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Military parade

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military parade basics

military parade basics

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  • 1. PARADE
  • 2. Military parade A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted. The American usage is formation or military review". The military parade is now mostly ceremonial, though soldiers from time immemorial up until the late 19th century fought in formation
  • 3. History The terminology comes from the old tradition of formation combat, in which soldiers were held in very strict formations as to maximize their combat effectiveness. Formation combat was seen as an alternative to mêlée combat, which required strict soldier discipline and competent commanders.
  • 4. Modern warfare has shirked - guerilla combat and loose formations, Modern armies still use parades for ceremonial purposes or in non-combat environments for their  efficiency,  ease of organization and  encouragement of discipline. Roughly synonymous are "drill" and "march". Contd..
  • 5. A military drill is memorizing certain actions through repetition until the action is instinctive to the soldiers being drilled. Complex actions are broken down into simpler ones which can be practiced in isolation so when the whole is put together the desired results are achieved.. Contd..
  • 6. - Drilling started in the 16th century with the Dutch army of prince Maurice of Orange. The English word drill is from Middle Dutch origin. - Drilling increased in importance when men stopped fighting as individuals and began to fight together as units. - Military drilling later was used by the Roman Army to maximise efficiency and deadliness throughout their long history. After the fall of the empire, and the Dark Ages set in Europe, most feudal lords more heavily relied on peasant levies and their wealthy knights to fight their wars, the knights for the most part reverting to fighting as individuals. Contd..
  • 7. The U.S. drill is based on the contributions of Baron von Steuben, a Prussian Army officer who served as a volunteer in the Continental Army. During the winter quarters in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, von Steuben taught a model company of 100 soldiers musket drill. These soldiers, in turn, taught the remainder of the Continental Army. Contd..
  • 8. Four directions Parades consist of four directions: 1. Advance 2. Retire 3. Left 4. Right The Advance is the primary direction of movement, regardless of which direction the soldiers are actually facing (similar to a ship’s bow.)
  • 9. The Retire is opposite the advance, against the primary direction of movement (similar to a ship’s stern.) The Left is to the left of the Advance (similar to a ship’s port.) The Right is to the right of the Advance (similar to a ship’s starboard.) Contd..
  • 10. If the Advance is changed, then all other directions are changed to be based on the new Advance. There is only one person in charge of a parade at a time. Changing this person is very ceremonious. This is to make it obvious to the soldiers who is currently in command and therefore to whom to pay attention. Contd..
  • 11. During parades, unless explicitly told otherwise, soldiers have restricted movement, meaning they can move only exactly when they are told, and then doing only exactly what they are told to do. Contd..
  • 12. American usage allows the service member to be at four states of alert: 1. Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, chest out, knees straight but not locked, feet together at a 45- degree angle. 2. At Ease: a modified position of attention in which the left foot is moved to shoulder width and the hands are placed in the small of the back 3. Stand At Ease: Hands are lowered to a more comfortable position behind the back and the soldier may look at the speaker.
  • 13. 4. Stand Easy: The service member is allowed move around all but the right foot, must remain silent. 5. Rest: Similar to At Ease, except that the service member may talk. A formation must be brought to the position of attention before it can go to a lower state of alert.
  • 14. 1. Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, chest out, shoulders back and down, knees straight but not locked, heels together, feet at a 30-degree angle (540 mils). All muscles are rigid. The hands are held in tight fists with the thumbs aligned with the seam of the trousers. 2. At Ease: a modified position of attention in which the left foot is moved to shoulder width (typically measured as exactly 12 inches) and the hands are placed behind the back with arms fully extended. The right hand is placed inside the left with all fingers together and pointing rigidly downwards. U.S. military usage is "Parade Rest." Common wealth Nations
  • 15. 3. Easy: Legs remain at At Ease position, arms are brought to the sides to a more natural standing position. Member may relax their muscles and make minimal movements. U.S. usage is "At Ease," however a common mistake in U.S. military practice confuses "At Ease" with "Rest" (below). 4. Relax: Legs remain at position at ease, member may make more significant movements or look around. Members may not move the feet. If the troops are not being addressed by a commander, they are generally allowed to talk quietly. U.S. usage is "Rest."
