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    4217710 general-knowlwdge 4217710 general-knowlwdge Document Transcript

    • 1 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE LATEST STUDY MATERIALS WITH KEY POINTS THE UNIVERSE SOLAR SYSTEM - STATISTICS (4) MARS The solar system consists of the Sun and 9 planets Diameter : 6,755.2 Kms.revolving around it in different orbits. The statistics of Distance from the Sun : 225.6 Million Kms.the sun and the planets are given below : Period of revolution : 687 daysSUN Period of rotation : 24 hrs 37 mts. 22.663 sec.Age : About 5 Billion yearsDistance : 149.8 Million Kms (5) JUPITER : This is the largest planet in the solar system.Diameter : 1,38,400 Kms. Diameter : 141,968 Kms.Photosphere temperature : 5,770 K Distance from the Sun : 772.8 Million Kms.Core temperature : 150,000,000 K Period of revolution : 11.9 yearsAbsolute visual magnitude : 4.75 Period of rotation : 9 hrs 50 mts. 30 sec.Rotation (as seen from theearth at the equator) : 25.38 days (6) SATURN : It was discovered byRotation (near the poles) : 33 days Galileo.The sun consists of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and Diameter : 119,296 Kms.2.5% of other elements. Distance from the Sun : 1,417.6 Million Kms.The rays of the Sun take about 8 minutes to reach the Period of revolution : 29.5 yearsearth. Period of rotation : 10 hrs 14 mts. PLANETS (7) URANUS(1) MERCURY : It is the planet nearest to Diameter : 52,096 Kms. the earth. Distance from the Sun : 2,852.8 Million Kms. Average distance Period of revolution : 84 years to the Sun : 57.6 Million Kms. Period of rotation : 16 hrs 10 mts. Diameter : 4,849.6 Kms. Period of revolution : 88 days (8) NEPTUNE Period of rotation : 58 days 15 hrs 30 mts. 34 Diameter : 49,000 Kms. sec. Distance from the Sun : 4,497 Million Kms.(2) VENUS : It is also known as the Period of revolution : 165 years Morning Star or the Period of rotation : 18 hrs 26 mts. Evening Star. It is the (9) PLUTO : This is the coldest and brightest of all the smallest of all planets. It planets. is also the most distant Diameter : 12,032 Kms. one. Period of revolution : 225 days Diameter : 3,040 Kms. Period of rotation : 243 days 14mts. Distance from the Sun : 5,865.6 Million Kms.(3) EARTH Period of revolution : 248 years Equatorial diameter : 12,756 Kms. Period of rotation : 6 days 9 hrs and 18 mts. Polar diameter : 12,714 Kms. MOON : Moon is earths satellite. Distance from the Sun : 149,597,900 Kms. Its period of rotation and Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hrs, 48 mts, Period of Revolution are 45.51 sec. 1 Period of rotation : 23 hrs 56 mts. 4.09 sec. the same. i.e.29 days. 2 © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 2 THE EARTH DATASurface Area : 510,100,500 Sq.Kms. Polar radius : 6,357 Kms.Land Surface : 148,950,800 Sq.Kms. Polar Diameter : 12,714 Kms. (29.08%) Mean distance from theWater Surface : 361,149,700 Sq.Kms. Sun : 14,95,97,900 Kms. (70.92%) Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hours 48 mts.Equatorial circumference : 40,075 Kms. 45.51 Sec.Polar circumference : 40,008 Kms Period of rotation : 23 hrs. 56 mts. 4.091 Sec.Equatorial radius : 6,377 Kms. Escape Velocity fromEquatorial Diameter : 1,22,756 Kms. the earth : 11 Km per Sec. (minimum) THE WORLDThe Earth and the Solar System : The seasons are due to the change of the Earth’s The Earth is a member of the Solar System. It is one position in the course of its revolution about the Sun,of nine major planets revolving round the Sun. Of these, and to the inclination of its axis. The Equator is anMercury and Venus are nearer, and Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, imaginary line drawn round the Earth midway betweenUranus, Neptune and Pluto are farther away from the the Poles. There are two other lines, namely, Tropic ofSun than the Earth. Cancer (23½O N) and the Tropic of Capricon (23½O S). The word tropic means, ‘turning place’. The inclination The planets radiate no light of their own, but shine of the Earth’s axis together with its revolution round thewith that reflected from the Sun. The Sun has a diameter Sun is the cause of the varying length of day and night inof 864,000 miles (1,390,000 Kms) and it is 93,000,000 miles different parts of the world. On March 21 (Vernal Equinox)(150,000,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Sun is a star. The and September 23 (Autumnal Equinox) the Sun is over-stars, unlike the planets, are self-luminous bodies. The head at the Equator. On these dates, except at the Poles,other stars appear small because they are so far away; (a) days and nights are equal all over the world; and (b)the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is 200,000 times more the Sun rises exactly due east and set exactly due west atdistant from us than the Sun. all places on the Earth’s surface. At the Equator itself The Moon is a dead planet. It is about 240,000 miles days and nights are equal throughout the year. Between(386,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Moon revolves round March 21 and September 23, when the North Pole is tiltedthe Earth taking approximately 29 days to complete one towards the Sun, the days are longer than the nightsround. The phases of the Moon are the result of its throughout the Northern Hemisphere and there isposition in relation to the Earth and the Sun. continuous daylight at the North Pole. Similar conditions are experienced in the Southern Hemisphere and the The Moon’s orbit is ecliptical and inclined at an South Pole between September 25 and March 21.angle of 5o to the plane of the Earth’s orbit. This explainswhy we do not have a total eclipse of the Sun every time Latitude and Longitude:there is a new moon. Latitude is distance, measured in degrees, north or south of the Equator. Longitude is distance, measured inThe Earth: degrees, east or west of any fixed meridian. The meridian The Earth is a sphere but it is not a perfect sphere. passing through Greenwich is numbered 0O. On a globeIt is slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at the the meridians are numbered from 0O to 180O E (East) or Wequator. The circumference of the earth is approximately (West). At the equator the degrees are 69 to 70 miles25,000 miles (40,000 Kms). apart (25000÷360). Since earth completes one rotation on its axis in 24 hours, 360 meridians pass under the Sun in It rotates on its axis once in every 24 hours, spinning that time. Therefore, 1 degree passes under the Sun everyfrom west to east. Besides spinning on its axis, it also 4 minutes.moves round the Sun, called the revolution. Its orbit round the Sun is oval or ecliptical. The International Date Line:time taken to complete one revolution is approximately If we travelled westward to a place X on longitude365¼ days or one year. For convenience, one year is 180 o W, the time there would be 12 hours behindtaken as 365 days and the shortfall of ¼ day each Greenwich time (180 x 4 minutes = 720 minutes = 12 hours).year is made good in the Leap Year which consists of If we journeyed eastward to a place Y on longitude 180o366 days. The Earth’s axis inclined to the plane of its E, the time there would be 12 hours ahead of Greenwichorbit at an angle of 66½O. time. Thus X and Y both on 180o have the same time but © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 3differ in date by a day (12 hours + 12 hours = 24 hours). by prolonged denudation are known as ResidualTo overcome the confusion that would