Class:1
MANSOOR ANI NAJEEB
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN
ANATOMY
Learning Objectives
Introduction to anatomy
Various systems
Vital Organs
Senses
Pathological conditions
What is ANATOMY ????
 Anatomy (from the Greek word anatomia, from ana:
separate, and temnein, to cut open.)
 Is a branch...
Directional Terms
 Directional terms describe the positions of
structures relative to other structures or locations
in th...
SKELETAL SYSTEM
BONES
 Bones are rigid organs that form part of
the endoskeleton of vertebrates.
 They function to move, support, and pr...
Functions
Bones have eleven main functions:
Mechanical
 Protection — Bones can serve to protect internal
organs, such as ...
Synthetic
 Blood production — The marrow, located within
the medullary cavity of long bones, produces
blood cells in a pr...
 Fat Storage — The yellow bone marrow acts as a
storage reserve of fatty acids.
 Acid-base balance — Bone buffers the bl...
BONES OF UPPER LIMB
 Clavicle
 Scapula
 Humerus
 Radius
 Ulna
 Carpal bones
 Metacarpals
 Phalanges
BONES OF LOWER LIMB
 hip bone (1)
 femur (1)
 patella (1)
 tibia (1)
 fibula (1)
 tarsals (8)
 metatarsals (5)
 pr...
 Cervical: 7 vertebrae (C1–C7)
C1 is known as "atlas" and supports
the head, C2 is known as "axis", C7 is
known as "vert...
THANK YOU
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
Introduction to anatomy.pptx
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Introduction to anatomy.pptx

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A brief introduction to anatomy

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Introduction to anatomy.pptx

  1. 1. Class:1 MANSOOR ANI NAJEEB INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Introduction to anatomy Various systems Vital Organs Senses Pathological conditions
  3. 3. What is ANATOMY ????  Anatomy (from the Greek word anatomia, from ana: separate, and temnein, to cut open.)  Is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things  Anatomy –The study of structure  Macroscopic (Gross)  Regional, Systemic  Microscopic  Cytology (Cells), Histology (Tissues)  Developmental  Embryology  Physiology –The study of function
  4. 4. Directional Terms  Directional terms describe the positions of structures relative to other structures or locations in the body.  Superior  Inferior  Anterior  Posterior  Medial  Lateral  Proximal  Distal  Superficial  Deep
  5. 5. SKELETAL SYSTEM
  6. 6. BONES  Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates.  They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.  Because bones come in a variety of shapes and have a complex internal and external structure they are lightweight, yet strong and hard, in addition to fulfilling their many other functions.  Osseous tissue, also called bone tissue, that gives it rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure.  Other types of tissue found in bones include marrow, endosteum and periosteum,nerves, b lood vessels and cartilage.  There are 206 bones in the adult human body and 270 in an infant
  7. 7. Functions Bones have eleven main functions: Mechanical  Protection — Bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs.  Shape — Bones provide a frame to keep the body supported.  Movement — Bones, skeletal, muscles, tendons, ligaments  Sound transduction — Bones are important in the mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing
  8. 8. Synthetic  Blood production — The marrow, located within the medullary cavity of long bones, produces blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis. Metabolic  Mineral storage — Bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus.  Growth factor storage — Mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin- like growth factors.
  9. 9.  Fat Storage — The yellow bone marrow acts as a storage reserve of fatty acids.  Acid-base balance — Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts.  Detoxification — Bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues.  Endocrine organ — Bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Bone cells also release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose)
  10. 10. BONES OF UPPER LIMB  Clavicle  Scapula  Humerus  Radius  Ulna  Carpal bones  Metacarpals  Phalanges
  11. 11. BONES OF LOWER LIMB  hip bone (1)  femur (1)  patella (1)  tibia (1)  fibula (1)  tarsals (8)  metatarsals (5)  proximal phalanges (5)  intermediate phalanges (5)  distal phalanges (4)
  12. 12.  Cervical: 7 vertebrae (C1–C7) C1 is known as "atlas" and supports the head, C2 is known as "axis", C7 is known as "vertabra prominens"  Thoracic: 12 vertebrae (T1–T12)  Lumbar: 5 vertebrae (L1–L5)  Sacral: 5 (fused) vertebrae (S1–S5)  Coccygeal: 4 (3–5) (fused) vertebrae (Tailbone)
  13. 13. THANK YOU
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