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Bio medical waste treatment and disposal: An overview

Bio medical waste treatment and disposal: An overview



The presentation is about the bio medical waste treatment and disposal schemes explained under bio medical waste (mgt and handling) rule 1998 notified by MOEF, govt. of India. The role of government ...

The presentation is about the bio medical waste treatment and disposal schemes explained under bio medical waste (mgt and handling) rule 1998 notified by MOEF, govt. of India. The role of government authorities and pollution control arrangements done in order to treat the BMW. The presentation also expalins the present scenario of bio medical waste treatment in india ( specially in U.P. cities) and some knowledge gaps in the existing technology as observed by regular inspections of various hospitals and combined waste treatment facilities.



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    Bio medical waste treatment and disposal: An overview Bio medical waste treatment and disposal: An overview Presentation Transcript

    • Overview of Bio-Medical Waste Treatment & Disposal Manoj Chaurasia Assistant Environment Engineer U P POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD Think before you throw!
    • Water Pollution Air Pollution Hazardous waste Municipal solid waste Noise Pollution Bio-medical waste E-Waste ENVIRONMENT and POLLUTION Rivers, ground water Ambient air quality Open dumps in cities Infectious waste D.G. sets, Crackers Toxic chemicals, Contamination Discarded TV, Comp. parts
    •  Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India  Establishes environmental policies, sets goals and facilitate the implementation of such policies.  Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)  To set environmental standards for all parts of the country.  State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs)  Regulatory bodies set up for the implementation of the norms to bring pollution under control in the respective states and union territories. Governing Bodies in India
    •  Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974  Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981  Environment (Protection) Act, 1986  …………  ...........  Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998  …………..  ……. Functions and responsibilities of CPCB, SPCBs & PCCs are assigned under these Acts and Rules. Environmental Acts and Rules
    •  “Anything which is not intended for further use is termed as waste”.  All our daily activities can give rise to a variety of wastes arising from different sources. e.g., household rubbish, sewage sludge, wastes from manufacturing activities, packaging items, discarded cars, old televisions, garden waste, old paint containers and many more.  Nature finds its way of managing waste by natural recycling processes (e.g. leaves in a forest decomposing into soil). Other wastes may become problematic.  Almost all manufactured products are destined to become waste at some point in time. Improper disposal of this waste leads to spread of communicable diseases, causes obnoxious conditions and spoils biosphere as a whole. Waste : Introduction
    •  Hospital waste or Health care waste includes garbage, refuse, rubbish and Bio-medical waste. 80% - Non-Hazardous(Gen. waste)  Hospital waste 15% - Infectious BMW 5% - Non -infectious but hazardous Bio-Medical Waste: during diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animal or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production or testing of biologicals. Hazardous: any waste which is due to toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or likely to cause danger to health or environment . Bio-Medical Waste : Introduction
    •  Health care establishments are located within the municipal area.  Hospital waste naturally has close linkage with the municipal waste generated in the area.  About 80% of the total hospital waste is not hazardous/infected.  Waste generated at the hospital kitchen or garden, the office or packaging material from the store, etc. can be disposed as same as municipal solid waste. Cost of treatment of BMW (Bio-medical waste) is much higher than the treatment expenses of MSW (Municipal solid waste). Linkage with Municipal Solid Waste
    •  Various communicable diseases, which spread through contaminated cotton, bandage, syringes, blood, body fluids & contaminated organs, are important to be prevented.  Bio-medical waste scattered in and around the hospitals invites flies, insects, rodents, cats and dogs that are responsible for the spread of communicable disease like plague and rabies.  Rag pickers in the hospital, sorting out the garbage are at a risk of getting tetanus and HIV infections.  Recycling of disposable syringes, needles & other article like glass bottles without proper sterilization may be responsible for Hepatitis, HIV, and other viral diseases. Need to dispose infected & hazardous waste in most safe & eco-friendly manner. Need for bio-medical waste treatment
    •  Out patient department(OPD): emergency unit.  Investigative facility area: OT, x-ray, ultra sound, ECG, pathology, etc.  In-patient department: wards.  Utility areas: office, kitchen, store, laundry, chemist’s counter, etc. Emergency unit, investigative area & the wards are the main generators of infected & hazardous waste in the hospitals Health Care Establishments : Introduction