  • 16. Four-part commands The typical parade commands are spoken extremely clearly and emphatically, and consist of four major parts. 1. Identifier, or who is to follow the command. This is typically (number) Section, (number) Platoon, (letter) Company, or (name) Regiment, although the prefixes are often dropped when there is no ambiguity (Section, Platoon, Company (Coy,) or Regiment). Parade can be given only by the parade commander and always refers to the entire parade, regardless of size.
  • 17. 2. Precautionary, or what is to be done in abstract sense: Move to the Advance, Move to the Retire, etc. (This is not always used in American usage) 3. Cautionary, or the first part of what is to be done. In American usage, this is called the "preparatory command."
  • 18. 4. Executive, or execution, a single syllable on which the soldiers actually move. This is as true in the United States armed forces as in other services; however, the accent of the commander often leads this to be heard as simply huh on commands such as "Present Arms" and "Order Arms." There is always a significant pause between the Cautionary and the Executive. In American usage, the executive command is always given a greater emphasis than the preparatory command.
  • 19. i.e. • 4 Platoon (Identifier,) Moving to the Right in File (Precautionary,) Right (Cautionary,) Turn (Executive.) • B Coy (Identifier,) Advance (Precautionary,) Left (Cautionary,) Turn (Executive.) • (U.S. usage) Battalion (Identifier), Right (Cautionary), FACE. Contd..
  • 20. Often there is no chance of ambiguity, and much of the command can be unspoken. In such cases there must always be the cautionary and the Executive. • Present Arms • Atten -Tion Contd..
  • 21. Common parade commands • Have the aforementioned troops fall into formation. • . Have the troops fall out. This is done with a right turn followed by either three steps or a Quick March in a straight line to the edge of the parade square, determined by context. US Army standard is to take one step back with the left foot, and from there to walk away from the formation.
  • 22. • . A fall-out where the soldiers have free time until their next designated work period (typically done at the end of a common day, although often is simply an erroneous substitution for Fall Out).
  • 23. • (U.S.: Atten - Tion (Shun)). Have the soldiers uniformly adopt the Attention position, the most constrictive position (with feet together), but the only position from which soldiers can actually be made to move. Actions such as a salute also return soldiers to the attention position. [Parade Size] is the type of parade, for example: detail, squad, parade, battalion, etc. On the second [Parade Size] only two syllables are said unless that is physically hard to say, for example on detachment, only detach is said but on company, the entire word is said.
  • 24. Alignment commands Commonwealth Version • , or just Right Dress, - all personnel in front row and right side column except the right marker take one step forward, pause, and only the front rank bring up their right arms parallel to the ground. At the same time, all members of the formation snap their heads so they’re facing right. After this, they pause, and then shuffle back to a new position, where their hand is extremely close to the soldier’s shoulder on their right, unless otherwise specified (Elbow Dressing, Shoulder Dressing).
  • 25. Followed by Right Dress, the front rank snaps their arms down and faces forward, while all other ranks simply face forward. • , or just Left Dress, - all personnel in front row and left column except the left marker take one step forward, pause, and only the front rank bring up their left arms parallel to the ground. At the same time, all members of the formation snap their heads so they’re facing left. After this, they pause, and then shuffle back to a new position, where their hand is extremely close to the soldier’s shoulder on their left, unless otherwise specified (Elbow Dressing, Shoulder Dressing). Contd..
  • 26. • , followed by Left Dress, the front rank snaps their arms down and faces forward, while all other ranks simply face forward. Contd..
