Analysis of Indian Logistics
Sector - 2009
Fortress Financial Services ltd.
Overview of the Logistics Sector
Flow of the
Structure of the Logistics Sector
Major Demand and Growth Drivers of
Comparison of Indian Logistics Sector
with different countries
3PL and 4PL
Challenges and Opportunities
Overview of the Logistics Sector:
Definition of Logistics:
• The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow and storage of raw
materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from point of origin to point of
consumption for the purpose of meeting customer requirements
Total Market Size of Logistics is estimated to be $ 95 billion
Market Structure Level of Competitiveness
10 to 100
Organized crore more than
• Owner with less than or equal to 5
10% 2% 100 crore
• They contribute about 80% of the 1 to 10 crore
0.3 to 1 crore
Level of competition is
undercutting beyond a point
Penetrating this huge may not be feasible. Hence
volume of Unorganized LSP’s have to go beyond
Players is by far the rendering just the basic
biggest challenge services.
LSP: Logistic Service Provider
Share amongst different segments of Logistics sector:
Cargo Share amongst different Share in Revenue Generation amongst
Segments different Segments Annual Turnover in
Civil Aviation (Negligible) Civil Segments billion)
Aviation Railways 534
Railways 13% Roadways 2086
g Ports 91
Major Ports 37%
55% Warehousing 1,500
Minor Ports Ports Civil Aviation 43
Where do we stand Globally ..
Nearly 70% of domestic freight is
carried by the Road segment and the •Indian Railways is 2nd largest in the world just marginally behind
remaining by Rail segment while the China
contribution of the remaining two
segments is comparatively negligible. •Indian Roadways is also the 2nd largest behind U.S which has 6.4
million km of network.
International freight is completely
dominated by Sea Port Segment. •India has the largest merchant shipping fleet among the
developing countries and is ranked 17th globally.
•Constitutes just 3% of global air cargo.
Structure of Logistics Sector
Projected Barriers to Capex
Logistics Segment Growth Drivers Growth Rate entry Dominance of Players Requirement Nature of Competition
Courier Domestic growth 20-25% Low Unorganized Low Local
XPS FMCG, Retail, Auto & Auto Ancillaries 20-25% High Organized High National
Warehousing Manufacturing activity 40% Medium Unorganized High Regional to National
Trucking Manufacturing activity 12% Low Unorganized Low Local
Container EXIM and domestic trade 15-20% Medium Organized High National
Inland Container Depots
/ Container Freight Organized /
Stations EXIM 15-20% Low Unorganized High Local
Characteristics of Logistics Sector
High costs of operations
Shortage of talent
Wide Geographic Reach
Demand from clients for investing in technology and providing
one-stop solutions to all their needs.
Consolidation through acquisitions, mergers and alliances.
Value added services
Major Cost Elements
Losses Loses of 14% translates into
14% roughly INR 290 billion for
various industries primarily
Packaging 35% due to the Unorganized
Certainly a huge opportunity for
Organized players to cash in by
providing the requisite safety and
the insurance coverage for the truck
load of goods.
Major Demand and Growth Drivers of Indian Logistics: Enhances the
market reach of
Growth Driver Demand Driver Growth Driver
Policies, Plans and Agricultural industry Manufacturing Industry Infrastructure
of GST Auto
Accounts for Food &
about 50% of the Cement
drives the growth of Warehouses
logistics sector FMCG, Pharma and
apart from agro
Government Plans 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) (Roads, Railways, Ports and Civil Aviation)
8% of India’s GDP
Slightly over 3 times (INR billion)
jump from 10th 5YP 4,457
10th 10th 10th 10th
Railways Roadways Shipping & Ports Civil Aviation
606 2,510 621 1,073 54 438 129 435
> 4 times 1.72 times 8 times 3.4 times
Private 867 368 934
Gross Budgetary Support (GBS)
Internal and Extra Budgetary Resource (IEBR)
Railways - 2,510 INR billion Roadways - 1,941 INR billion Shipping & Ports – 807 INR billion Civil Aviation - 1,370 INR billion
Private Private IEBR
Investmen Investme 31%
ts nts Private
IEBR 45% IEBR Investments
66% IEBR 49% 68%
Government Policies and Taxation
Rationalization of tax:
Goods and Services Tax (GST) – Proposed to be implemented by April 2010.