otherwise arise, Mountains, e.g. Highlands of Scotland and Scandinavia.the International Date Line has been established. It runsalong 180o E or W. Westward-bound vessels crossing Denudation:the Date Line drop a day from the calendar, while those The process known as denudation or the wearinggoing eastward add a day by giving the same date to two away of the land is continually going on. The chief causesconsecutive days. Instead of changing the time exactly of such erosion are (a) changes in temperature; (b) frost;according to change in degrees at the rate of 4 minutes (c) winds; (d) water, including rivers; (e) ice; and (f) theper degree, certain time zones have been established. All action of the sea. Steps to combat soil erosion include (i)places in the same area or time zone or time belt, use terracing; (ii) contour ploughing; (iii) strip cropping (iv)what is called Standard Time. Thus we have the planting shelter belts of trees; and (v) plugging the gulliesGreenwich Mean Time (G.M.T) and the Indian Standard by building small dams etc.Time (I.S.T). There are five time-belts in Canada and fourin United States. The Atmosphere: The air is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%) andThe Lithosphere: oxygen (21%) with small proportions of carbon dioxide, The mass of the Earth is generally divided into three water vapour and rarer gases like argon and neon.layers, namely, Crust, Mantle and Core. The Lithosphere Atmosphere is 200 miles thick, but nine-tenths of the airis the name given to the outer Crust which is not more composing it is found within 12 miles, and half within 3½than 10 miles thick. It is made up of a great variety of miles of the earth’s surface. We are concerned mainlyrocks, soils, etc. with the lower layer of troposphere. The upper layers inRocks: the ascending order are Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Ionosphere. Troposphere extends to a distance of about1. Sedimentary Rocks:These rocks are made up of ten kilometres. Stratosphere is a region extending from deposits laid down on the floor of river beds, lakes an altitude of about 11 Km to 50 Km above the earth. The and seas. upper part of stratosphere has plenty of ozone which Examples:Sand and sandstone, clay, lime stone, protects us from the fatal effects of Sun’s ultraviolet chalk and carbonaceous rocks, such as lignite, coal radiation. Mesosphere is the next layer extending from 50 and anthracite. to 80 Kms above the earth. It is a very cold region.2. Igneous Rocks:These are primary rocks which are Ionosphere extends from about 60 Kms upwards. It formed by cooling and solidification of molten lava. includes Thermosphere and Exosphere which marks the When such rocks are poured out on the surface outer limits of the earth’s atmosphere. they are known as Volcanic rocks, e.g. basalt. When the molten material solidifies at considerable depth, Wind is air in motion: plutonic rocks are formed, e.g. granite. The chief cause of wind is difference in atmosphere3. Metamorphic Rocks:These rocks are formed as a pressure. One of the main reasons for differences in result of alteration by extreme heat and or pressure pressure is unequal heating of the air. From the high of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Example, slate, pressure belts the air flows outwards to the regions of gneiss, schist etc. low pressure. Owing to the rotation of the earth, the winds do not blow due north and south, but are deflected. InSoil: this deflection they obey Ferrel’s Law which states, “Any The upper layers of rocks weather to form the soil. moving body on the earth surface including a current ofThere are three distinct layers of soil. The uppermost air, tends to be deflected, the deflection being to the rightlayer forms the top soil. The second layer is called the in the northern hemisphere and to the left in southernsubsoil. The third layer is made up of decomposing and hemisphere.” Land and seabreezed are local winds causedmuch-broken rock, known as mantle- rock. The type of by the unequal heating of land and water. During the daysoil depends on a number of factors, namely, climatic the land becomes very much hotter than the sea, with theconditions, the nature of the parent rock, relief, vegetation result that there is marked low pressure over the land.and the period over which it has been worked by man. Thus the air over the sea flows rapidly loses heat, but theSoils may by broadly classified as (a) Forest, (b) Grassland sea remains warm for a longer time. Thus at night, heavyand (c) Desert types. cool air blows from the land to take the place of warm air rising over the sea. The monsoon or seasonal winds mayMountains: be regarded as land and sea breezes on a large scale, in In past geological ages disturbances in the Earth’s which the time-frame is a year instead of a day. Thisinterior have caused crumpling and cracking of the crust. phenomenon is to be found in south-east Asia, but isThis has resulted in great upholds forming Fold- especially marked in the subcontinent of India. A cycloneMountains which are mainly made up of folded strata of is a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure issedimentary rocks, e.g. the Alps, the Rockies, the Andes, lowest in the centre. The winds blow inwards in anti-and the Himalayas. The mountain structures worn down clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere. In the © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 4Southern Hemisphere cyclonic winds blow in a clockwise Humidity:direction in accordance with Ferrel’s Law. An anticyclone Humidity, the term used to express the dampnessis a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure is of the atmosphere, is due to the pressure of water vapour.highest in the centre. The winds blow outwards in a Evaporation is the mean by which water is drawn off asclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in invisible water vapour from oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.,an anti-clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. when the air contains as much water vapour as it can hold is said to be saturated. When saturated air is cooled,The Oceans: condensation takes place and some of the water which It is estimated that 72% of the surface of the globe form the clouds grow larger, they precipitate i.e., fall tois covered with water. The Pacific, which is the greatest the earth as rain. The proportion of water vapour in theof all oceans, covers a third of the earth’s surface, its air, compared with the maximum it can hold at the sametotal area being greater than that of all the dry land. temperature, is known as Relative Humidity. Dew isAtlantic is slightly less than half the size of the Pacific, caused by the condensation of water vapour on the coldyet so many great rivers flow into it that it receives half ground during the night. The temperature at which suchthe drainage of the world. The other oceans are Indian, condensation takes place is called the Dew Point. WhenMediterranean, Antarctic and Arctic. The average depth condensation takes place near the surface (and not onof the ocean is 12,500 feet, compared with the average the ground) the result is usually mist or fog. Whenheight of the land which is about 2,500 feet. The greatest condensation takes place at some distance from theknown depth is that of the Marianas Trench in the Pacific, ground, clouds are formed. When water vapour iswhere a depth of 35,800 feet has been recorded. condensed at a