Water Conservation in Lower Brahmaputra
Valley Zone of Assam - Need, Prospects and
Problems with special reference to Kamrup
Gauhati Commerce College, Guwahati
Water is crucial for growth & development of crops.
Availability or scarcity of water in crop fields effect the
success of crops.
Thus it plays a vital role in agricultural prosperity.
Indian Agriculture- an Overview
Depends mainly on MONSOONAL rainfall to meet the
demand of water
Monsoon period – high rainfall with excess of water
leading to Flood
Post Monsoon and winter season experience very less
rainfall causing water scarcity in agricultural areas.
Why we need water conservation?
What are the most important resources available?
What are the prospect of successful water conservation
What may be the problems?
Kamrup (Rural) District is
situated between 25.460 and
26.490 North Latitude and
between 90.480 & 91.500 East
It has a total geographical area
of 4, 34,500 acres.
Agroclimatically the region
Brahmaputra Valley Zone
The dominant farming system
of the district include paddy
cultivation with all the three
crops during the year i.e.
Sali, Ahu and Boro paddy.
Maximum- 31.3 – 33.0 0C
Minimum – 8.0 -13.5 0 C
Alluvial, Sandy (18.08%)
Sandy Loam (39.28%)
Total cultivated area
Net Irrigated area
(Need of Water Conservation)
Mostly under rainfed agriculture
Irrigation is available at only 19-23% of the area
Post monsoon and winter period receive very less
amount of rainfall than the monsoon season.
Soils of the district have lower water holding capacity
Identified as one of the potential drought prone areas
with the probability of moderate to severe drought.
Depletion of ground water level
Seasonal Variation of rainfall over the years
Source: Hydromet Division, Indian Meteorological Dept.
The region is having a rich source of water resources
in terms of perennial rivers, tributaries, minor
streams and wetlands which have the potential to
supply sufficient amount of water to the needy
Five major rivers
Highest area under wetlands
Highest area under marshy/swampy land
Significant number of pond/tanks
High amount of rainfall is received during the
Rain Water Harvesting
Is the system of collecting and storing excess amount of
rainfall received during the high rain period
Utilizing the same in the lean period
Water harvesting is a directly productive form of soil and
water conservation. It can also be regarded as a traditional
form of irrigation.
Two semi-urban areas Hajo and Sonapur in the district
have been reported with successful installation of Rooftop RWH for meeting daily consumption needs.
Various traditional systems of RWH exist in the district.
Traditional systems are cost effective and viable
These traditional methods can be used to meet the
demand of water in the agricultural sector
BAMBOO DRIP IRRIGATION
Needs sufficient modification and scientific
o Gradual decline of surface water resources – shrinking of
area, pollution, eutrophication, decline of reservoir
o Climate change and reported decline of monsoonal
o financial condition of the farmers
o conservative attitude and resistance to adopt new
o lack of awareness
Small land holding and other infra-structural
Lack of govt. initiatives
Lack of financial support
Inadequate agricultural policies
Inappropriate market economics
Conclusions & Recommendations
Onsite rain water harvesting systems
Community based harvesting structure construction
Training and skill enhancement programmes
Improvement of existing RWH systems
Adoption of modern methodologies
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3.Official Website of Kamrup District, www.kamrup.nic.in
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Plan, Planning Commission, 2011
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Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resource, 2011
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