  • 27. American Version • - all personnel in the unit except the soldiers at the far left bring up their left arms parallel to the ground and at the same time snap their heads so they’re facing right. After this, they pause, and then shuffle back to a new position, where their hand is extremely close to the soldier’s shoulder on their left. If the command is preceded by "At Close Interval", the left arm is bent at the elbow rather than parallel to the ground. If the command is preceded by "At Double Interval", both arms are extended. "Dress Left" reverses the instructions (Right arm up, look left).
  • 28. • - all personnel snap their arms down and faces forward. • - used after any movement is halted to realign the formation. All personnel in the formation except the squad leaders make short, choppy steps to align themselves with their squad leaders, then come to attention.[1][2] Contd..
  • 29. Rest positions • (U.S.: PARADE REST). Have the soldiers adopt the more relaxed position At Ease position, with feet shoulder width apart, hands clasped behind back but with upper body half still in position of attention (chest out, shoulders back). This is typically used when soldiers must wait a short duration, ready to adopt the position of attention e.g. if waiting for an Officer to arrive for an inspection. Changing from At Ease to Attention and back again, or the converse, is standard when the command of a parade is transferred (typically between the commanding officer and his Sergeant-Major), since command of a formation isn’t actually transferred until the new commander makes a command.
  • 30. • . (U.S.: AT EASE) Have the soldiers adopt the next easiest stance, where hands are still clasped behind the back, however the soldiers can relax their upper bodies (the shoulders can be slacked). This is often, but not always, followed by an implicit ’Relax’ (’Rest’). This is typically used when being dressed/lectured for a long period of time where the positions of attention or at ease would be too painful/ uncomfortable to hold. Contd..
  • 31. • (U.S.: REST) The only parade instruction given in an ordinary voice, rather than the raised, emphatic parade voice. This is the only position that actually offers soldiers freedom of movement. Soldiers are typically allowed to do anything (within reason), other than moving their feet, though, when it is given by a high ranking officer, soldiers typically move a minimal amount after a bit of stretching. Contd..
  • 32. Marching with weapons/saluting • : If the soldiers have the weapons at the order, then it is brought up and carried on the left shoulder. Although Left and Right Shoulder Arms are both valid commands, left is assumed if it is unstated. Soldiers must be at attention to shoulder weapons. This is typically done through a throw rather than a carry.
  • 33. • : The weapon is brought out in front of the soldier, and held by the right hand on small of the butt, or equivalent, and the left hand about the fore stock, or equivalent. • : The soldiers bring their weapons to the front of their bodies, and move adjust their right foot position. Soldiers without weapons use a salute appropriate for their headdress. Often officers can salute on behalf of their troops, and any such ambiguity will be discussed with the troops before hand. Contd..
  • 34. This is often used with the precautionary General Salute or Royal Salute, when appropriate. In U.S. usage, all soldiers salute, either with the hand salute if the weapon is at sling arms or if there is no weapon, and with the appropriate salute for their weapon. Guidons and organizational colors are dipped to 90 degrees above the ground (but not touching the ground). The U.S. colors are never dipped. The command for recovery is "Order Arms!" Contd..
  • 35. • : If the soldiers are carrying a weapon which can be ordered they will lower it so that is resting on the ground, touching the outer toes of the right boot, and being supported by a slightly bent right arm. • : If the soldiers have a "sling" (strap) on their rifles, then this command can be called. The soldiers will loosen the sling so they can now have their rifles strapped around their shoulders. Contd..
  • 36. Compliments and Saluting Saluting on the march In the Commonwealth countries, the following saluting on the march commands are ordered with a preparatory command of ’Saluting on the march,...’. For example, ’Saluting on the march, to the front Salute’ and always called on the left foot.
  • 37. • or Salute: The parade is halted and the right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. This is lowered and then repeated again, followed by an about turn and a resume in marching (off the left foot). The timing is: "Call, Check, Halt, 2, 3, Up, 2, 3, Down, 2, 3, 4, 5, Up, 2, 3, Down, 2, 3, About, 2, 3, In, 2, 3, Left, Right, Left!" It is one of, if not the longest drill movement in the military. Contd..
