Topics Covered…• MS Excel Topics• Ch-5 Using Formulas and Functions• Ch-6 Creating & Using Names• Ch-7 Auditing Your Work• Ch-8 Formatting Your Data
FormulasFormulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with an equal sign"=". The formula then includes the addresses of the cells whose values will bemanipulated with appropriate operands placed in between. After the formula istyped into the cell, the calculation executes immediately and the formula itself isvisible in the formula bar. See the example below to view the formula forcalculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula multiplies thequantity and price of each textbook and adds the subtotal for each book.
Formula Operators There are four basic Mathematical Operators when writing a formula. These operators are used to tell the formula what action to perform. The following table lists the operators, its symbol. Symbol Operation Symbol Name Addition + Plus Sign Subtraction - Dash or hyphen Multiplication * Asterisk Division / Forward slashThe next table lists the order of operation for each mathematical operator. As you begin to write your formulas,keep in mind that information in parenthesis ( ) is always performed first while everything outside theparenthesis is performed left to right. Operator Operation Order of Calculation AND, OR, NOT Logic Test: AND, OR, NOT 1 + or - Positive or Negative Value 2 ^ Exponentiation 3 * or / Multiplication or Division 4 +- Addition or Subtraction 5 & Text Concatenation 6 Logic Test 7 = Equal to 7 <> Not Equal To 7 <= Less than or Equal to 7 >= Greater than or Equal to 7
• Functions Built-in Excel Functions can be a faster way of doing mathematical operations than formulas.• Example- if you wanted to add the values of cells D1 through D10, you could type the formula "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10".• A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(D1:D10)". Function Example Description SUM =SUM(A1:A100) finds the sum of cells A1 through A100 AVERAGE =AVERAGE(B1:B10) finds the average of cells B1 through B10 MAX =MAX(C1:C100) returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100 MIN =MIN(D1:D100) returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100 SQRT =SQRT(D10) finds the square root of the value in cell D10 TODAY =TODAY() returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty) SUM( ) function The SUM( ) function is probably the most common function in Excel. It adds a range of numbers. To build a SUM( ) function, begin by typing the = sign; all functions begin with the = sign. Next type the word SUM followed by an open parenthesis. You must now tell Excel which cells to sum. Using the mouse, click and drag over the range of cells you wish to add. A dotted outline will appear around the cells and the cell range will be displayed in the formula bar. When you
Insert Function Excel has hundreds of prewritten formulas which make it easy to do complex procedures with numbers, dates, times, text, and more. •Type a brief description of what you want to do in the Search for a function box. In this example, you could type "mortgage payment" or some other keywords. •Click Go.Click the Insert Function button on the formula bar.The Insert Function dialog box opensIn the Search for a function box, type adescription of what you want to do.
AutoSum button AutoSumIn Excel, the standard toolbar has a button that simplifies adding a column or row of numbers. The AutoSumbutton, which resembles the Greek letter Sigma (shown above), automatically creates a SUM( ) function. Whenyou click the AutoSum button Excel creates a sum function for the column of numbers directly above or therow of numbers to the left. Excel pastes the SUM( ) function and the range to sum into the formula bar. If therange is not correct, simply select the proper range with your mouse on the worksheet. When you have thecorrect range entered, press the <Enter> key to complete the function.
Autofilling FunctionsAutofill can also be used to copy functions. In the examplebelow, column A and column B each contain lists of numbersand column C contains the sums of columns A and B for eachrow. The function in cell C2 would be "=SUM(A2:B2)". Thisfunction can then be copied to the remaining cells of column Cby activating cell C2 and dragging the handle down to fill in theremaining cells. The autofill feature will automatically updatethe row numbers as shown below if the cells are referencerelatively
To add borders around a cell or range, follow these steps: • 1. Select the cell or range. • 2. Click the arrow on the Borders button in the Ribbon’s Home tab. Excel displays the Borders menu. • 3. Choose a border style from the menu. Excel applies the border to your selection. In addition, the Borders button icon changes to reflect your border selection.
Font Face: Select a font face from the font picker drop-down list. To preview the change in the selected cell or range before you commit to the change, hover the mouse pointer over a font face in the list. Font Size: Select a font size from the font picker drop-down list. To preview the change in the selected cell or range before you commit to the change, hover the mouse pointer over a font size in the list. Increase/Decrease Font Size: These buttons increase or decrease the font in the selected cell or range by 2 points. Font Style: The options are Bold, Italic and Underline. Click the arrow on the Underline button if you want to apply a double- underline to the contents of your selected cell or range.
Hiding Unhiding • Select any cell(s) on the • Select any cells on the worksheet in the column(s) worksheets on either side of or row(s) that you want to the column(s) or row(s) that hide. In the Ribbon’s Home you want to unhide.For tab, choose example, if you want to • Format➪Hide & • unhide columns E and • Unhide➪Hide Columns; or F, select any row on the Format➪Hide & worksheet and select cells Unhide➪Hide Rows. • in columns D and G. In the Ribbon’s Home tab, choose Format➪Hide & • Unhide➪Unhide Columns; or Format➪Hide & Unhide➪Unhide Rows. • Select