temperature below freezing point it forms snow. There are various kinds of clouds. The layer likeTides: clouds often seen on the horizon at sunrise and sunset Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction - are called stratus clouds. The light wispy clouds formedthe ‘pull’ of the moon on the earth, sometimes assisted high in the sky are called cirrus clouds. The heaped upby and sometimes hindered by the Sun.At new and full clouds, looking rather like masses of cotton wool are calledmoon, when the Sun, Moon and Earth are practically in a cumulus clouds. The black rain clouds are known asstraight line the attractive force of the Sun increases that nimbus.of the Moon. Such high tides are called spring tides. Temperature:Weather and Climates: Of all climatic factors, temperature is the most Weather may be defined as the condition of the important. It affects man’s food, crops, dress and theatmosphere at any place at a particular time. The average type of dwelling he builds. Temperature decreases 1oFweather conditions determine the climate. Humidity, for every 300 feet above the sea-level. This decreasetemperature, elevation, distance from the sea, ocean is largely due to the fact that the rarified air, foundcurrents, atmosphere pressure and prevailing winds in elevated regions, absorbs less heat than the densercombine to affect the climate of a region. air at lower levels. SEVEN WONDERS SEVEN NATURAL WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD OF THE WORLD1. The Pyramids of Khufu 1. Mount Everest, on the border of Tibet and Nepal.2. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon 2. The Nile River, Egypt.3. The Temple of Artem is at Ephesus 3. Rio de Janeiro Harbour.4. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia 4. Iguassu Falls, Argentina.5. The Mausolus at Halicarnassus 5. Yosemite Valley and the Giant Sequioas of California.6. The Colossus of Rhodes 6. The Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Arizona.7. The Pharos (Lighthouse) at Alexandria 7. The Northern Lights, especially from Northern Canada and Alaska. SEVEN WONDERS SEVEN WONDERS OF TODAY OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD 1. The Taj Mahal of Agra, India.1. The Colosseum of Rome 2. The Great Pyramid of Egypt and the adjacent Great2. The Great Wall of China Sphinx of Gizeh.3. The Porcelain Tower of Nanking, Cahina 3. Hagia Sophia, 6th Century, in present day Istanbul.4. The Mosque at St.Sophia (Constantinople) 4. Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy.5. The Stonehenge of England 5. The Eiffel Tower, Paris.6. The Catacombs of Alexandria 6. The Washington Monument, Washington.7. The Leaning Tower of Pisa 7. The Empire State Building, New York City. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 5 GEOGRAPHICAL EPITHETS-WORLDAmerica’s Motor City Detroit Key to Mediterranean GibraltarBritain of the South New Zealand Land of Five Seas South West AsiaChina’s Sorrow River Hwang Ho Land of Lakes ScotlandCity of Dreaming Spires Oxford (England) Land of Golden Pagoda MyanmarCity of Eternal Springs Quito (S.America) Land of Kangaroo AustraliaCity of Flowers Cape Town (S.Africa) Land of Golden Fleece AustraliaCity of Golden Gate San Francisco (USA) Land of Lilies CanadaCity of Magnificient Buildings Washington (USA) Land of Maple CanadaCity of Quiet thoroughfares Venice Land of Midnight Sun NorwayCity of Seven Hills Rome (Italy) Land of Morning Calm KoreaCity of Skyscrapers New York (USA) Land of Rising Sun JapanCockpit of Europe Belgium Land of Setting Sun United KingdomDark Continent Africa Land of Thousand Elephants LaosEmerald Isle Ireland Land of Thousand Lakes FinlandEmpire City New York Land of Thunderbolt BhutanEternal City of Hopes Rome, Italy Land of White Elephant ThailandForbidden City Lhasa (Tibet) Loneliest Island Tristan De GumhaGarden City Chicago (Mid. Atlantic)Garden in the desert Ethiopia Manchester of Japan Osaka (Japan)Garden of England Kent (England) Pillars of Hercules Straits of GibraltarGate of tears Strait of bab-el-Mandeb Play Ground of Europe SwitzerlandGolden City Johannesburg Quaker City PhiladelphiaGibraltar of Indian Ocean Aden Queen of the Adriatic VeniceGift of Nile Egypt Roof of the World The pamirs (Tibet)Granite City Aberdeen River in the Sea Gulf StreamHanging Valleys Valley of Switzerland Sickman of Europe TurkeyHermit Kingdom Korea Sugar Bowl of the world CubaHerring Pond Atlantic Ocean Venice of the East BangkokHoly Land Palestine Venice of the North StockholmHuman Equator of the Earth Himalayas White City BelgradeIsland Continent Australia Windy City ChicagoIsland of Cloves Zanzibar Workshop of Europe BelgiumIsland of Pearls Bahrain (Persian Gulf) World’s Loneliest Island Tristan Da CunhaIslands of Sunshine West Indies Yellow River River Hwang HoKashmir of Europe Switzerland (China) FAMOUS LINES, FRONTIERSDurand Line Pakistan and Afghanistan Siegfried Line Germany and France.Hindenburg Line Germany and Poland. 17th Parallel North and South VietnamMac Mohan Line India and ChinaMaginot Line France and Germany. 24th Parallel India and PakistanOder Neisse Line East Germany and Poland. 38th Parallel North and South KoreaRadcliffe Line India and Pakistan 49th Parallel U.S.A. and Canada GEOGRAPHICAL DISOVERIESAmerica Chiristopher Columbus South Pole AmundsenSea-route to India Vasco-da-Gama Suez Canal Designed by Ferdinand deNorth Pole Robert Peary Lesseps WORLD - MINERALSAluminium USA, France & India Copper Ore CIS, U.S.A.Asbestos Canada, Zimbabwe Crude Oil CIS, Saudi ArabiaBauxite Australia, Guinea Diamonds CIS, ZaireChromium Zimbabwe, India Gold South Africa, South America,Coal U.S.A., England, Russia and Australia Germany Graphite Ore CIS, Brazil © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 6Ilmenite India Petroleum U.S.A., Russia & Middle EastIron Ore U.S.A., Russia CountriesLignite East Germany, CIS Phosphate U.S.A., CISManganese Ore CIS, South Africa Silver Mexico, U.S.A., and IndiaMercury Italy, Spain Steel U.S.A., Russia, U.K. & GermanyMica, Monazite India Tin Malaysia, IndonesiaNatural Gas U.S.A., CIS Uranium U.S.A., CanadaNickel Ore Canada, CIS Zinc Ore Canada, CIS WORLD - INDUSTRIESBaku (Russia) Petroleum Johannesburg (South Africa) Gold MinesBangkok (Thailand) Shipping Kimberley (South Africa) Diamond MiningBelfast (Ireland) Ship buildings, Linen Leeds (England) Woollen Goods goods Los Angeles (U.S.A.) Film, OilBuenos Aires (Argentina) Dairy Products Lyons (France) SilkCadiz (Spain) Cork Morocco (North America) LeatherChicago (U.S.A.) Gramophone Munich (Germany) LensesDetroit (U.S.A.) Automobiles New Orleans (U.S.A.) CottonDresden Optical and Pitsburg (U.S.A.) Iron and Steel Photographic Plymouth (England) Ship building apparatus Sheffield CutleryGlasgow (Scotland) Machinery, Textiles Venice (Italy) GlassHavana (Cuba) Cigar Vienna (Austria) GlassHollywood (U.S.A.) Films Wellington (New Zealand) Dairy Products COUNTRIES AND ALTERNATIVE NAMESBechuanaland Botswana Japan NipponBurma Myanmar North Borneo SabahCeylon Sri Lanka Kampuchea CambodiaDutch Guiana Surinam Rhodesia ZimbabweFormosa Taiwan Siam ThailandIndia Bharat South-West Africa Namibia NATIONAL EMBLEMSAustralia Kangaroo Japan ChrysanthemumCanada White Lily Pakistan CrescentFrance Lily Spain EagleIndia Lioned Capitol U.K. RoseItaly White Lily U.S.A. Golden Rod NAME OF PARLIAMENTAfghanistan Shora Nepal PanchayatBritain Parliament Netherlands States GeneralDenmark Folketing Norway StortingGermany Bundestag Poland SeymIndia Parliament Russia Supreme