    • Hospital Waste 20% 80% Infectious Non Infectious (Kitchen waste, card Board Boxes) 0.5% Sharps Non Sharps (Glass + Metal) 80% 15% 5% Plastic Non Plastic Laboratory Waste Sharp Plastic Cotton Specimen Needles PVC Gauge Body fluid Scalpel PE Linen Tissue (Path) Blades PET Animal Carcass Blood Bags IV Catheter Respiratory Equipment PPC RED BAGS YELLOW COMMON FACILITY
    • Waste Category No. Waste Category Type Treatment and Disposal Option+ Category No. I Human Anatomical Waste (human tissues, organs, body parts) incineration@/deep burial* Category No. 2 Animal Waste (animal tissues, organs, body parts carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid,blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) incineration@/deep burial* Category No 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimens of micro-organisms live or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell culture used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins, dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures) local autoclaving/micro- waving/incineration@ Category No 4 Waste sharps (needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) disinfection (chemical treatment@/auto claving/micro-waving and mutilation/shredding Category No 5 Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs (wastes comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines) incineration@/destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills
    • Category No 6 Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with blood, and body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, beddings, other material contaminated with blood) incineration@autoclaving/microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste (wastes generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubings, catheters, intravenous sets etc). disinfection by chemical treatment@@ autoclaving/microwaving and mutilation/shredding## Category No. 8 Liquid Waste (waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, house-keeping and disinfecting activities) disinfection by chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains. Category No. 9 Incineration Ash (ash from incineration of any bio-medical waste) disposal in municipal landfill Category No. 10 Chemical Waste (chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfection, as insecticides, etc.) chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids + Options given above are based on available technologies. Occupier/operator wishing to use other State-of-the-art technologies shall approach the Central Pollution Control Board to get the standards laid down to enable the prescribed authority to consider grant of authorisation @@ Chemicals treatment using at least 1% hypochlorite solution or any other equivalent chemical reagent. It must be ensured that chemical treatment ensures disinfection. ## Mutilation/shredding must be such so as to prevent unauthorised reuse. @ There will be no chemical pretreatment before incineration. Chlorinated plastics shall not be incinerated. * Deep burial shall be an option available only in towns with population less than five lakhs and in rural areas.
    • Category wise BMW collection in bins
    • Category wise BMW collection in bins
    • Category wise BMW collection in bins
    • Category Wise Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Options
    • Category 1( Human Anatomical Waste)
    • Category 2 (Animal Waste)
    • Category 3( Microbiology & Biotechnological Waste)
    • Category 4 ( Waste Sharps)
    • Category 5 (Discarded drugs & Medicines)
    • Category 6 (Soiled Waste)
    • Category 7 (Solid Waste)
    • Category 9 (Incineration Ash)
    • BMW Treatment: Available technologies  Incineration  Autoclave Treatment  Hydroclave Treatment  Microwave Treatment  Chemical Disinfection  Sanitary & Secured Landfilling
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies INCINERATION  Incinerators can be oil fired or electrically powered or both.  Solid phase combustion( primary chamber) & Gas phase combustion( secondary chamber).  Volatiles are liberated in the first chamber whereas they are destroyed in the second one.  Primary chamber operates with temperature range of about 800 (+/-) 50 deg. C while secondary chamber operates under excess air conditions at about 1050 (+/-) 50 deg. C.  APCD & chimney is attached with the incinerators to control the flue gases.  Incinerators: multiple hearth type, rotary kiln, controlled air type. Incineration has been recommended for human anatomical waste, animal waste & soiled waste.
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies Charging in Primary Chamber Primary & Secondary Chamber Incinerators
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies AUTOCLAVE TREATMENT  Low heat process where steam is brought into direct contact with the waste material for sufficient duration to disinfect the waste.  System operates in the temp. range 101-150 deg. C for 30- 90 minutes duration.  Disinfected waste is finally landfilled.  Three types: Gravity type, Pre-vacuum type & Retort type. Recommended for microbiology & biotechnology waste, waste sharps, soiled & solid wastes