•Aims to remove multiple taxation by abolishing taxes
such as Octroi, Central sales tax, State level sales
•The introduction of GST in India would mean that
tax, entry tax, stamp duty, telecom licence
manufactures will now base their logistics decisions on
fees, turnover tax, tax on consumption or sale of
operational efficiency instead of tax optimization.
electricity, taxes on transportation of goods and
•Will enable manufacturers and 3PLs to set-up and
position their warehouses and distribution channels
•Hopes to increase the tax base
based on the considerations of time, cost and logic.
•Aims to remove the disparity in taxation or
•Manufacturers will now be encouraged to outsource
differential treatment to manufacturing and service
their logistics and supply chain operations.
Other Tax Reliefs
The 100 % deduction allowed in respect of capital expenditure for the business of setting up and operating cold chain
facilities for specified products, and setting up and operating warehousing facilities for storage of agricultural produce.
The enhancement of limit for disallowance of expenditure made in the case of transporters i.e. to raise the limit from Rs
20,000 to Rs 35,000 effective October 1, 2009 and NIL TDS for road transport, would certainly address the stringent practical
difficulties, which is step towards moving of this Industry from unorganised to organised structure.
Deductions under section 80-IA meant for infrastructure industry, which has been extended to railways.
Post-Liberalization A few Vital Stats ..
Type of Road Length (in km) Percentage Average Growth of NH
during each 5 YP is •70% of freight taken by roads
Expressways 200 --- 24.08%
•NH carries about 40% of road traffic
National Highways (NH) 70,548 2.12%
•Avg. truck speed in NH – 20 to 30 km / hr
State Highways (SH) 1,31,699 3.96%
Major District Roads Number of kilometers •SH and MDR carries 40% of road traffic
(MDR) 4,67,763 14.08% added post-
liberalization 39,901 •Traffic on roads is growing by 7% - 10%
Rural and Other Roads 26,50,000 79.81% km.
•Vehicle population 12% growth
Total Length 33,20,210
(as of 2009) Sale of Commercial Vehicles (in lakhs)
Road Freight Valuation (INR billion) growth 9.1% and 6
2500 growth from 2000 is 4.9
10.6% 5 4.6
1500 3 2.6
1000 840 2
610 Growth in
500 Commercial 1
0 2002-03 is 12.2% 0
1995 2000 2005 2009
(Source till 2005: KPMG)
(Source : SIAM)
Infrastructure Projects undertaken by NHAI: Development Projects:
S. No. Name of Project Likely Cost ( INR billion) Completion Dates
1. Completion of GQ and EW-NS corridors 524 December 2009
(Phase I and II)
2. 4 -laning of 11,113 km under NHDP Phase-III 724 December 2013
3. 2-laning with paved shoulders of 20,000 km 278 ---
of National Highways under NHDP Phase-IV
4. 6-laning of selected stretches of National 412 December 2012
Highways under NHDP Phase-V
5. Development of 1000 km of expressways 166 December 2015
under NHDP Phase-VI
6. Construction of ring roads, flyovers and 166 December 2015
bypasses on selected stretches under NHDP
Current Status of Projects:
Corridors Total Length Length Completed Length Under Balance for award (as of Dec 2009)
(in km) (in km) implementation (in km)
Golden Quadrilateral 5846 5713 133 ----
North-South & East- 7142 3291 3030 821
Port Connectivity 380 206 168 06
Out of a total length of 6283 kms
under implementation, 4/6
NHDP Phase-III 12,109 659 1816 9624 laning has been completed for a
NHDP Phase-V 6500 77 953 5470 partial length of 2130 kms.
Total 32939 10705 6283 15951
Development Projects: Major Industrial Regions
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor
Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor is a mega infra-structure project of $90
billion with the financial & technical aids from Japan, covering an overall length
of 1483 KMs between the Dadri in Delhi and JNPT in Mumbai.
This Dedicated Freight Corridor envisages a high-speed connectivity for High
Axle Load Wagons (25 Tonne) of Double Stacked Container Trains supported by
high power locomotives.
Distribution of length of the corridor indicates that Rajasthan (39%) and
Gujarat (38%) together constitute 77% of the total length of the alignment of
freight corridor, followed by Haryana and Maharashtra 10% each and Uttar
Pradesh and National Capital Region of Delhi 1.5 % of total length each.