SovietIran Majlis Spain CrotesIsrael Knesset Sweden RiksdagJapan Diet Taiwan YuanMalaysia Majlis U.S.A. Congress SIGNS AND SYMBOLSSun Air India White Flag TruceWheel (Chakra) Progress Olive Branch PeaceRed Triangle Family Planning Stars and Stripes National Flag of U.S.A.Black Flag Protest (or Flag flown at half mast Tricolour National Flag of India National Mourning) Justice A Blind-folded woman holding aRed Cross Hospital Medical Aid balanced scale.Red Light Traffic Sign “Stop” Union Jack National flag of U.K.Lotus Culture & Civilization Hammer & Sickle National Flag of Russia © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 7Highest - Biggest - Longest - Deepest - Largest - Smallest ARCHIPELAGO Highest Railway Bridge Fades Bridge on riverLargest Indonesia Sioule 144 m long and 132.5 m above the AREA river. (ClermontSmallest State in Area (India) Goa Ferrand, France)Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep BUILDINGLargest State in Area (India) Madhya PradeshLargest City in Area (World) London Tallest Bank Building Bank of Montreal, 72, Storeys, 284.98 m ANIMAL high (Toronto,Tallest Animal Giraffe Canada)Fastest Animal at short run Cheetah CANALFastest Animal The Peregerine Longest Canal (India) Saradha Canal (Uttar Falcon Pradesh)Largest existing Land animal Elephant Longest Big Ship Canal (World) Suez Canal (Egypt)Most Intelligent Animal Chimpanzee 160 kmMost Cunning Animal Fox Longest Small Ship Canal Beloye (White Sea)Largest Sea Animal Blue Whale Baltic Canal (CIS) 226 BELL km long.Largest Bell (World) Greatest Bell of CAVE TEMPLE Moscow (Russia) Largest Cave Temple (India) Ellora (Maharashtra) BIRD CHURCHLargest Bird Ostrich Largest Church (World) St. Peter’s Church,Largest Sea-bird Albatross Vatican City (Italy)Fastest Bird Swift CITYFlightless Bird Swift Highly Populated City (India) M u m b a iSmallest Bird Humming Bird (Maharashtra)Singing Bird Nightingale Oldest City (India) Kolkata BRIDGE Higest City (World) Wenchuan (China) 5,100 metres aboveLongest Railway Bridge (India) Sone Bridge (Bihar) sea levelLongest Steel Arch Bridge New River Gorge Highest Capital Lhasa (3,684 metres Bridge, 518.2 m long above sea level) (West Virginia, USA) Largest City in Population (World) Shangai (China)Longest combined Highway The Yangtse River Costliest City (World) London Bridge CLOCKand Railway Bridge 6,772 m rail deck and Biggest Clock (World) Big Ben (London) 4,589 road deck CONTINENT (Nanking, China) Largest Continent AsiaLongest Railway Bridge Huey P. Long Bridge, Smallest Continent Australia 7009 m (Metairie, CORRIDOR Louisiana, USA) Largest Corridor (World) Rameswaram TempleHighest Road Bridge Bailey Bridge built by the Indian Army, COUNTRY 30 m long at an Largest in Population China followed by altitude of 5600 m India (Khardungia, Largest in Area Russia Ladakh) Largest Electorate IndiaHighest River Bridge Royal Gorge, 321 m CREATURE above sea level on Largest Creature Blue Whale. It can the river Arkansas, grow upto a weight 268 m long, Colorado. of 150 tonnes. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 8 DAM HARBOURLongest Dam (India) Hirakud Dam on the Largest Natural Harbour (India) Visakhapatnam river Mahanadi - HILL STATION OrissaHighest Dam (World) The Grande Highest Hill Station (India) Gulmarg (Kashmir) (Switzerland) HOTELHighest Straight Bhakra Nangal on Biggest Hotel (India) Oberoi-Sheraton river Sutlej (Mumbai) DAY ISLANDLongest Day June 21 (in Northern Largest Island Greenland Hemisphere) Largest Group of Islands Malaya ArchipelagoShortest Day December 22 (in LAKE N o r t h e r n Largest Salt Water Lake Caspian Sea Hemisphere) Largest Fresh Water Lake Superior (31,200 DELTA sq.miles) (India)Largest Delta (Sunderbans). The Deepest Lake Lake Baikal (Siberia) Worlds largest delta 701 mts is that created by the Highest Lake Titicaca (Bolivia) Ganges and Brahma 3854 metres above putra in Bangladesh sea level. and West Bengal, Largest Lake (India) Wular Lake India. It covers an LIBRARY area of 30,000 sq. Largest Library (World) United States Library miles. of Congress DESERT (Washington)Largest Desert (World) Sahara (Africa) The Lenin StateColdest Desert Antarctica Library (Moscow-Largest Desert (India) Thar Desert Russia) (Rajasthan) LIGHT HOUSELargest Desert in Asia Gobi (Mongolia) Largest Light House (World) Bishop Rock DOME (England)Largest and Biggest (India) Gol Gumbaz MEMORIALLargest Dome (World) Astrodome in Most Beautiful Memorial Taj Mahal (Agra) Housten, Texas MINES (USA) outside Largest Diamond Mines (World) Kimberley (South diameter 216 metres Africa) and inside 196 Deepest Mines (India) Kolar Gold Fields metres. (Karnataka) EPIC MOUNTAINSLongest Epic Mahabharatha Longest Mountain Range (World) Mt. Andes (South FILLING STATION America) (8,800 km) Highest Peak (World) Everest NepalHighest Filling Station Petrol pump at Leh at Highest Peak (India) Godwin Austen 3658 m. It is operated Highest Mountain Range Himalayas by Indian Oil Highest Peak (South India) Anaimudi (2,720 m) Corporation. Anaimalai FOREST MOSQUE, CATHEDRAL, TEMPLELargest Forest (India) Assam Biggest Mosque (India) Jama Masjid (Delhi) GATEWAY Largest Mosque Umayyad MosqueHighest Gateway (India) Buland Darwaza 157 m × 97 m covering an area of GULF 3.76 acres.Largest Gulf Gulf of Mexico Damascus, Syria. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 9Largest Cathedral Diocese of New York POEM 11,240 sq.m. Longest Poem of the World MahabarathaLargest Temple Angkor Vat. 162.6 ha POPULATION area, built for Lord Vishnu by Khmer Largest Country in China King Suryavarman-II Population (World) during 1113-50 A.D. Largest State in Uttar Pradesh (India) (Cambodia) Population (India) Densiest State in Population West Bengal (India) MUSEUM Smallest State in Population Sikkim (India)Largest Museum (India) Indian Museum Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep (India) (Kolkata) in PopulationLargest Museum (World) American Museum of Natural History, RAILWAYS New York city. It Longest Railway (World) Tran-Siberian comprises 19 inter- Railway from connected buildings Moscow to with 23 acres of floor Nakhodka, 9438 km. space. Longest Railway (Asia) India Fastest Train (World) French T.G.V. OCEAN Longest Railway Station (India) Kharagpur (W.B.)Deepest, Largest & Biggest The Pacific Ocean Longest Railway Platform Sonepur (Bihar) PALACE (India) Longest Railway Route Himsagar ExpressBiggest Palace (World) Vatican Palace, Rome (Italy) RIVER Longest River The Nile (Egypt) PENINSULA Largest River in Volume Amazon (Brazil,Largest Peninsula (World) Arabia South America) Largest River (India) The Ganges (6,679 PLACE km)Hottest Place (India) Barmer (Rajasthan)Hottest Place (World) Azizia (Libya) 58OC ROADSColdest Place (World) Ve r k h o y a n s k Largest Road (India) Grand Trunk Road (Siberia) –85O Highest Road (World) Le Narba Road -Driest Place Death Valley Ladhak (California) Longest Road Pan-AmericanHeaviest Rain Fall (World) M a w s y n r a m Highway 27387 km (Meghalaya) (North West Alaska to Southern most PLATEAU Chile)Highest Plateau Pamir (Tibet)Largest Park Wood Buffalo SCHOOL National Park Largest School South Point High inAlberta, Canada School, Kolkata, (17,560 Sq.miles) India. PLANETS SEALargest, Biggest & heaviest Jupiter Largest Sea South China SeaPlanet STATESmallest Planet Mercury Smallest Independent Vatican (Italy)Brightest Planet Venus State (World)Coldest Planet Pluto Biggest State (India) Madhya PradeshPlanet Farthest (from the Sun) Pluto Smallest State (India) GoaPlanet