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Importance and Techniques of Rain Water Harvesting in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam
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Importance and Techniques of Rain Water Harvesting in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam

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The slides describes the need of rain water harvesting with special reference to drought prone zones of Assam

The slides describes the need of rain water harvesting with special reference to drought prone zones of Assam

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  • 1. Water Conservation in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam - Need, Prospects and Problems with special reference to Kamrup (Rural) District ByManoshi Goswami & Purabi Bharali Gauhati Commerce College, Guwahati
  • 2. Introduction  Water is crucial for growth & development of crops.  Availability or scarcity of water in crop fields effect the success of crops.  Thus it plays a vital role in agricultural prosperity.
  • 3. Indian Agriculture- an Overview  Mostly RAINFED,  Depends mainly on MONSOONAL rainfall to meet the demand of water  Monsoon period – high rainfall with excess of water leading to Flood  Post Monsoon and winter season experience very less rainfall causing water scarcity in agricultural areas.
  • 4. Objectives  Why we need water conservation?  What are the most important resources available?  What are the prospect of successful water conservation measures?  What may be the problems?
  • 5. Study Area Kamrup (Rural) District is situated between 25.460 and 26.490 North Latitude and between 90.480 & 91.500 East Longitude. It has a total geographical area of 4, 34,500 acres. Agroclimatically the region falls under the Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone The dominant farming system of the district include paddy cultivation with all the three crops during the year i.e. Sali, Ahu and Boro paddy.
  • 6. Parameter Value/Details Rainfall 1700mm Temperature Maximum- 31.3 – 33.0 0C Minimum – 8.0 -13.5 0 C Relative Humidity 78-80% Soil type Alluvial, Sandy (18.08%) Sandy Loam (39.28%) Total cultivated area 2,51,156 ha Net Irrigated area 58,239 ha Source: www.kamrup.nic.in www.aau.asc.in/dee/kvkkamrup/agril_in_kamrup.html
  • 7. Why…………. (Need of Water Conservation)  Mostly under rainfed agriculture  Irrigation is available at only 19-23% of the area  Post monsoon and winter period receive very less amount of rainfall than the monsoon season.  Soils of the district have lower water holding capacity  Identified as one of the potential drought prone areas with the probability of moderate to severe drought.  Depletion of ground water level
  • 8. Seasonal Variation of rainfall over the years Season Year 2006 mm Pre Monsoon Monsoo 2007 % to annual RF mm 2008 % to annual RF mm 2009 % to annual RF mm 2010 % to annual RF mm % to annual RF 472.6 39.75 541.1 28.6 441.4 27.6 372.3 25.8 849.8 40.1 570.8 48.01 1097.1 58.1 997.0 62.3 939.5 65.2 1190.3 56.1 127.2 10.7 161.1 8.5 115.6 7.2 122.7 8.5 81.0 3.8 18.2 1.53 90.1 4.7 45.6 2.9 5.8 0.04 0.5** 0.02 n Post Monsoon Winter Total Annual Rainfall 1188.8 1889.4 1599.6 Source: Hydromet Division, Indian Meteorological Dept. 1440.3 2121.6
  • 9. Prospects  The region is having a rich source of water resources in terms of perennial rivers, tributaries, minor streams and wetlands which have the potential to supply sufficient amount of water to the needy areas.     Five major rivers Highest area under wetlands Highest area under marshy/swampy land Significant number of pond/tanks  High amount of rainfall is received during the Monsoon season
  • 10. Rain Water Harvesting  Is the system of collecting and storing excess amount of rainfall received during the high rain period  Utilizing the same in the lean period  Water harvesting is a directly productive form of soil and water conservation. It can also be regarded as a traditional form of irrigation.  Two semi-urban areas Hajo and Sonapur in the district have been reported with successful installation of Rooftop RWH for meeting daily consumption needs.  Various traditional systems of RWH exist in the district.
  • 11.  Traditional systems are cost effective and viable  These traditional methods can be used to meet the demand of water in the agricultural sector BAMBOO DRIP IRRIGATION APATANI
  • 12. ZABO DONG* POND*
  • 13.  Needs sufficient modification and scientific renovation. TARPOULINE SHEET COVERED POND INJECTION WELL PERCOLATION PIT
  • 14. Problems…………  Environmental Factors o Gradual decline of surface water resources – shrinking of area, pollution, eutrophication, decline of reservoir capacity o Climate change and reported decline of monsoonal rainfall  Socio-economic Factors o financial condition of the farmers o conservative attitude and resistance to adopt new technologies o lack of awareness
  • 15.  Small land holding and other infra-structural problem  Lack of govt. initiatives  Lack of financial support  Inadequate agricultural policies  Inappropriate market economics
  • 16. Conclusions & Recommendations  Onsite rain water harvesting systems  Community based harvesting structure construction and maintenance  Training and skill enhancement programmes  Improvement of existing RWH systems  Adoption of modern methodologies
  • 17. References: 1.Water-The India Story; Report of Grail Research, LLC, 2009. 2.District Report, Kamrup, Baseline Survey of Minority Concentrated Districts, www.icssr.org 3.Official Website of Kamrup District, www.kamrup.nic.in 4.Official Website of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kamrup, www.aau.asc.in/dee/kvkkamrup/agril_in_kamrup.html 5.Directorate of Extention Education, AAU in www.aau.ac.in/dee/annextures6.php 6.Ranfall Data of Kamrup District, Hydromet Division, Indian Meteorological Department 7.Soil Water Plant Relationship, Irrigation Engineering Principles, Version 2CE, IIT, Kharagpur 8.Gore P.G, Prasad T and Hatwar .H.R., Mapping of Drought Areas Over India, National Climate Centre Research Report, 2010
  • 18. 9.Faster, Sustainable & More Inclusive Growth, An Approach to the 12th Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, 2011 10.Select Case Studies, Rain Water Harvesting & Artificial Recharge, Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resource, 2011 11.Borthakur S, Traditional Rain Water Harvesting Techniques and its Applicability, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol.8(4),2009 12.Environmental Information System –Assam, Assam Science, Technology and Environmental Council, 13Report on Wetlands, Planning Commission, India, 2008 14Gogoi R, Conserving Deepar Beel Ramsar Site, Assam, Current Science, Vol.93(4), 2007 15.ENVIS Newsletter, July-September, 2007 16.Bhowmik B.C, Sarma A.K. and Talukdar K.C, Farming System in Assam, 1999.