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  • 2. Learning ObjectivesIntroduction to anatomyVarious systemsVital OrgansSensesPathological conditions
  • 3. What is ANATOMY ???? Anatomy (from the Greek word anatomia, from ana: separate, and temnein, to cut open.) Is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things Anatomy –The study of structure  Macroscopic (Gross)  Regional, Systemic  Microscopic  Cytology (Cells), Histology (Tissues)  Developmental  Embryology Physiology –The study of function
  • 4. Directional Terms Directional terms describe the positions of structures relative to other structures or locations in the body.  Superior  Inferior  Anterior  Posterior  Medial  Lateral  Proximal  Distal  Superficial  Deep
  • 6. BONES Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Because bones come in a variety of shapes and have a complex internal and external structure they are lightweight, yet strong and hard, in addition to fulfilling their many other functions. Osseous tissue, also called bone tissue, that gives it rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure. Other types of tissue found in bones include marrow, endosteum and periosteum,nerves, b lood vessels and cartilage. There are 206 bones in the adult human body and 270 in an infant
  • 7. FunctionsBones have eleven main functions:Mechanical Protection — Bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs. Shape — Bones provide a frame to keep the body supported. Movement — Bones, skeletal, muscles, tendons, ligaments Sound transduction — Bones are important in the mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing
  • 8. Synthetic Blood production — The marrow, located within the medullary cavity of long bones, produces blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis.Metabolic Mineral storage — Bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus. Growth factor storage — Mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin- like growth factors.
  • 9.  Fat Storage — The yellow bone marrow acts as a storage reserve of fatty acids. Acid-base balance — Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts. Detoxification — Bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues. Endocrine organ — Bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Bone cells also release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose)
  • 10. BONES OF UPPER LIMB Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpals Phalanges
  • 11. BONES OF LOWER LIMB hip bone (1) femur (1) patella (1) tibia (1) fibula (1) tarsals (8) metatarsals (5) proximal phalanges (5) intermediate phalanges (5) distal phalanges (4)
  • 12.  Cervical: 7 vertebrae (C1–C7)  C1 is known as "atlas" and supports the head, C2 is known as "axis", C7 is known as "vertabra prominens" Thoracic: 12 vertebrae (T1–T12) Lumbar: 5 vertebrae (L1–L5) Sacral: 5 (fused) vertebrae (S1–S5) Coccygeal: 4 (3–5) (fused) vertebrae (Tailbone)
  • 13. THANK YOU