Nearest (to the Sun) Mercury STADIUMDustiest Planet Mars (Red Planet) Largest Stadium Strahov Stadium. It PLAY can accommodateThe Longest Play The Mouse-Trap around 240,000 (Agatha Christie’s people in Prague, Novel) Czech © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 10 STATUE UNIVERSITYTallest Statue (World) Statue of Liberty, Oldest University University of New York Karueein founded inTallest Statue (India) Statue of AD 859, Morocco “Panduranga Vittala” Largest University Building University of (Karnataka State) Riyadh., Saudi STAR Arabia.Biggest and Brightest ‘Sirius’ also called Largest Open University Indira Gandhi Dog Star National Open STREET University, New Delhi.Broadest Street (World) Broadway St. (USA) SHIP VOLCANOESGreatest Ship (World) Queen Elizabeth Highest Volcano (World) Cotopoxi (Andes, 2,83,000 tons Eucador) TOWER Largest Volcano (World) Mauna Lea (Hawai)Highest Tower (World) 1. Tokyo Television WALL Tower (Japan) Longest Wall (World) Great Wall of China 2. Eiffel Tower 2400 km (Paris, France)Highest Leaning Tower (World) Leaning Tower, Pisa WATERFALLS (Italy) Highest Waterfall (World) Angel Waterfalls inHighest Tower (India) Qutub Minar (Delhi) Venezuela, South 88.4 m America TUNNEL Highest Water fall (India) Gersoppa WaterfallLargest Tunnel (India) Jawahar Tunnel (Karnataka) (Jammu & Kashmir)Longest Rail Tunnel Bombay-Pune route ZOOLongest Highway Tunnel Norway 24.5 km Largest Zoo (India) Zoological Gardens,(Laerdal Tunnel) (Oslo-Bergen) Alipur, Calcutta COUNTRIES AND CAPITALSAfghanistan Kabul Bolivia La PazAlbania Tirana Bosniaherzegovina SarajevoAlgeria Algiers Botswana GaboroneAngola Luanda Brazil BrasilliaAndorra Andorre-la-Vieille Brunei Bander Seri begawanAntigua & Barbuda St.John’s Bulgaria SofiaArgentina Buenos Aires Burkina faso OuagadougouArmenia Yerevan Burundi BujumburaAustralia Canberra Byelorussia MinskAustria Vienna Cambodia Phnom-PenhAzerbaijan Baku Cameroon YaoundeBahamas Nassau Canada OttawaBahrain Manama Cape Verde PraiaBangladesh Dhaka Central African Republic BanguiBarbados Bridgetown Chad N’ DjamenaBelgium Brussels Chile SantiagoBelize Belmopan China BeijingBenin Porto Novo Colombia BogotaBermuda Hamilton Comoros MoroniBhutan Thimphu Congo (Formerly French) Brazzaville © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 11Costa Rica San Jose Korea (North) PyongyangCoted’ ivoira Abidjan Korea (South) SeoulCroatia Zagrab Kuwait Kuwait CityCuba Havana Lao s.P.D.R. VientianeCyprus Nicosia Latria RigaCzechoslovakia Prague (Praha) Lebanon BeirutDenmark Copenhagen Lesotho MaseruDjibouti Djibouti Liberia MonroviaDominica Roseau Libya TripoliDominican Republic Santo Domingo Lithuania VilniusEcuador Quito Luxembourg LuxembourgEgypt Cairo Macao MacaoEl Salvador San Salvador Macedonia SkopjeEquatorial Guinea Malabo Madagascar AntananarivoEritrea Asmara Malawi LilongweEstonia Tallinn Malaysia Kuala LumpurEthiopia (or Abyssinia) Addis Ababa Maldives MaleFalkland Islands Stanley Mali BamakoFiji Suva Malta VallettaFinland Helsinki Mauritania NouakchottFrance Paris Mauritius Port LouisGabon Libreville Mexico Mexico CityGambia Banjul Monaco MonacoGermany (United) Berlin Mongolia Ulam BatorGeorgia Tbilisi Montserrat PlymouthGhana Accra Morocco RabatGreece Athens Mozambique MaputoGrenada St.George’s Myanmar (Burma) YangonGuatemala Guatemala City Namibia WindhoekGuinea Conakry Nauru Yaren NauruGuinea-Bissau Bissau Nepal KathmanduGuyana Georgetown Netherlands AmsterdamHaiti Port-au-Prince New Zealand WellingtonHonduras Tegucigalpa Nicaragua ManaguaHong Kong Victoria Niger NiameyHungary Budapest Nigeria AbujaIceland Reykjavik Northern Ireland BelfastIndia New Delhi Norway OsloIndonesia Jakarta Oman MuscatIran Teheran Pakistan IslamabadIraq Baghdad Panama Panama CityIreland (or Eire) Dublin Papua New Guinea Port MoresbyIsrael Jerusalem Paraguay AsuncionItaly Rome Peru LimaIvory Coast Abidjan Philippines Manila (Quezon City)Jamaica Kingston Poland WarsawJapan Tokyo Portugal LisbonJordan Amman Puerto Rico San JuanKazakhstan Alma-ata Qatar DohaKenya Nairobi Rourkina Fasso (Upper Volta) QuagadougonKirghizia Frunze Romania BucharestKiribati Tarawa Russia Mascow © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 12Rwanda Kigali Timor DiliSan Marino San Marino Togo LomeSao Tome and Principle Sao Tome Tonga Nuku’alofaSaudi Arabia Riyadh Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-SpainSenegal Dakar Tunisia TunisSeychelles Victoria Turkey AnkaraSierra Leone Freetown Turkmenistan AshkhabadSingapore Singapore City Tuvalu FunafutiSolomon Islands Honiara Uganda KampalaSomalia Magadishu Ukraine KievSouth Africa Pretoria United Arab Emirates Abu DhabiSpain Madrid United Kingdom LondonSri Lanka Colombo U.S.A. Washington D.C.St.Kitts-Nevis Basseterre Uruguay MontivideoSt.Lucia Castries Uzbekistan TashkentSt.Vincent & The Grenadines Kingstown Vanuatu VilaSudan Khartoum Vatican City State Vatican CitySuriname Paramaribo Venezuela CaracasSwaziland Mbabane Vietnam HanoiSweden Stockholm Western Samoa ApiaSwitzerland Berne Yemen (North) SaniaSyria DamascusTadzhikistan Dushanbe Yugoslavia BelgradeTaiwan Taipei Zaire KinshasaTanzania Do doma Zambia LusakaThailand Bangkok Zimbabwe Harare COUNTRIES AND CURRENCIESAfganistan Afghani Central African France CFA Guatemala QuetzalAlbania Lek Republic Guinea-Bissau PesoAlgeria Dinar Chile Peso Guyana Guyana DollarAndorra French Franc, China (Peoples) Yuan Haiti Gourde Spanish Peseta Columbia Peso Holland FlorinAngola New Kwanza Congo France CFA Honduras LempiraAntigua & Eastern Caribbean Costa Rica Colone Hong Kong Hong Kong DollarBarbuda Dollar Cuba Peso Hungary ForintArgentina Peso Cyprus Cyprus Pound Iceland KronaArmenia Rubie Czechoslovakia Koruna Ireland Irish PoundAustralia Australian Dollar Denmark Krone India RupeeAustria Schilling Ecuador Sucre Indonesia RupiahBahamas Bahamian Dollar Egypt Pound Iran RialBahrain Bahrain Dinar El Salvador Colon Iraq DinarBangladesh Taka Ethiopia Birr Israel New ShekelBarbados Dollar Fiji Dollar Italy LiraBelgium Franc Finland Mark Ivory Coast Franc CFABrazil New Cruzado France Franc Jamaica Jamaican PoundBritain Pound Gambia Dalasi Japan YenBritish Dollar Germany Deutsche Mark Jordan Jordan DinarHonduras (United) Kenya Kenyan ShillingBulgaria Lev Ghana Cedi Korea WonCanada Dollar Greece Drachma Kuwait Kuwait Dinar © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 13Laos Kip Oman Omani Rial Tanzania ShillingLebanon Pound Pakistan Rupee Thailand BahtLiberia Liberian Dollar Panama Balboa Togo France CFALibya Libya Dinar Papua Kina Tonga Pa’ AngaLuxembourg Luxembourg Franc New Guinea Trinidad Trinidad DollarMadagascar Malagasy Franc Paraguay Guarani Tobago Tobago DollarMalaysia Malaysian Dollar Peru Inti Sol Tunisia DinarMaldives Maldivian Rupee Philippines Peso Turkey Turkish Lira (Rufiyaa) Poland Zloty United Arab Pound DirhamMalta Lira Maltija Portugal Escudo Emirates RepublicMauritius Rupee Qatar Qatari Riyal Uganda Ugandan ShillingMexico Peso Romania Leu U.K. Pound (Sterling)Monaco French Franc Russia Rouble Uruguay Nuero PesoMongolia Tugrik Salvador Colon U.S.A. DollarMorocco Dirham San Marino Italian Lira Vatican City LiraMozambique Metical Saudi Arabia Riyal StateMyanmar Kyat Singapore Singapore Dollar Venezuela Bolivar(Burma) Somalia Somali Shilling Vietnam DongNepal Nepalese Rupee South Africa Rand Yemen RialNetherlands Guilder Spain Peseta Yemen Arab DinarNew Zealand New Zealand Sri Lanka Rupee Republic Dinar Dollar Sudan Sudanese Pound YugoslaviaNicaragua New Cordoba Sweden Krona