National Expressway: This project incorporates
Nine Mega Industrial zones of about 200-250 sq. km.,
Target: 15,766 km. High speed freight line,
Three ports, and
Phasing of expressway: 2012, 2017, 2022 Six air ports;
Six-lane intersection-free expressway connecting Delhi and Mumbai
Project Cost estimation: >> INR 2.5 trillion 4000 MW power plant.
Plan for Phase I: 3,530 km (Report from Yahoo News Several industrial estates and clusters, industrial hubs, with top-of-
9th Dec ’09) the-line infrastructure would be developed along this corridor to
Estimated Cost for Phase I: Rs. 20,000 crore. attract more foreign investment.
Lanes: 6 to 8 lanes Funds for the projects would come from the Indian government,
Japanese loans, and investment by Japanese firms and through Japan
11 stretches and 12 states identified depository receipts issued by the Indian companies.
Infrastructure Railways Cargo Constituents and its
Railways: Iron &
Passenger traffic / day 18 million Fertilizers
Freight traffic / day 2 million tonnes Coal
Railway coverage 63,465 km Foodgrains
Freights wagons 2,00,000
Coaches 50,000 5% Cement
Locomotives 8,000 Ore to
Ore - Steel
(as of 2009) Export plants
Freight Earnings (INR billion)
Cargo (in million metric tonnes)
Growth of 14.75% 848
473 900 785
Growth of 8.9% 0
Infrastructure Development Projects:
Dedicated Freight Corridor – Rs. 40,000 crore
Western DFC (in kms)
Western Logistics Park:
Corridor 1483 km JNPT in Mumbai to Dadri in U.P
Proposed to set up Logistics Parks at
1. Mumbai area, particularly in the vicinity of Kalyan-Ulhasnagar or Vashi-
Projected Traffic (in million tonnes)
Belapur in Navi Mumbai.
45 2. Vapi in southern Gujarat
40 3. Ahmedabad area in Gujarat,
4. Gandhidham in the Kutch region of Gujarat
35 5. Jaipur area in Rajasthan,
30 6. NCR of Delhi.
These parks are proposed to be developed on Public Private Partnership mode by
20 creating a sub-SPV for the same.
5 0.69 ISO containers from JNPT and Mumbai Port in Maharashtra and ports of
0 Pipavav, Mundra and Kandla in Gujarat destined for ICDs located in northern India
POL, Fertilizers, Food grains, Salt, Coal, Iron & Steel and Cement.
Western Corridor Container WC
Infrastructure Development Projects:
Eastern DFC (in kms)
Uttar Pradesh 1002
Corridor 1279 km Sonnagar in Bihar to Ludhiana in Punjab
It is also proposed to set up Logistics Park at Kanpur in U.P. Projected Traffic (in million tonnes)
and Ludhiana in Punjab. 140
The parks are proposed to be developed on Public Private
Partnership mode by creating a sub-SPV for the same.
Cargo constituents: 60
Coal, finished steel, food grains, cement, fertilizer,
limestone and general goods 20
Capacity Enhancement – Spread of Funds
Other Measures for Running Of 25 Tones Axle Running Of 23/24 Coach
Enhancing Capacity Load On Iron Ore Routes Length Trains
3% 3% 1%
Metropolitan Projects Funds for setting
New Line Projects up Logistics park
12% Rs. 770 crore
Other Railway Electrification
works Logistic Park
pass lines Gauge Conversion
Terminals at State Capitals
and important tourists
1% Traffic Facility Works
Mega Terminals at 11%
Total Funds allocated in 11th five
25% year plan: Rs. 77,050 crore
Infrastructure A few Vital Stats ..
*Some 60% of India’s container traffic is handled by the
Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai
*It has just 9 berths compared to 40 in the main port of
No. Traffic Capacity Singapore.
Major Ports 12 465.7 MT 508.6 MT *It takes an average of 21 days to clear import cargo in India
compared to just 3 in Singapore.
Minor Ports 187 170 MT 228.31 MT
*Cargo handling is projected to grow at 7.7% until 2013-14.
(as of 2006-07) *Only 43 of the 187 minor ports can handle cargo
Projections for 2012: *Mundra port alone handles 60% of minor port traffic
Major ports 800 MT 1001.8 MT 17%
Minor ports 300 MT 345.19 MT Ports Cargo
Constituents and its POL & its
Development Project: Fertilizer Iron Ore 36%
NMDP (National Maritime Development Programme): and FRM 18%
• Upgrade and modernize the port infrastructure in India and benchmark its performance against global standards.
