1. manoj ecosystem services apafri workshop on forest hydrology
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1. manoj ecosystem services apafri workshop on forest hydrology

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1. manoj ecosystem services apafri workshop on forest hydrology 1. manoj ecosystem services apafri workshop on forest hydrology Presentation Transcript

  • ASSESSING WATER REGULATORY SERVICES PROVIDED BY FORESTS OF UTTARAKHAND: PROPOSED METAMODELLING FRAMEWORK *Manoj Kumar1, MP Singh1, Hukum Singh1, Peter A Khaiter2 1Climate Change & Forest Influence Division Forest Research Institute PO : New Forest, Dehradun – 248 006, India 2School of Information Technology, The Faculty of Liberal Arts and Professional Studies, York University, TEL Building # 3044, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada *Email: manojfri@gmail.com, kumarmanoj@icfre.org
  • (Source: Earth Economics 2013) Water Regulatory Services by Forests  Role of land cover in regulating runoff and river discharge: Provides natural irrigation, drainage, channel flow regulation, and navigable transportation  Filtering, retention and storage of fresh water: Provision of water for consumptive use (both quality & quantity)
  • (Source: NPV Report , MoEF, 2013) Forest goods and services in few studies in India 2013 3
  • Water Regulatory Services  The 2006 NPV Expert Committee refers to the value of watershed services which included the value of soil conservation along with hydrological services from secondary site-specific studies. (NPV Expert Committee Report, MoEF, govt. of India, 2013)  The review report of NPV suggests that the methodology for valuation of water regulatory services from forests is still evolving
  • Water Regulatory Services The data for average weight of soil per hectare was obtained from the Forest Inventory data of FSI (FSI 2013). Conservatively assuming that the in absence of forests, the entire soil will take 100 years to erode, annual soil erosion rates have been estimated have for all VDF category of all forest type groups. Recognizing the fact that the capacity of forests to prevent soil erosion depends on a significant extent to the canopy of forest cover through which precipitation is intercepted , relative weights for different canopy density classes have been calculated to estimate their ability to avoid soil erosion. Based on these relative weights, estimate of soil erosion prevented has been calculated for the remaining forest canopy density classes. The quantity of annual soil erosion prevented by forests is thus estimated for all forest type groups and canopy cover density classes.
  • Water Regulatory Services  While site-specific estimates for run-off rates as a percentage of precipitation doesn’t exist for the different forest canopy cover density classes.  On account of lack of any information to provide estimates for different forest type groups or canopy cover density classes, the study by NPV expert committee proposed to use a blanket estimate of Rs. 2950/ha/year as the economic value of water purification services for all forest type groups and canopy cover density classes.
  • Continued… ORIGIN AND NEED OF THE PROPOSAL  Updated reviews suggests removal of forest cover results in higher total stramflow. (Bosch and Hewlett, 1982, Grip, Fritsch and Bruijnzeel, 2005). These observation may often mislead that removing forest will augment the water supply.  Many other services provided by forests viz. soil erosion control, improved water quality Carbon fixation, and the continuous flow of other forest products suggest for estimating these services more scientifically with due care.  Role of forests in regulating the global water cycle and global climate can never be overlooked. 7
  • Continued… Origin and need of the proposal  To ensure optimum water quality we need some framework for its assessment based on actual field observation through site specific experimental set up and developing suitable model for simulation under assumed scenarios.  Forest management in the watershed catchments need scientific basis rather than any misperception.  Different associated services are bound to vary with the percent removal of the forests, so the question lies what is the optimal forest cover for a sustained yield of different services?  We propose a meta-modelling framework for the assessment of water regulatory services provided by forests of Uttarakhand. 8
  • Continued… Origin and need of the proposal  Uttarakhand is an Indian State lying in the Himalayan topography. Most of its area, covering almost more than ninety percent, is hilly terrain with nearly sixty five percentforest cover. People of the region and majority of downstream population are dependent upon the surface and subsurface waters retained and transformed by the regional forests. Therefore, the surface and sub-surface water flows and their quality, formed on the forested watersheds of the State, need to be monitored for addressing various forest management practices and their associated impacts upon the hydrological regime.
  • Continued… Origin and need of the proposal  There have been several studies undertaken world-wide for measuring the regulatory services provided by forests on the watershed areas. However, every forest service varies from region to region and thus it may not be justifiable to mechanically transfer the values received in those studies onto the forests of Uttarakhand. The attempts to evaluate the various services, including water regulatory services of Uttarakhand, have often been made by simply multiplying the dollar values of unit forest area by the total forest cover area of the region.  We propose a meta-modelling framework for the assessment of water regulatory services provided by forests of Uttarakhand.