Zaire ZaireNigeria Naira Switzerland Swiss Franc Zambia KwachaNorway Kroner Syria Syrian Pound Dinar Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Dollar LANDMARKS ARCHITECTURES, MONUMENTS, BUILDINGS, TOWNS AND PLACESAbu, Mt. : (Rajasthan) hill station on the Aravalli Range; Amber Palace : Deserted capital near Jaipur (Rajasthan)sacred centre of Jain worshippers, Dilwara temples. containing the finest specimens of Rajput architecture.Abu Simbal : (Egypt) famous ancient temple cut-out of Amritsar : (Punjab) on the north-west border or India;rock by Rameses II. Golden Temple; Jallianwala Bagh tragedy on April 13, 1919.Adam’s Bridge : Very nearly joined to India between Angkor Vat : A ruined city in Cambodia where beautifulMannar Pennsula and Danushkodi by a line of sand banks specimens of ancient Indian art and culture are found.and rocks called ‘Adam’s Bridge’. Athens : The International Olympic Committee (IOC) onAga Khan Palace : In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi was September 5, 1997, awarded the 2004 Summer Olympicskept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturba to Athens, the Greek capital which was the birth place ofdied in this palace. the Games. Athens hosted the first modern Olympics in 1896 but lost out to Atlanta in 1996 Centennial Games.Ajantha Caves : Located near Aurangabad, famous for Aurangabad : One of the important towns of Maharashtrawonderful Buddhist cave temples richly ornamented with State; tomb of Emperor Aurangzeb and of his wife. Ellorasculpture and carved with paintings. and Ajanta Caves are reached from here.Ajmer: (Rajasthan) Pilgrim centre for Muslims; tomb of Auroville : It is an international township constructed inKhwaja Muin-ud-din chisti. Pondicherry with the help of UNESCO.Alexandria : City and sea-port of Egypt founded by Avadi : Near Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Government ownedAlexander the Great. Heavy vehicles factory. ‘Vijayanta’ and ‘Ajit’ tanks areAllahabad : (Prayag) is a city in Uttar Pradesh situated at manufactured here.the confulence of the Ganga and the Jamuna. Kumbha Badrinath : Himalayas; Place of pilgrimage for the HindusMela (religious fair of the Hindus) is held here once in near Gangortri Glacier.every 12 years. Baroda : Capital of the former Baroda State is known forAmarnath : Situated at a height of about 4054 metres in Laxmi Vilas Palace which is one of the most beautifulKashmir. It is a place of pilgrimage for the Hindus. palaces in India. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 14Belur Math : It is monastery near Calcutta in West Bengal Ernakulam : in Kerala State is famous for its backwaters.founded by Swami Vivekananda. A beautiful temple Fatehpur Sikri : 32 km from Agra; city built by Emperordedicated to Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Akbar in 1569, now deserted.Bethlehem : Palestine; about 9 km South of Jeruselam; Fleet Street : A street in London running from Templebirth-place of Jesus and Kind David; Church of Nativity. far east wards to Ludgate Circus. The area (with adjoiningBuckingham Palace : In London; residence of the Royal streets) houses the offices, and printing establishmentsfamily of England. of many of the leading British newspapers and pressBuddha-Gaya : It is situated 10 km south of Gaya in Bihar agencies.State on the river bank of Lilajan and famous as the place Gateway of India : in Mumbai harbour erected in 1911 onwhere Buddha got enlightenment. There are modern George V’s visit to India.monasteries, rest houses and museum. Gaya : (Bihar) the place where Lord Buddha gotCalcutta : West Bengal Government re-christened enlightenment; famous for pilgrimage.Calcutta as Kolkata with effect from January 1, 2001. Gibraltar : British fortress and naval base on west endSiliguri has been renamed as Shilliguri. of the Mediterranean (extreme south of Spain) key to theCape Comorin : also called Kanya Kumari in Tamil Nadu, Mediterranean.where Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal meet the Indian Golden Temple : in Amritsar (Punjab), sacred to the Sikhs.Ocean. It gives a beautiful view of sun-set and sun-rise. Gol Gumbaz : largest Dome in Bijapur (Karnataka).Chennai : Capital of Tamil Nadu is the third largest city in Gomateswara : (Karnataka) famous for the 2000 year oldIndia. Known for Fort St.George, Light House, St.Thomas statue of Jain Sage carved out of a single stone.Mount, Integral Coach Factory, Adyar (the headquarters Great Wall of China : 2400 km long wall; its constructionof the Theosophical Society). was started by Chinese King Emperor Shih Hwang.Chidambaram : Famous for its great Hindu Siva temple, Gwalior : in Madhhya Pradesh famous for its Fort,dedicated to Nataraja or Siva in his aspect of ‘Cosmic Tansen’s Tomb, Rani Laxmi Bai’s Chhatri.dance’. Annamalai University is located here. Hague, The : (The Netherlands) Seat of InternationalChittorgarh : Ancient capital and fortress of Udaipur; Court of Justice; Art galleries.known for Tower of Victory and Mira Bai’s Temple. Hampi : site ruins of Vijayanagar - ancient capital ofDakshineswar : 8 Kns from Calcutta where Vivekananda Vijayanagar empire. It is in Karnataka.was initiated into religious life by Sri RamakrishnaParamahamsa. Hanging Gardens of Babylon : one of the Seven Wonders of the World; planted near the Euphrates in 603 B.C.Dandi : famous for Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March) byMahatma Gandhi in 1930. Hiroshima : in Central Honshu (Japan) close to the ‘Island of Light’ with the famous Shinto temples; firstDigboi : (Assam) is known for rich oil-fields. city destroyed by atom bomb in the Second World War.Dilwara Temples : near Mount Abu (Rajasthan) are five Howrah Bridge : a cantilever span bridge constructedHindu Temples constructed here between 11th and 13th over the river Hooghly connecting Howrah Railwaycentury A.D. Station with Kolkata.Downing Street : No.10 Downing Street is the official Hyderabad-Secunderabad : Twin city-capital of Andhraresidence of the Prime Minister of England in London. Pradesh.It stands on the river Musi, known for Charminar,Durand Line : the line demarcating the limits of neutral Osmania University, Salarjung Museum - one of theterritory between Pakistan and Afghanistan. richest and most varied collections in Asia.Eagle’s Nest : Name given to the historic fort at Raigarh India Gate : A memorial in New Delhi facing thein Kolaba district of Maharashtra where 300 years ago, Rashtrapati Bhavan.Chatrapati Shivaji, the great warrior-statesman, was Jaipur : capital of Rajasthan is famous for pottery,crowned. brassware, sculpture, ivory and sandalwood work andEiffel Tower : In Paris (France) 300 m high and built at a jewellery. Famous for Maharaja’s palace; Jai Singh’scost of 200,000 pounds. It is now being used as a observatory. Amber (ancient capital) Hawa Mahal.Meteorological Wireless Station. Jallianwala Bagh : a garden in Amritsar; scene ofElephanta : an Island in Mumbai harbour - famous for massacre of innocent Indians by the British on 13throck-cut temples. April 1919.Ellor and Ajantha : famous for wonderful Buddhist cave Jama Masjid : (Delhi) built by Shah Jehan, India’s biggesttemples richly ornamented with sulpture and carved with mosque.paintings. Jamshedpur : (Bihar) centre of iron and steeel industry;Empire State Building : (U.S.A.) is one of the loftiest Tata Iron and Steel Factory is located here.buildings in the world; height about 365 metres; it has Jantar Mantar : in Delhi, is an