• Total investment for the programme is Rs. 1, 00,339 crore and out of them about Rs. 34,505 crore is expected from the private sector.
Allocation Rs. 55,804 crore for port sector. Project •Construction / up gradation of birth,
Rs. 44,535 crore for shipping and inland •Deepening of channels,
water transport sectors.
Target To be completed in phases within 2011- •Rail / road connectivity projects,
•Equipment up gradation and modernization scheme,
No. of 276
Projects •Other related schemes for creation of backup facilities.
Infrastructure Cargo (in million metric tonnes)
Major Cargo Constituents
2 1.8 •Express Mail
Civil Aviation: 1.8 •Computers
1.4 1.2 •Electronic and Optical
No. of Airports 449 airports / airstrips Equipment
0.8 •Precision Instruments
Under AAI 92 airports and 0.6 •Perishable food stuff
28 Civil enclaves at defence airfields 0.4
0.2 Share in cargo traffic
Major Airports 6
2008-09 2011-12 (E) Non
Non Metro Airports 35 Metro
International Domestic Airport
Domestic Airports 87 s Major
•12.1% growth rate in Internatinal
International Airports 12 s
•10.1% growth rate in domestic
(as of 2009)
AAI: Airport Authority of India
MIHAN (Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur.)
The Cargo hub in Nagpur is Cost: INR 25.8 billion
built to handle nearly 50%
>> Spread over an area of 4025 Hectares
of the total air cargo traffic
all over India >> The airport will have parking space for 50 aircraft at any time with 50
additional bays at fringe areas.
>> With a projected target of serving 14 million passengers and handle 0.87
million tonnes of cargo this is one of largest aviation project in India.
As per planning commission & industry estimates:
• Total existing warehousing capacity is 80 million MT out of which CWC has 10.8 million MT and 21.9.million MT in
• There are three agencies in the public sector which are engaged in building large scale storage/warehousing
capacity, namely, Food Corporation of India (FCI), Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) and 17 State
Warehousing Corporations (SWCs).
• Additional warehousing capacity of 35 million MT in next 5 to 10 years at an investment of about INR 6 billion.
Major investments on these infrastructures have come from Government agencies like CWC, SWC, CONCOR etc.
Current private sector initiatives are small and sporadic.
Private sector warehousing are of poor quality, small, fragmented and does not meet infrastructure standards.
No quality standards or benchmarks are followed in infrastructure creation
• IL&FS is working with Continental Warehousing Corporation Ltd to set up six agri parks across India
• Primary objective is to create trade related infrastructure, envisaging world-class infrastructure for warehousing
of various products
• FTWZ addresses these issues effectively as they would enable supply chain / logistics to function much more
efficiently by removing the cargo bottlenecks witnessed at the ICDs
• In addition, such zones are envisaged to provide common infrastructure such as storage and handling
equipments, shared storage space, etc. which would enable the apportionment of associated capital costs across
a larger base of users leading to significant costs reduction.
INLAND CONTAINER DEPOTS (ICD)
Robust growth of exim trade and capacity constraints in movement and evacuation of cargo has lead to a surging demand for
greenfield ICDs and expansion of existing facilities
At least 40 to 50 new rail/ road ICDs/ CFS across the country needed to handle the projected traffic in next 5 to 10 years
IL&FS is initiating development of ICDs on PPP format with agencies like CONCOR as well as private enterprises with the
objective of filling up this critical infrastructure need
To create economies of scale, the business plan of ICD is being expanded to include SCM functions like warehousing, C&F
(Clearing and Forwarding) and other value added services to give the project shape of “Mega Logistics Park”
INTEGRATED TRANSPORT CENTER
The unplanned development of transport nagars across major industrial townships, metros, mini metros etc.
