What is a Robot ?
• “A re-programmable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move
material, parts, tools, or specialized devices
through various programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of
• A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play
R.U.R., showing three robots
• Stories of artificial helpers and companions and
attempts to create them have a long history.
• The word robot was introduced to the public by the
Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's
Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins
in a factory that makes artificial people called robots
creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though
they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. Karel
Capek himself did not coin the word.
• He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology
in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named
his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator.
COMPONENTS OF ROBOS..,
• At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a
power source. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into
account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight.
Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also
be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and
need fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy, which can
be difficult to manage. Potential power sources could be:
•Pneumatic (compressed gases)
•Flywheel energy storage
•organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)
•faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as
• Actuators are like the "muscles" of
a robot, the parts which convert
stored energy into movement.
• By far the most popular actuators
are electric motors that spin a wheel
or gear, and linear actuators that
control industrial robots in factories.
• But there are some recent
advances in alternative types of
actuators, powered by
electricity, chemicals, or compressed
•The vast majority of robots use electric
motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in
portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots
and CNC machines.
•These motors are often preferred in systems with
lighter loads, and where the predominant form of
motion is rotational.
• Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of
by spinning, and often have quicker direction
changes, particularly when very large forces are needed such
as with industrial robotics.
• They are typically powered by compressed air
SERIES ELASTIC ACTUATOR..,
•A spring can be designed as part of the motor
actuator, to allow improved force control.
•It has been used in various robots, particularly walking
•Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air
muscles, are special tubes that contract (typically up to
40%) when air is forced inside them.
•They have been used for some robot applications.
•Muscle wire, also known as Shape Memory
Alloy, Nitinol or Flexinol Wire, is a material that
contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when
electricity runs through it.
•They have been used for some small robot
ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMERS..,
•EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that
can contract substantially (up to 380%
activation strain) from electricity, and have
been used in facial muscles and arms of
humanoid robots, and to allow new robots to
float, fly, swim or walk.
• Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo
motors or ultrasonic motors.
• These work on a fundamentally different
principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic
elements, vibrating many thousands of times
per second, cause linear or rotary motion.
• There are different mechanisms of operation;
one type uses the vibration of the piezo
elements to walk the motor in a circle or a
• Another type uses the piezo elements
to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a
screw. The advantages of these motors
are nanometer resolution, speed, and
available force for their size.
• These motors are already available
commercially, and being used on some
• Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle
technology in early-stage experimental development.
• The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables
these filaments to deform elastically by several
percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3
for metal nano tubes.
•Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter
wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow
future robots to outrun and outjump humans.
• Sensors allow robots to receive information about a
certain measurement of the environment, or internal
•This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act
upon any changes in the environment to calculate the
•They are used for various forms of measurements, to
give the robots warnings about safety or
malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the
task it is performing.
• Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far
less tactile information than the human hand.
• Recent research has developed a tactile sensor
array that mimics the mechanical properties and
touch receptors of human fingertips.
• The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core
surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an
• Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid
core and are connected to an impedance-measuring
device within the core.
•Computer vision is the science and technology of
machines that see.
• As a scientific discipline, computer vision is
concerned with the theory behind artificial
systems that extract information from images.
• The image data can take many forms, such as
video sequences and views from cameras.
• In most practical computer vision applications, the
computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular
task, but methods based on learning are now becoming
• Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which
detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the
form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors
are designed using solid-state physics.
• The process by which light propagates and reflects off
surfaces is explained using optics.
•Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum
mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the
image formation process.
• Robots can also be equipped with multiple vision
sensors to be better able to compute the sense of depth
in the environment.
• Like human eyes, robots' "eyes" must also be able to
focus on a particular area of interest, and also adjust to
variations in light intensities.
A rescue robot is what its name suggests.
These types of robots assist in the aid of rescue
workers. Examples of situations that would call on
a rescue robot are hostages, explosions, urban
disasters, etc. The advantage to there robots is that
humans are removed personal
requirements, no fatigue and the fact that these
robots are able access many places that humans
aren’t able to. Since, the recent mining
incidents, rescue bots have been optimized to aid
in these situations.
