thunderstorm, closed
Amelioration: quiet , rest, warmth, dry weather,
Stress or suppression of emotions
History or evidence of clinical syphilis
Repeated abortions or miscarriages, still
births, neonatal deaths, foetal
malformations, placenta praevia, vesicular
mole, toxaemia of pregnancy
Ectopic tissues (ectopic
gestation, mammae, thyroid, uterine endometrium)
Maniac psychosis, psychopathic
personalities, criminal propensities, moral
Cracks, fissures, ulcerations with indurations
Dental caries before teeth erupt;
bone and peri-osteal pain at night, relieved by cold
applications and movement
Osteoporosis leading to fractures and deformities
Ulcerations healing to fibrosis, scarring, and
Paralysis, occurring as a result of
ischaemia, metabolic degenerative states.
Loss of intellectual function, loss of
memory, inability to think, comprehend, or learn
(Alzheimer’s disease); cerebrovascular accidents
where there is degeneration of brain tissue.
Sensation of heaviness in precordium. Symptoms
are < at night, perspiration, warmth of bed. >
during day, change of possition and cold.
Pulse irregular in rate or rythem.
. Acts on muscle of heart, and IS A HEART TONIC.
No influence on the endocardium. Myocarditis.
Failing compensation. .Insomnia of aortic sufferers,
anaemia; oedema, cutaneous chilliness. High blood pressure.
Is a sedative in cross, irritable patients
with cardiac symptoms. Chronic heart disease,
with extreme weakness. Very feeble and irregular heart action.
Dyspepsia and nervous prostration, with heart failure.
In the beginning of heart disease after rheumatism.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. CARDIAC DROPSY. Aortic disease.
Extreme dyspnoea on least exertion without much increase of pulse.
Pain in region of heart and under left clavicle. Dilated heart. .
Pulse accelerated,. Valvular murmurs, angina pectoris.
Cutaneous chilliness, blueness of fingers and toes; all aggravated
by exertion or excitement. Sustains heart in infectious diseases.
Sensation as if HEART STOPPED BEATING for
two or three seconds, immediately followed by
a tumultuous rebound, with sinking at the
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE,_Valvular lesions of
ENDOCARDITIS WITH MITRAL REGURGITATION
together with violent action
Acts best in the incipiency of cardiac incompetence.
Heart weakness of arteriosclerosis.
Violent palpitation; WORSE LYING ON LEFT SIDE, AT
APPROACH OF MENSES.
ANGINA PECTORIS, with suffocation, cold sweat, and
constriction as if heart were squeezed by an iron hand.
Pain in apex, shooting down left arm. Palpitation, with
vertigo, dyspnoea, flatulence.
CONSTRICTION; very acute pains and stitches in
heart; pulse feeble, irregular, quick, without strength.
Endocardial murmurs, excessive impulse, increased
praecordial dullness, enlarged ventricle. Low blood
Common name – Kombe seed
Part used – Seed
Acts on the Heart increasing the systole and
diminishing the rapidity.
A muscle poison , Increases the contractile power of
Heart’s action weak, irregular due to muscular
debility and insufficiency. Irritable heart of tobacco
In mitral regurgitation where oedema and dropsy
Arteriosclerosis of the aged.
Nausea without actual vomiting, great loathing of
Nausea with disgust for alcohol, aids in treatment of
This drug produces lesions of arteriosclerosis of the
large blood vessels and aorta, similar to senile
It has the headache with heaviness, worse at night
when lying down.
Dizziness of old people. Apoplexy or threatened
apoplexy, with buzzing in the ears.
It can be given for a long pulmonary arterio-
hypertension and vascular degeneration;
arteriosclerosis where high systolic pressure with a
comparatively low diastolic tension is attended by
cerebral and cardiac symptoms; large blood vessel
and aorta is involved; in duration and narrowing of
cardiac orifice with pain immediately after eating
This is a remedy of value in cerebral
arteriosclerosis,vertigo of the aged, heaviness
and cerebral affections, plethoric people who
have a tendency to haemorrhages.
cerebral arteriosclerosis; great tendency for
hemorrhage; acts well in plethoric, feebly in
debilitated people, relaxed bold vessel with
black and blue spots; sore, lame and bruised
feeling; thrombosis; limbs and body aches as
Hypertension and arterio-sclerosis.
It seems to suit rather the pre- sclerotic states
than those of actual sclerosis.
It has a cramp like constriction of the peripheral
arteries, a wiry pulse, and especially if the
symptoms be associated with a chronic nephritis
it is all the more indicated.
Patient feels the pulse in the fingers. Slight
motion causes fainting.
It suits the anaemic, pale, emaciated patients
with extreme weakness which is the plumbum
acts well in the beginning of arteriosclerosis when
only the cardiac irritation and the hard heart sound
Stiffening and degeneration of arterial walls,
spasmodic contraction of the vessels with hardening
remarkable remedy for the inflammation of the heart
affecting both inner and outer lining of the heart,
deficiency of the mitral valve in people who are
alcoholic, pain in the heart, dizziness, noises in head,
excessive nervousness, chocking sensation in throat;
patient is unable to sleep properly; sparks before the
eyes is a guiding symptom of this remedy.
Arsenic iod –
remedy for arteriosclerosis; myocardial
degeneration and senile heart; cardiac weakness;
emaciation and general debility; best suited to
anemic people; rapid, irritable pulse; chronic
high arterial blood pressure; roaring in the ear
due to hypertension; its chief therapeutic use
depends o its vaso constriction action.
Aurum mur –
arterio-sclerosis; high blood pressure due to
disturbed function of nervous mechanism;
hypertrophy of the heart; congestion in the chest
and head; strong palpitation.
Exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 6 days a
Eat healthy foods, such as
fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are
low in saturated fat and high in fiber.
Maintain a normal weight (or lose weight if
you need to).