This has led to inefficient utilization of space, shabby infrastructures, road jams and danger to human life
IL&FS has initiated development of integrated and modern logistics cum transport centers across major locations in the country
on PPP format
The centers will lead to integrated development of warehousing, transportation and traffic planning leading to a much better
Development of such integrated estates on in Uttaranchal, Chattisgarh, North East and Jharkahnd, in collaboration with
respective State Governments
Industry Size in 2009 (in INR billion)
Cost of Logistics to Total Sales 2500
6% 5% 1000
4% 605 590
4% 3% 3% 489
Steel Textiles Auto Cement FMCG F&B
Cement Industry: Share of Logistics (in INR billion)
•Road transportation beyond 200 kms is not 160
economical therefore about 55% of cement is being 140
moved by the railways. There is also the problem of
inadequate availability of wagons especially on 120
western railways and southeastern railways. 100 91
Opportunity: 80 66
•Under this scenario, manufacturers are looking for 60
sea routes, this being not only cheap but also 44
reducing the losses in transit. 40
•Today, 70% of the cement movement
worldwide is by sea compared to 1% in India. 0
Steel Textiles Auto Cement FMCG F&B
Comparison amongst different countries
Country Logistics Cost / GDP
China 13% to 15%
US, UK 9%
India (45% of GDP) 13% to 14%
Country Logistics activities
performed by 3PL /
China, India <10%
Emerging US, UK 57%
Low High Europe 30% to 40%
Estimated Size of 3PL and 4PL in 20 Years
Current GDP in 2029 Share of Share of 3PL Share of 3PL
GDP (in INR with a Logistics (11% and 4PL with a and 4PL with That’s about 40 times jump
trillion) growth rate of 45% of GDP) 30% market 40% market in market size in a span of
of 7% (in (in INR trillion) Share (in INR share (in INR 20 years from the current
INR trillion) trillion) trillion)
market size of INR 78 billion
55 212.83 10.53 3.16 4.21
Definition of 3PL:
• A 3PL provider is a company which supplies /co-ordinates logistics functions across multiple links in the supply
• The company acts as a ‘third party’ facilitator between seller/manufacturer (the ‘first party’) and buyer/user
(the ‘second party’).”
Supply Chain Model
Supplier’s Acquire Convert Distribute Distributers
Why 3PL ?
For Operation Efficiency For Business Growth
Improve focus on core activities
Operational cost reduction
Improve return on assets
Reduced cycle time
Diverting capital investment
More specialized logistics expertise
Access/ Expansion to unfamiliar market
Improve on time delivery
Enhance geographic reach
Increased Sales and Market Share
Flexibility in operations
Enhanced Customer Service
• Inability to respond to changing needs • Non compatibility of IT systems
• Lack of grasp of business goals • Difficulty to manage and change provider
• Unreliable promises from providers • Fear of loss of control
• Concerns about capability of providers • Lack of confidence in provider
• Fear of leakage of important information • Poor infrastructure of providers company
It acts as single interface between the client and multiple logistics service providers.
All aspects of the client’s supply chain are managed by the 4PL organisation.
The 4PL organization is often separate entity established as a joint venture or long term contract
between a primarily client and one or more partners.
It is also possible for a major 3PL provider to form a 4PL organisation within existing structure.
Client Hybrid organisation formed from a number of
Typically established as a JV or long term contract
3PL Responsible for management and operation of entire
4PL supply chain
Continuous flow of information between partners and
3PL 4PL organisation
SWOT Analysis of Logistics Sector:
Extremely critical for manufacturing High cost – low margin business
industry and agri commodity industry Large number of unorganized players
No dearth in volumes Low IT penetration
Critical component in operational efficiency Highly fragmented
Contributes heavily towards customer High Capital expenditure
Implementation of GST from 1st April 2011
Implementation of Golden quadrilateral THREATS
and NS-EW corridors. Increase in fuel costs
Heavy investments to improve Government Policy
infrastructure through developmental Taxation
projects like Mihan, delhi-mumbai
industrial corridor, Dedicated freight
corridor and National Maritime
Unfair Competition Solution / Opportunity:
Unorganized players get away without paying taxes Implies that a truckload loss of Goods is always
Don’t follow the operating norms stipulated in the motor vehicle act such as round the corner. Organized players can cash in by
quality of drivers, vehicles, volume and weight restriction. providing the requisite level of safety and insurance
cover for goods.
Diseconomies of scale Solution / Opportunity:
Differential sales tax structure in different states Proposal for implementation of GST.
Apart from non-uniform tax structure, LSP’s (Logistics Service Provider) have With uniform taxation across all states companies
to pay other kinds of taxes like octrois. could focus on supply chain efficiency rather than
Governments failure in implementation of VAT since 1st of April 2005 Tax avoidance optimization.
Face multiple check post
Solution / Opportunity:
This delays the process of delivery Integration of IT into the process like EDI could
Compliance with varying documentation requirement of different states is greatly speed up the whole process and bring in the
certainly a difficulty. required efficiency.