  • 38. In British Corps, the drill movement for saluting to the front is the following. Halt check 1 2 (this is the timings for halting from the march), 2, 3 up, 2, 3, down, 2, 3,up, 2, 3, down, 2, 3 about, 2, 3 in 2, 3 left right left.
  • 39. • : The right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. It is generally to a count of "Up, two, three, four, five, down, swing!" This is done while looking to the right, except the right marker, who must stay looking to the front, to keep the flight, squad, platoon, etc. staying straight.
  • 40. • : The right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. It is generally to a count of "Up, two, three, four, five, down, away!" This is done while looking to the left, except the left marker (as they are the front most of the saluting flank), who must stay looking to the front, to keep the flight, squad, platoon, etc. staying straight.
  • 41. In the United States, the command for saluting on the march is "Eyes, RIGHT/LEFT." The parade leader and other officers execute the hand salute, while everyone but the right file turns their heads to the right." The command for recovery is "Ready, FRONT."
  • 42. Compliments on the March In the Commonwealth countries, the following compliments on the march commands are ordered with the preparatory command of ’Compliments on the march,...’. for example, ’Compliments on the march, Eyes Right’ and always called on the left foot.
  • 43. • : The parade turn their heads to the right after a check pace. The parade leader salutes while looking in the direction they gave. This is done while looking to the right, except the right marker, who must stay looking to the front, to keep the flight, squad, platoon, etc. staying straight. Contd..
  • 44. • :Similar to the Eyes Right except the parade looks to the left. This is done while looking to the left, except the left marker, who must stay looking to the front, to keep the flight, squad, platoon, etc. staying straight. Contd..
  • 45. Saluting at the halt (static) • or Salute: The right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. It is generally to a count of "Up, two, three, down!" • : The right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. It is generally to a count of "Up, two, three, four, five, down!"
  • 46. • : The right arm is raised so the forearm is placed at a 90° angle, while pointing at the temple. It is generally to a count of "Up, two, three, four, five, down!" Contd..
  • 47. Colour commands Marching with colours • : The colours are normally held in a semitaught position. This is a simple, ceremonial letting fly and catching of the colours. • : The colours are normally kept upright, but this can represent a problem both when dealing withstandard doors. This slants the colours forward sufficiently to negate this, and they are brought back up afterwards.
  • 48. • : The normal method for carrying colours can be tiresome for the bearer. This has the colours taken out of their frogs and sloped over the right shoulder at about 45°. Contd..
  • 49. Colour commands at the halt (static) • : Essentially the same as Order Arms, except used exclusively for the Colour Party. • : This is equivalent to Shoulder Arms. The right arm lifts the colours up so they line up with the body’s centre line, with the right arm held in front of the soldier, at mouth level parallel to the ground. It is caught and guided into its frog with left hand, which is then returned to its side.
  • 50. • : This is used when the Colour Party Commander decides that he/she and the other flag holding members, have held their flags for a long time, and that their arms are tired, so, when the command "Change - Arms!" is given, the flag holders put their arms in line with the flag, their other hand on top of their first hand and move the first hand down to attention, so that the other hand is now at the first hands’ original position. Contd..
  • 51. Turning motions Turning motions at the march • (U.S.:Column right, MARCH): A 90° turn to the right done by rotating on the right heel and left ball. The cautionary and executive are both called on the left foot. The left leg is then brought up to be parallel to the ground (although exceptions are made for kilted regiments) and slammed into the ground in the position of attention. This motion is done at a particular fixed point.
  • 52. • (U.S.:Column left, MARCH): A 90° turn to the left, done by rotation on the right ball and the left heel. The right leg is then brought up to be parallel to the ground and slammed down into attention. This motion is done at a particular fixed point. • (U.S.:To the Rear, MARCH): A 180° turn to the right, done as an exaggerated version of the right turn. United States units do not make exaggerated gestures with the legs or arms. Contd..