  • Water Regulatory Services Theoretical understanding of hydrological processes and resulting water balance for the forests of Uttarakhand can be achieved by conducting experimental observations on long- term basis for different forest types of the State. Monitoring of water flow to calculate crown interception, evaporation from snow and water, snowmelt, water release from snow, freezing and thawing of soilgrounds, infiltration, formation of all kinds of runoff, and transpiration together with the monitoring of water quality is suggested for different kinds of forest cover based upon species, crown density, area and age class.
  • Meta modelling framework Simulation and Modelling Economic Assessment Management/Control
  • Conceptual framework for simulating water flow
  • Methodological Approach  In order to quantify the water regulatory services provided by forests of Uttarakhand, it is necessary to compare the components of the water balance in an experimental paired watershed.  However, to compare the results it will require felling of trees to compare the results for different densities of forests over a time, often a very long duration.  To overcome these methodological difficulties, simulation modelling approach will be adopted. Simulation will be done for the forests of Uttarakhand after obtaining the desired experimental values; for the simulation run, through a set of experimental monitoring stations under different forest stands for a considerable period.
  • Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology (SMUFH) of the processes of water transformation in a forested watershed simulates the processes of forest hydrology, and calculates crown interception, evaporation from snow and water, snowmelt, water release from snow, freezing and thawing of soil-grounds, infiltration, formation of all kinds of runoff, and transpiration. The model simulates the values of the water balance components, and provides a quantitative assessment of the hydrological service of the forest. The SMUFH represents the distribution of precipitation using the following water balance equation: PR = EVC + EVF + EVS + QSUR + QSUB + TR + ∆SM + QGR
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology Where, PR = Precipitation EVC, EVF, & EVS = Evaporation from canopy, floor and soil respectively QSUR, QSUB = Surface and Subsurface fluxes, respectively TR = Transpiration ΔSM = Variation of soil moisture content QGR = Water recharge to the groundwater table
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology The modelling of water transformation in the SMUFH will be calculated at three levels (or hydrological niches as proposed by Voronkov, 1988): 1) Tree crown, 2) Forest floor, and 3) Soil layer of a given thickness, Z. The balance condition should obviously be satisfied for each of the hydrological niches: dM dt j INC i j OUT i k j k
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology Where j denotes a hydrologic niche (j = 1, 2, 3); Wj is the water contents in the jth hydrological niche; t is the time variable; and are the i th incoming water balance item and k th out coming water balance item, respectively, for the jth hydrological niche.
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology In order to quantitatively assess the hydrological service of forest, it must be formally defined. It could be expressed through the positive influence of forest vegetation on both the richness of stream flows and the soil moisture content. Given that traditionally in hydrology, all items from the water balance are considered as positive (or useful) ones, except for losses to evapotranspiration and surface runoff, a formalization of the notion of the hydrological service of a forest and its estimation ΔQUSE was proposed (Khaiter, 1993) in the form of the following expression: T QUSE SM t SM o (t ) f (t ) 1 o Q SUB ( t ) o f Q SUB ( t ) Q GR ( t ) f Q GR ( t )
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology The computer experiments with the SMUFH will be carried out for the watersheds representing different forest tree stands and soil types. The computed estimate of the hydrological service in this simulation for watersheds will be added to obtain the total hydrological services provided by forests of Uttarakhand. Two extreme situations (i.e. forested vs. open watershed) will be modelled and compared in the simulations. In terms of the forestmanagement practices, such a transformation corresponds to complete clear cutting. Obviously, anthropogenic activities of forest management will lead to any intermediate scenarios.
  • Continued… Simulation Model for Uttarakhand Forest Hydrology Forest management interventions will be considered for the change in soil density; SD, and percent of forested area, F% (i.e., SD = SD (u(t)) and F% = F% (u(t)). These two factors will be used in the building of the response surface, approximating the data generated by simulation experiments. As a result, the response function will be obtained to estimate the hydrological service provided by forests of Uttarakhand.
  • Continued… Recommendations Forest ecosystems generate various services and benefits which are altered with intervention of forest management practices. For various practical needs of sustainable management, it is important to predict and quantify the possible changes in the ecosystem services such as hydrological regime of a given watershed as a result of anthropogenic activities. Model will help to estimate the ecosystem services under different forest management scenarios in advance before actually perturbing the forests. We have discussed the estimation of hydrological regulatory services through simulation model. Similar models are obviously needed to quantify all other forest ecosystem services and goods which can be applied for addressing sustainable forest management practices.
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