Low IT penetration
Lack of communication infrastructure Solution / Opportunity:
Lack of visibility Penetration of 3PL players and high level of
Lack of real time tracking ability investments into technology like GPRS would
This leads to a lot of uncertainty and lack of transparency in terms of cost change the scenario.
structure and service delivery
Highly Fragmented Sector Solution / Opportunity:
Value Added Services provides a great
LSP’s stick to their basic services. They don’t provide value added services opportunity to increase the margins.
like packaging / labeling, order processing, distribution, customer support etc.
Solution / Opportunity:
Bribery and Police harassment The scenario could grossly change with greater
$5 billion paid by truckers annually penetration of Organized players.
Some of the major logistics companies ..
Listed Shipping Road Transport
Companies - Large Companies Associated Road CRC Carrier Patel Integrated
Essar Shipping ABC India Autoriders Intl. Delhi Assam Rdwy Peirce Leslie(I)
GE Shipping Co
Adani Agri Log. Balurghat Tech Premier Road Car
Agarwal Indl. Broekman Logisti DLF Retail Reliance Logis.
Agrocargo Trans. Bulk Cem.Corpn. E I T A India Roadways India
Allcargo Global Central Province Frontline Corp. SER Inds.
Varun Ship. Co.
Alltrans Logistc Chart.Logistics Inland Vikash Southern Roadwys
Listed Shipping Alltrans Port Coastal Roadways Inter State Oil Sri Venkatesa Tr
Companies – Medium
Arshiya Intl. Kausar India T N St Trans Coi
Arvind Roadlines Containerway Int T N St Trans Kum
Assam Beng.Carr Wilson Sandhu Vins Overseas Transport Corp.
Shreyas Shipping Courier Corporate Courier
SKS Logistics mundra port
Blue Dart Exp. Gati Skypak Serv. Sp. Delhi Metro
Elbee Express Rail
Chokhani Global Killick Air Cour gateway dis
Cost estimation for a 100 km 4 lane expressway - Rs.
Mumbai-Pune Expressway Ganga Expressway 1784
Cost estimation for a 100 km 6 lane expressway - Rs.
Taj Expressway Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) 2548
Delhi-Noida Direct Flyway Eastern Peripheral Expressway Funding options including PPP mode, cost sharing by
states/ Centre, Commercial utilization of land
Chennai-Bangalore Expressway Pathankot-Jalandhar-Ajmer Expressway within/beyond ROW etc.
Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway Bangalore-Mysore Expressway At present expressway handles about 30,000 PCUs and is
designed to handle up to 10,00,000 PCUs.
Durgapur Expressway Hosur Road Expressway
Belghoria Expressway PV Narsimha Rao Expressway to HIAL
PSU: Passenger Carrying Units
Panipat Elevated Expressway Chennai Elevated Expressway
Shimla-Chandigarh Expressway Mumbai eastern Freeway that starts from CST
The Uttar Pradesh government is planning five more expressways in
• Greater Noida-Saharanpur-Dehradun expressway (in partnership with the
Uttarakhand state government)
• Jhansi-Lucknow expressway The five proposed expressways will have a
combined length of around 1,400km.
• Lucknow-Gorakhpur expressway
• Agra-Kanpur-Lucknow expressway
• Farrukhabad-Kotdwar expressway.
GDP and industry contribution
Sector Employment Interms of contribution
Agriculture 60.00% 27.00%
Service 28.00% 55.00%
Industrial 12.00% 18.00%
Major Items of imports:
* Cashew Nuts
Major items of exports: * Inorganic Chemicals,
Major Exports * Cotton yarn, fabrics made ups etc. * Wood & Wood Products,
* drugs, pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals * Metalifers ors & Metal Scrap,
* manufactures of Metals * Iron & Steel,
* Machinery and Instruments * Cotton raw. Comb/uncombed/waste,
Gems and jewellary
* Man made Yarn, Fabrics Made ups * Coal, coke & Briquettes etc.
* Transport equipment * Pulp and waste paper,
* Primary and Semi finished iron and steel * Non ferrous metals,
* RMG cotton including accessories * Organic chemicals,
* Plastic and linoleum products * Machinery except elect. & electronic,
* Inorganic/organic/agro chemicals. * Fertilizer crude,
* Electronic goods,
* Pearls precious semiprecious stones.
Catering to Agricultural Industry
Major agricultural products include Poultry and diary products
•Wheat •Water buffalo