  • 53. • or Right turn, it is still the same even on the march for some countries: All members marching execute 90° turn to the right done by rotating on the right heel and left ball. • or Left turn, it is still the same even on the march for some countries: All members marching 90° turn to the left done by rotation on the right ball and the left heel. Contd..
  • 54. • (U.S.:Right Oblique, MARCH), is a half turn to the right, usually used when a flight, squad, platoon, etc. is not in its proper alignment. All members marching 45° turn to the right, done by rotation on the left ball and the right heel. • (U.S.:Left Oblique, MARCH), is a half turn to the left, usually used when a flight, squad, platoon, etc. is not in its proper alignment. All members marching 45° turn to the left, done by rotation on the right ball and the left heel. Contd..
  • 55. • is a turn to the right, differentiated froma Right Turn in that the order of march remains the same. Comparable to a caterpillar turning right. • is a mirror of the Right Wheel. Contd..
  • 56. Turning motions at the halt (static) American armed forces: • : The body is rotated on the heel of the right foot and then the left heel is brought forward to meet the right heel in the position of attention. • : A mirror image of Right Face. • : The right toe is brought back to behind the left heel; the body pivots on the right toe and left heel 180°.
  • 57. • : Exactly the same as a left face, but one turns only 45°. • : Exactly the same as a right face, but one turns only 45°.
  • 58. Commonwealth of Nations:  The body is rotated 90° to the right  members shall bend the left knee,  straighten it in double time and smartly  place the left foot beside the right to assume the position of attention.  A mirror image of Right Turn.  The body is rotated 180° in a clockwise direction, knees locked. Members shall bend the left knee, straighten it in double time and smartly place the left foot beside the right to assume the position of  attention.  • : Exactly the same as a right turn, but one  turns only 45°.  • : Exactly the same as a left turn, but one  turns only 45°.
  • 59. Marching motions  The standard pace is 120 beats/minute  with a 30in. step. There is also a Rifle  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Military parade  6  Pace, 160 beats/minute and a Highland  Pace, 80 beats/minute (typically done with  a kilt.) The pace is based on the individual  regiments, the pace given by the  commander, and the speed of the band’s  rhythm. The way the march is performed  depends on the regiment’s nationality.  • : This is a ceremonial pace, used for  funeral marches and when a unit’s colours  are marched out in front of the troops. The  standard pace is 60 paces per minute.
  • 60.  or Cut the pace:  • This is a U.S. march pace. It is at the  same tempo as Quick Time, but  instead of 30 inches, the step is 15  inches.  • There is also a Canadian and  Commonwealth version of this, used  for when the front file/rank is getting  too far ahead of the rest of the flight,  squad, or platoon, it means that front  file/rank should make their steps  smaller, to allow for the rest of the  flight, squad, or platoon, to get back  into proper dressing.
  • 61.  This is essentially a moderate jog at approximately 180 paces per minute. It creates a travel speed of approximately double that of Quick Time, designed to be used even when carrying heavy burdens. This is often erroneously used to describe a sprint or an ordinary run. The U.S. command is "Double Time, MARCH."  This is an unrestricted march at approximately Quick Time. This is designed for field marches and other rough conditions, though is not used in combat areas. The U.S. command is "Route Step, MARCH."  This is essentially a stationary march with the knees coming up parallel to the ground or the foot dangling six inches off of the ground. This is designed to maintain the time of large parades when portions need no forward speed.  or Forward or Forward, March: This causes troops marking time to resume a normal march.
  • 62. Teaching Other tasks may be broken down into drills, or squads, for example any turn, can be called in a sequence. So: Squad One is a check pace to attention, Squad Two is the rotation, Squad Three is the coming back to attention, and Squad Four is the stepping off. It is used for teaching drill to new recruits.