Observatory constructed102 storeys. in 1724 during the days of Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 15Jerusalem : ancient city and capital of Palestine known Mathura : a holy city in Uttar Pradesh; Birth-place ofas ‘Holy City’. Christ was crucified here. Lord Krishna, Hindu temples; oil refinery.Jog Falls : also called Gersoppa Falls in Karnataka are Mecca : the holiest cityof the Mohammedan world inone of the highest warerfalls in the world. These falls are Arabia, where the Prophet was born. It stands in theformed by the river Sharasvati which takes a big leap desert. It is a place of pilgrimage and Muslims from alldown a steep rock from a height of 253 metres. parts of the world visit the place it for Haj in every year.Juma Masjid, Mandu : is in Madhya Pradesh; it depicts a Mount Blanc : highest mountain peak in Europe. It is insynthesis of Hindu and Muslim styles in architecture. the Alps on the confines of Italy and France, longestKailasha Temple : rock-cut temple in Ellora caves. road tunnel in the world.Kalpakkam : near Chennai in Tamil Nadu is known for Munich : (West Germany) scene of Munich pact; artChennai Atomic Power Project (MAPP). galleries; The 20th Olympic Games (1972) were held here.Kanchi or Kancheepuram : Near Chennai was the ancient Nilgiris : mountain range in Tamil Nadu, teacapital of ancient Pallavas; famous for ancient temples. plantations.Kandahar : This is a town in Afghanistan where Pakistan Panna : in M.P. Panna district is known for diamond mines.backed 5 terrorists and forced the hijacked Indian Airlines Panna town has several buildings of historical interestplane IC 814 with 155 passengers and crew aboard to including Shri Baldeoji temple.land at Kandahar Airport on December 25, 1999, keeping Pearl Harbour : in Hawaii Island (USA) Naval Base;them hostage for seven days. scene of Japanese attack in World War II.Kanya Kumari : in Tamil Nadu, famous temple (the Virgin Pentagon : in Washington. It houses many GovernmentGoddess) situated at Cape Comorin on the extreme offices of the War Department of the USA.southern tip of India where the Bay of Bengal, ArabianSea, and the Indian Ocean meet; a picturesque spot. Petronas Twin Towers : Located in Kuala Lumpur withVivekananda Rock Memorial Buddha. 88 storeys high, these are the tallest buildings in the World.Kapilavastu : small kingdomin the north of India;associated with Mahatma Buddha. Philadelphia : (USA) place where Americans framed their Constitution and declared their IndependenceKaziranga : is a Game Sanctuary in Assam. It is the centre son 4th July, 1776.of the great Indian one-horned rhinos. Plassey : a village on the Ganges (West Bengal) BattleKhajuraho : in Madhya Pradesh famous for the group of of Plassey was fought here in 1757 in which Clivehighly ornate medieval Hindu temples. defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah and laid the foundation ofKodaikanal : is a town in Tamil Nadu famous for its British Rule in India.Observatory for the study of Solar Physics. Pokhran : The Nuclear test site in Rajasthan, 600 kmsKonarak : small town 16 km north of Puri (Orissa) famous from Jaipur. The first nuclear test was conduted on Mayfor its Black Pagods; Sun Temple. 18, 1974 and five more on May 11 and 13 1998.Kovalam : is a sea-beach about 16 km from Trivandrum in Pondicherry : formerly a French possession, sinceKerala. Developed as a Tourist Resort by India Tourism taken by the India Govenement and now specified asCorporation. a Union Territory. Aurobindo Ashram is establishedKremlin : Large fortified citadel in Moscow, now the here. ‘Auroville’, an international township inmemoryheadquarters of Russia. The Kremlin, originally built in of Sri Aurobindo has been built here.1156 by Yuri, (George) Dolgoruki, price of Suzdal became Pyramids of Egypt : are vast stone or brick-builtthe centre around which Moscow has grown. structures on west bank of the Nile. They date back toQutub Minar : in Delhi (88.4 m high) is one of the master about 300 B.C. The largest is called the Great Pyramid- pieces of Indian architecture and art. It is the biggest which is 146 metres high and is one of the Sevenminaret in the world. Completed by Altamash in 1232 A.D. Wonders of the World. Three lakh men were employedLeaning Tower : (Pisa, Italy) 55 metres high. for 20 years to build it. These Pyramids have inner chambers and subterranean entrances built byLumbini : birth place of Buddha. It is in Nepal. The pharaohs as oval tombs.Nepalese Government have plans to develop the placewith the U.N. assistance as an Internatinal Tourist Resort. Raj Ghat : On the bank of Jamuna in Delhi, Samadhi ofMadurai : in Tamil Nadu, famous for Meenakshi Temple, Mahatma Gandhi.dedicated to Lord Siva. Rashtrapati Bhavan : official residence of the PresidentMahabalipuram : in Tamil Nadu on the Eastern Ghats, of India in New Delhi; known as Viceragal Lodge duringfamous for temples and monumental architectures. An British reign.atomic power station is being set up near here at Red Fort : Red-stone Fort built by Shah Jehan in DelhiKalpakkam. near the Jamuna. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 16Red Square : It is a famous open space in Moscow Triveni : in Allahabad (UP) Confluence of the Ganges,linked with the Kremlin by three gates used for the Jamuna and the mythical Saraswati; a place ofpolitical demonstrations and processions. Lenin’s pilgrimage for the Hindus.mausoleum is in the Red Square. Varanasi : or Banares is a town in UP very sacred to theRome : capital of Italy; on the River Tiber; one of the Hindus. It is known as the religious capital of Hindu India.most famous cities of the world also known as Famous for Banares Hindu University, VishwanathEternal City. Temple, Manmandir with Jaisingh’s Observatory, Ramnagar Fort etc.,Sabarmati : in Gujarat State near Ahmedabad; HarijanAshram founded by Mahatma Gandhi. Vatican : the Papal State of Italy; an independent territory; the palace of Pope in Rome. It includes theSarnath : situated 8 km outside Varanasi. Saranath is the Church of St. Peter.famous place of Buddhist pilgrimage in India. In the ‘DeerPark’ of Sarnath, Gautama Buddha preached his First Victoria Falls : on the River Zambesi, Zambia-CentralSemon. Also located here is the famous Ashoka Pillar of Africa. These Falls, the greatest in the world are 1700polished sand-stone whose lion capital was adopted by metres wide.the new Republic of India as the State Emblem. Victoria Memorial : a magnificent building inScotland Yard : the Metropoliton Police Headquarters in Calcutta having an art gallery and a well-laid out gardenLondon from which the force is administered CID attached to it.headquarters. Vijay Ghat : On the banks of the Yamuna in Delhi isSeringapatnam : Seringapatnam was the capital of Samadhi of Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, former PrimeKarnataka during the rule of Tipu Sultan. The fourth and Minister of India.the last Mysore war was fought here. Tipu Sultan died Visakhapatnam : big harbour on the eastern coast ofhere fighting bravely against the British forces. India; ship building yard.Sriharikota : in the Nellore district on the Andhra coast Viswa Shanti Stupa : (World Peace Pagoda) 45 m highis India’s Satellite Launching Centre. The Sriharikota stupa raised a top, the picturesque Ratnagiri hill, it is theRange (SHAR) comprises the Sriharikota Launch first stupa of its kind in India.Complex, Rocket Shed Facility, Static Test and Evaluation Vivekananda Rock : is situated near Kanyakumari at theComplex, Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant and southern tip of India’s coastline. It has been so named inSriharikota Common Facilities. memory of Swami Vivekananda.Suez Canal : Ship canal (Egypt) it connects the Wagah Border : This is a border between India andMediterranean (Port Said) with the Red Sea (Suez). Pakistan. