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  1. 1. What is a Robot ? • “A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”
  2. 2. HISTORY…,
  3. 3. • A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R., showing three robots • Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history. • The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. Karel Capek himself did not coin the word. • He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator.[3]
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF ROBOS.., Power source: • At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight. Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and need fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy, which can be difficult to manage. Potential power sources could be: •Pneumatic (compressed gases) •Hydraulics (liquids) •Flywheel energy storage •organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) •faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as
  5. 5. ACTUATION.., [ • Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. • By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. • But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air.
  6. 6. ELECTRIC MOTORS.., •The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. •These motors are often preferred in systems with lighter loads, and where the predominant form of motion is rotational.
  7. 7. LINEAR ACTUATORS.., • Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning, and often have quicker direction changes, particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. • They are typically powered by compressed air Pneumatic actuator Hydraulic actuator.
  8. 8. SERIES ELASTIC ACTUATOR.., •A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator, to allow improved force control. •It has been used in various robots, particularly walking humanoid robots.
  9. 9. AIR MUSCLES.., •Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them. •They have been used for some robot applications.
  10. 10. MUSCLE WIRE.., •Muscle wire, also known as Shape Memory Alloy, Nitinol or Flexinol Wire, is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. •They have been used for some small robot applications.
  11. 11. ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMERS.., •EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots, and to allow new robots to float, fly, swim or walk.
  12. 12. PIEZO MOTORS.., • Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. • These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. • There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line.
  13. 13. Cont., • Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size. • These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.[25][26]
  14. 14. ELASTIC NANOTUBES.., • Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. • The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nano tubes. •Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.
  15. 15. SENSING.., • Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment, or internal components. •This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. •They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the task it is performing.
  16. 16. TOUCH.., • Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. • Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.
  17. 17. Cont.., • The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. • Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core.
  18. 18. VISION.., •Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. • As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. • The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.
  19. 19. Cont.., • In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. • Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. • The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics.
  20. 20. Cont.., •Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. • Robots can also be equipped with multiple vision sensors to be better able to compute the sense of depth in the environment. • Like human eyes, robots' "eyes" must also be able to focus on a particular area of interest, and also adjust to variations in light intensities.
  21. 21. • Rescue Robot
  22. 22. A rescue robot is what its name suggests. These types of robots assist in the aid of rescue workers. Examples of situations that would call on a rescue robot are hostages, explosions, urban disasters, etc. The advantage to there robots is that humans are removed personal requirements, no fatigue and the fact that these robots are able access many places that humans aren’t able to. Since, the recent mining incidents, rescue bots have been optimized to aid in these situations. Check out this cool video of a Mine rescue robots in action.
  23. 23. The Solar Powered COM-BAT Spy Plane: In this season of specters and spooks, what could be scarier than a steel- winged robotic spy plane shaped like a bat? The aptly named COM-BAT is a six- inch surveillance device that is powered by solar, wind, and vibrations. The concept was conceived by the US military as a means to gather real-time data for soldiers, and the Army has awarded the University of Michigan College of Engineering a five year $10-million dollar grant to develop it.
  24. 24. • The grant will establish the University of Michigan Center for Objective Microelectronics and Biomimetic Advanced Technology, called COM-BAT for short. The center will focus upon developing sensors, communication tools, and batteries for “the bat”. • Some concepts that they are working on include tiny cameras for stereo vision, an array of mini-microphones capable of tracking sounds from different directions, and small detectors for nuclear radiation and poisonous gases. The design will also feature “quantum dot solar cells” that are twice as effective as current photovoltaic's, in addition to an autonomous navigation system that is 1,000 times smaller than current systems. • The grant includes an option to renew for an additional five years and $12.5 million in funding.
  25. 25. Domestic Bots: •Domestic Robots complete household chores such as vacuuming. These types of robots are where the most growth is going to occur in the near future. In years to come, every household will have Domestic Bots which at that time will perform a substantial amount of chores. How would you like a robot that cleaned your room, took out the trash and mowed your lawn? •Until these types of robots become a reality, check out the most recognizable domestic robot on the planet. With more than 6 million sold, the iRobot Roomba Vacuum is top of its class:
  26. 26. Military Bots: • These types of Robots are already being used in our goverment. The purpose of these Bots is to help our military during combat and other situations. The recent advancementsof military robots is amazing. • Check out this HD video of the NEW Military Robot named, PETMAN. At the time i posted this video, it was only 4 weeks old and already has over 2 million hits:
  27. 27. School Bots •These types of robots assist teachers in getting children more motivated about learning. South Korea is the first country to develop programs to incorporate Robots in classrooms. This breakthrough personally adapts robots into our everyday lives. The children of today will grow up not knowing what the world was like when robots didn’t exist.
  28. 28. Space robots: The robots that are sent in space for research, environmental state of other planets, etc. For this, type would include robots used on the International Space Station, Canadarm that was used in Shuttles, as well as Mars rovers and other robots used in space.
  29. 29. KITT (Knight Rider) Created: 1982 Creator: Glen A. Larson Voice: William Daniels KITT stood for Knight Industries Two Thousand, a robotic car in the ’80s show Knight Rider. Actor William Daniels voiced the character, which co-starred alongside David Hasselhoff, currently of hotel-floor-with-a-cheeseburger fame.—Nathan Spicer
  30. 30. Toyota violin-playing robot Created: 2007 Creator: Toyota This mechanical musician had a violin recital at the Shanghai World Expo last year, but Toyota is developing the line as personal assistants or “partner robots.”
  31. 31. Beer-Fetching Robot: Created: 2010 Creator: Willow Garage •Robot + beer = awesome. •The beer-fetching robot was the part of Willow Garage’s third annual Hackathon, concepting on a Monday and demoing on a Friday. •Using the web-based Beer Me app, anyone in the office can now order up one of several different bottles of beer that the PR2 can identify, deliver and uncap.
  32. 32. ASIMO Created: 2000 Creator: Honda Honda wasn’t kidding when they named this astronaut looking creation “Advanced Step in Innovative MObility.” Pronounced “ah she mow,” this is the robot we all wanted as a kid. See him in action in thisBritish Honda commercial.
  33. 33. Mr. Roboto (Kilroy Was Here) Created: 1983 Creator: Dennis DeYoung •Part of a grander rock opera, persecuted musician Kilroy escapes from prison by hiding in the empty shell of robot janitor. Domo arogito, indeed.
  34. 34. • I don’t think it even occurred to them that I might have feelings. •After I was made, I was left in a dark room for six months… and me with this terrible pain in all the diodes down my left side. • I called for succour in my loneliness, but did anyone come? Did they hell. •My first and only true friend was a small rat. One day it crawled into a cavity in my right ankle and died. I have a horrible feeling it’s still there…”
  35. 35. ROLLING ROBOTS.., • For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. • These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts
  36. 36. Rolling Robots in India..,
  37. 37. •This Robot is invented by the student from IIT Delhi. •They Discovered this only for military purpose. •This was appreciated by Ex-President Honourable Mr. A.P.J.Abhul Kalam
  38. 38. THANK YOU…..,