  • 63. Melee weapons and unarmed combat The most familiar form of melee weapon and unarmed combat drill in the modern world is the Kata and the Hyung in Eastern martial arts. However there were once similar drills in the martial training of warriors in all cultures worldwide. They all had exactly the same purpose, to make instinctive an appropriate reaction to an attack or opening by conditioning the mind and body, through repeated and constant repetition of a series of actions (building up muscle memory). Probably one of last survivors of such drills in the Western martial tradition are the reaction drills and rhythm exercises in the modern sport of fencing.
  • 64. Musket drill The 18th century musket, as typified by the B rown Bess, was loaded and fired in the following way: 1. Upon the command . The soldier will bring the musket to the priming position, with the pan opened. 2. Upon the command . The soldier will draw a cartridge. Cartridges consist of a spherical lead bullet wrapped in a paper cartridge which also holds the gunpowder propellant. The bullet is separated from the powder charge by a twist in the paper. 3. The soldier should then bite off the top of the cartridge (the end without the bullet) and hold it closed with the thumb and index finger. 4. Upon the command . The soldier should pour a small pinch of the powder from the cartridge into the priming pan. He should then close the frozen so that the priming powder is trapped.
  • 65. 5. Upon the command (About). The butt of the musket is then dropped to the ground by the left foot with the trigger guard facing to the rear and the soldier having just poured the rest of the powder into the barrel. Once all of the powder is poured into the barrel, the soldier should have stuffed the paper and the ball into the barrel, the paper acts as wadding to keep the gunpowder in the barrel and also packing it down. 6. Upon the command . The soldier should draw his ramrod from below the barrel. First forcing it half out before seizing it backhanded in the middle, followed by drawing it entirely out, while simultaneously turning it to the front and placing it one inch into the barrel. 7. Upon the command . He should then use the ramrod to firmly ram the bullet, wadding, and powder down to the bottom followed by tamping it down with two quick strokes. Contd..
  • 66. 8. Upon the command . The ramrod is then returned to its hoops under the barrel. Then the musket is returned to the shoulder arms position. 9. Upon the command . The musket is brought to the recover position (held vertically in front of the body with the trigger guard facing forward) and the cock (hammer) is drawn back to the full-cock position. 10. Upon the command (Present). The musket is brought up to the firing position in anticipation of the command "Fire". • Under battle conditions, many of these commands were combined for speed and efficiency. On the command troops would, without further order, carry out all movements up to an including "Make Ready". Because of the size of the companies and the general noise of battle, these commands could be and were often communicated through specialized drum beatings. • This process was drilled into troops untilthey could do it by instinct and feel. The main advantage of the British Redcoat was that he trained at this procedure almost every day. The standard for the British Army was the ability to load and fire three rounds per minute. A skilled unit of musketeers was often able to fire four rounds per minute.
  • 67. Cavalry drill The purpose of cavalry drill was to train cavalrymen and their horses to work together during a battle. It still survives to this day, albeit in a much diminished form in the modern sporting discipline of dressage. The movements sideways, at angles the pirouettes etc. were the movements needed for massed cavalrymen to form and reform and to deploy. Of the proponents of classical dressage from which modern dressage evolved, probably the best known are the Lipizzaner Stallions of the Spanish Riding School. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s Musical Ride giving us an inkling of what massed cavalry drill at speed would have been like.
  • 68. Other drills Other tasks may be broken down into drills, for example weapons maintenance, the British army used the rhythmic, poetic almost, "counting of parts" as a memory aid in the teaching and learning of how to strip, cleaning and reassembly the service rifle. Modern era Military drills survive into the modern era though some nations prefer to use the term Standard operating procedure, instead of the arguably antiquated term of "drill".
  • 69. Parade slides 幻灯片制作:赖一元 阅兵背后的故事 ——2009年中华人民共和国阅兵记事
  • 70. The End

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