    • Autoclaves Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies HYDROCLAVE TREATMENT  Steam sterilisation process, having double walled container in which the steam is injected into the outer jacket & waste is inside.  Moisture contained in the waste evapourates & builds up the requisite steam pressure (35-36 psi).  Total time for cycle is about 50 minutes, which includes start-up, heat-up, sterilisation, venting, depressurisation & dehydration.  Certain benefits, such as absence of liquid discharges, no air emissions, no requirement of chemicals, reduced volume & weight of waste. Recommended for the same categories of waste as the autoclave.
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies MICROWAVE TREATMENT  Disinfection technology, which heat the waste material from inside out, provides a high level of disinfection.  Shredded material is moistened with high temp. steam prior to put through series of microwave generators.  Microwave generators heat the material to 95-100 deg. C. and disinfect the waste during min. residence time of 30 minutes.  Process is computerised & automatic hoisting arrangement for smooth & effective control. Category nos. 3, 4, 6, 7 wastes are permitted to be microwaved.
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies CHEMICAL DISINFECTION  Mainly use of at least 1% hypochlorite solution with minimum contact period of 30 minutes.  Equivalent chemical reagents are phenolic compounds, iodine, formaldehyde-alcohol or iodine-alcohol combination.  Treated solid waste material is landfilled & treated liquid waste is drained. Recommended for waste sharps, solid & liquid wastes as well as chemical wastes.
    • Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Technologies SANITARY & SECURED LANDFILLING  Secured deep burial when facility of incineration is not available (for towns having < 5 lakh population & rural areas) - Human anatomical waste.  Secured landfill – Animal waste.  Sanitary landfill – Autoclaved/hydroclaved/microwaved waste.  Sanitary landfill – Incineration ash.  Concrete lined pit of abt. 1 m (l*b*d) covered with a heavy concrete slab having 1-1.5 m high steel pipe of 50 mm dia. – Waste sharps. Disposal of bio-medical waste in secured landfill till proper treatment & disposal facility is in place.
    • Overview of Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility (CBWTF)
    • General Facilities at CBWTF  Incinerator  Autoclave  Chemical treatment  Shredder  Needle destroyer and disposal pit  Effluent treatment plant  Temporary Ash storage area  Vehicles for collection of BMW
    • CBWTF Storage area Incinerator chambers
    • Incineration Operation  Having a PLC(programmable logic control) based control system to prevent • Waste charging until the required temperatures are attained. • Waste charging in case of unsafe conditions such as very high temperature in the chambers, failure of the combustion air fan, ID fan, high temp. at the outlet of apcd.  Computer recording device which can continuously monitor no. of batch, temperature, CO, CO2 and O2 in gaseous emission.
    • CBMWTF Venturi scrubber Incinerator Attachments
    • Air pollution control system
    • Air Pollution Control System (A.P.C.S.)  Duct – interconnecting pipes  Air pollution control device – to separate the PM from the gas stream  Fan – provides sufficient energy for the gas stream  Stack – to disperse the gas stream & provides samples for continuous monitoring
    • Air Pollution Control Device (A.P.C.D.)  Venturi scrubber offers high performance collection of fine particles usually smaller than 2 to 3 microns.  Venturi scrubber is followed by centrifugal type droplet separator to remove liquid droplets from flue gas.  Lime solution is used to control the acid gases too.  Waste water generated is neutralised before discharging.
    • Shredding CBWTF
    • CBWTF Different units
    • Incineration Ash Disposal  Disposed in sanitary landfill.  VOC’s in the ash shall not be more than 0.01 %.  Toxic metals in incineration ash shall be limited within the regulatory quantities as defined under the hazardous waste (mgt. & hnd.) rules, 1989. Temporary ash storage area at CBWTF
    • Status of BMW in Allahabad  Total Health Care Facility – 267 Nos.  Quantity of BMW Generated – 993 Kg/D  Quantity of BMW Treated – 900 Kg/D  A Common Bio-medical treatment & disposal facility is established by M/s FERRO Build Hard (I) Pvt. Ltd at Naini (Ref: July 2013, UPPCB report)
    • Present Scenario !  Problems in segregation.
    • Present Scenario !  Frequency of waste collection from small hospitals.
    • Present Scenario !  BMW is dumped with general health care waste.
    • Knowledge Gaps in Bio-Medical Waste Treatment  Training & Motivation in Health Care Establishments.  At Hospital Administration & Management Staff Level.  Para-Medical Personnel Level, e.g., Nurses, Ward Boys etc.  Shredded followed by autoclaved plastic waste have problems in reuse.(Category 07 waste)  Adoption of non-burnt technologies in place of conventional bio-medical Incinerators.  Treatment of Mercury waste?  Lack of awareness among masses. Need to Find Solution
    • Appointment of “Waste Management Officer” (help to organize, supervise the bio-medical waste disposal policy in hospital.) Need of future Thank You