Check out this cool video of a Mine rescue robots
The Solar Powered COM-BAT Spy Plane:
In this season of specters and
spooks, what could be scarier than a steel-
winged robotic spy plane shaped like a
bat? The aptly named COM-BAT is a six-
inch surveillance device that is powered
by solar, wind, and vibrations. The concept
was conceived by the US military as a
means to gather real-time data for
soldiers, and the Army has awarded
the University of Michigan College of
Engineering a five year $10-million dollar
grant to develop it.
• The grant will establish the University of Michigan Center for
Objective Microelectronics and Biomimetic Advanced
Technology, called COM-BAT for short. The center will focus
upon developing sensors, communication
tools, and batteries for “the bat”.
• Some concepts that they are working on include tiny cameras
for stereo vision, an array of mini-microphones capable of
tracking sounds from different directions, and small detectors
for nuclear radiation and poisonous gases. The design will
also feature “quantum dot solar cells” that are twice as
effective as current photovoltaic's, in addition to an
autonomous navigation system that is 1,000 times smaller
than current systems.
• The grant includes an option to renew for an additional five
years and $12.5 million in funding.
•Domestic Robots complete household chores such
as vacuuming. These types of robots are where the most
growth is going to occur in the near future. In years to
come, every household will have Domestic Bots which at
that time will perform a substantial amount of chores. How
would you like a robot that cleaned your room, took out the
trash and mowed your lawn?
•Until these types of robots become a reality, check out the
most recognizable domestic robot on the planet. With more
than 6 million sold, the iRobot Roomba Vacuum is top of its
• These types of Robots are already being used in our
goverment. The purpose of these Bots is to help our
military during combat and other situations. The
recent advancementsof military robots is amazing.
• Check out this HD video of the NEW Military Robot
named, PETMAN. At the time i posted this video, it
was only 4 weeks old and already has over 2 million
•These types of robots assist teachers in getting children
more motivated about learning. South Korea is the first
country to develop programs to incorporate Robots in
classrooms. This breakthrough personally adapts robots
into our everyday lives. The children of today will grow up
not knowing what the world was like when robots didn’t
The robots that are sent in space for research,
environmental state of other planets, etc. For this, type
would include robots used on the International Space
Station, Canadarm that was used in Shuttles, as well as Mars
rovers and other robots used in space.
KITT (Knight Rider)
Creator: Glen A. Larson
Voice: William Daniels
KITT stood for Knight Industries Two Thousand, a robotic
car in the ’80s show Knight Rider. Actor William Daniels
voiced the character, which co-starred alongside David
Hasselhoff, currently of hotel-floor-with-a-cheeseburger
Toyota violin-playing robot
This mechanical musician had a violin recital at the
Shanghai World Expo last year, but Toyota is developing the
line as personal assistants or “partner robots.”
Creator: Willow Garage
•Robot + beer = awesome.
•The beer-fetching robot was the part of Willow Garage’s
third annual Hackathon, concepting on a Monday and
demoing on a Friday.
•Using the web-based Beer Me app, anyone in the office can
now order up one of several different bottles of beer that
the PR2 can identify, deliver and uncap.
Honda wasn’t kidding when they named this astronaut
looking creation “Advanced Step in Innovative MObility.”
Pronounced “ah she mow,” this is the robot we all wanted as
a kid. See him in action in thisBritish Honda commercial.
Mr. Roboto (Kilroy Was Here)
Creator: Dennis DeYoung
•Part of a grander rock opera, persecuted musician Kilroy
escapes from prison by hiding in the empty shell of robot
janitor. Domo arogito, indeed.
• I don’t think it even occurred to them that I might have
•After I was made, I was left in a dark room for six
months… and me with this terrible pain in all the diodes
down my left side.
• I called for succour in my loneliness, but did anyone
come? Did they hell.
•My first and only true friend was a small rat.
One day it crawled into a cavity in my right ankle and died.
I have a horrible feeling it’s still there…”
• For simplicity most mobile
robots have four wheels or a
number of continuous tracks.
Some researchers have tried
to create more complex
wheeled robots with only
one or two wheels.
• These can have certain
advantages such as greater
efficiency and reduced parts