Science (polio)

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Science (polio)

  1. 1. POLIO • Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a highly contagious viral infection that can lead to paralysis, breathing problems, or even death. The term poliomyelitis is from the Greek poliós meaning "grey",myelós referencing the spinal cord, and -itis meaning inflammation.
  2. 2. CAUSES OF POLIO • Polio is caused by the poliovirus, a highly contagious virus specific to humans. The virus usually enters the environment in the feces of someone who is infected. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads through the fecal-oral route, via contaminated water or food. In addition, direct contact with a person infected with the virus can cause polio.
  3. 3. SYMPTOMS OF POLIO • Fever • Sore throat • Headache • Vomiting • Fatigue • Back pain or stiffness • Neck pain or stiffness • Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
  4. 4. •Muscle spasms or tenderness •Meningitis
  5. 5. PREVENTION OF POLIO • Although polio essentially has been eradicated in the US since 1979 and in the Western Hemisphere since 1991, children and adults in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan are still contending with the disease. There are two vaccines available to fight polio - inactivated poliovirus (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV).
  6. 6. •IPV, which consists of a series of injections beginning two months after birth and continuing until a child is 4 to 6 years old, is provided to most children in the United States. The vaccine is created from inactive poliovirus, but it is very safe and effective and cannot cause polio. OPV is created from a weakened or attenuated form of poliovirus, and it is the vaccine of choice in many countries because of its low cost, ease of administration, and ability to provide excellent immunity in the intestine. OPV, however, has been known to revert to a dangerous form of poliovirus that is able to paralyze its victim.
  7. 7. Polio vaccinations or boosters are highly recommended in anyone who is not vaccinated or is unsure if she is vaccinated.
  8. 8. TRANSMISSION • Polio is spread through person-to-person contact. When a child is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. It is then shed into the environment through the faces where it can spread rapidly through a community, especially in situations of poor hygiene and sanitation. If a sufficient number of children are fully immunized against polio, the virus is unable to find susceptible children to infect, and dies out.
  9. 9. •Young children who are not yet toilet-trained are a ready source of transmission, regardless of their environment. Polio can be spread when food or drink is contaminated by faeces. There is also evidence that flies can passively transfer poliovirus from faeces to food. •Most people infected with the poliovirus have no signs of illness and are never aware they have been infected. •These symptomless people carry the virus in their intestines and can “silently” spread the infection to thousands of others before the first case of polio paralysis emerges.
  10. 10. •For this reason, WHO considers a single confirmed case of polio paralysis to be evidence of an epidemic – particularly in countries where very few cases occur.

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