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal BehariSunderbands : is a tract of forests and swamps - 264 km Vajpayee crossed the border to enter Pakistan by buslong and 129 km wide fringing the delta of the Ganges. as part of his peace initiative with Indias neighbour onTaj Mahal : the white marble mausoleum built at Agra by February 20, 1999.Shah Jehan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. Wall Street : a street in New York, centre of US BankingTanjore : (Tamil Nadu) famous for museum, temples and and Finance.library. Brihadeeswara temple. Wardha : (Maharashtra State) Mahatma Gandhi lived hereTaxila : in West Pakistan; site of excavation, old seat of for several years; centre of cotton trade.Buddhist culture and famous for ancient Taxila University. Waterloo : Belgium; famous for the battle of WaterlooTel Aviv : magnificent city in Palestine built by the Jews; which marked the end of Napoleon’s power.capital of Israel. Wellington : in the Nilgiris hills (Tamil Nadu) is knownThumba : near Trivandrum in Kerala State is known as for Defence Services Staff College.rocket launching station. White Hall : London, Government Offices.Tirupati : in Andhra State about 160 km to the north- White House : is the Official Residence of the Presidentwest of Chennai is one of the holiest places in South of the USA. It is located at 600. Pennsylvania AvenueIndia. This hill temple of Sri Venkateshwara is an example in Washington D.C.of early Dravidian architecture and is one of the finest in Wimbledon : in London, famous for Lawn Tennis Court.the south. Yellow Sea : Sea between northern China and Korea.Trafalgar : Cape Trafalgar is famous for the navalbattle fought between the British led by Admiral Zambesi : River in South East Africa. It flows east toNelson and an allied naval force of France and Spain in Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean.1805. Admiral Nelson won the battle though he was Zojila : a pass in the way from Srinagar (Kashmir) to Lehhimself killed in action. and then to Yerkand in Tibet. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 17 INDIA - AT A GLANCE India lies at the north of the equator between National EMBLEM 8° 4 and 37° 6 north latitude and 68° 7 and 97° The State Emblem of India is an adaptation from 25 east longitude. the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka as preserved in the It is bounded on the South West by the Arabian Sarnath Museum. The Government adopted the emblem Sea & on the South East by the Bay of Bengal. on 26th January, 1950, the day when India became a On the North, North East & North West lie the Republic. Himalayan ranges. The southern tip, Kanyakumari In the State Emblem adopted by the Government, is washed by the Indian Ocean. only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of India measures 3214 km from North to South & the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the 2933 km from east to west with a total land area of left and the outlines of the other wheels on the extreme 3,287,263 sq.km. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km right and left. & a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep in The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The the Arabian Sea are parts of India. Words, Saytameva Jayate from the Mundaka Upanishad meaning ‘Truth alone triumphs’ are inscribed below the India shares its political borders with Pakistan abacus in Devanagari script. and Afghanistan on the West and Bangladesh and Burma on the East. The Northern boundary National FLAG is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, The National Flag is a horizontal tri-colour of Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middleIndia has Seven major Physiographic and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. Theregions ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of white band is a wheel, in navy 1. Northern Mountains including the Himalayas blue, which represents the Charkha (Khadi Spinning and mountain ranges in the North-East. Wheel). Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) which 2. The Indo-Gangetic plain appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of 3. Central Highlands Asoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band. It has 24 spokes. 4. Peninsular plateau 5. East Coast The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22nd July, 1947. 6. West Coast Its use and display are regulated by a code. 7. Bordering seas and islands. Rabindranath Tagore’s song, Jana-gana-mana was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the NationalIndia has Seven principal Mountain Anthem of India on 24th January 1950. The first stanzaranges (out of 5 stanzas) of the song, forms the National 1. the Himalayas Anthem. 2. the Patkai and other ranges bordering India National Calendar in the North & North East The Saka year has the normal 365 days and 3. the Vindhyas, which separate the Indo- begins with Chaitra as its first month. The days of the Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau Saka calendar have permanent correspondence with 4. the Satpura the dates of the Gregorian Calendar, Chaitra 1 falling on 5. the Aravalli March 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a Leap 6. the Sahayadri, which covers the Eastern Year. The National Calendar commenced on Chaitra fringe of the West Coast plains and 1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to March 22, 1957 A.D. 7. the Eastern Ghats, irregularly scattered on NATIONAL ANIMAL : TIGER the East Coast and, forming the boundary of the East Coast plains. NATIONAL GAME : HOCKEY Himalayas, the highest mountain - system in the NATIONAL FLOWER: LOTUSworld, is also one of the worlds youngest mountainranges. NATIONAL BIRD : PEACOCK © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 18National Song accepted language in the VIII Schedule to the Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s Vande Mataram Constitution. Dravidian languages form a group bywhich was a source of inspiration to the people in their themselves, and unlike the Aryan, Austric or Sino-struggle for freedom, has an equal status with Jana- Tibetan speeches, have no relations outside thegana-mana. The first political occasion on which it was Indian subcontinent, that is, India, Pakistan andsung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Bangladesh. The Dravidian family is the secondCongress. largest group in India, covering about 25% of the total Indian population. The Dravidian language came intoIndia-Religious Communities India centuries before the Indo-Aryan. The major religious communities of India are the The outstanding languages of theHindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains Dravidian groups are :and Parsis. (a) Telugu, the State language of Andhra Pradesh,RELIGIOUS BOOKS numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages (b) Tamil, the State language of Tamil Nadu, apparently Hindus Four Vedas, The Bhagwad Gita, The the oldest and purest branch of the Dravidian Ramayana, The Puranas, The family Mahabharat, The Upanishads, The Ramcharitmanas (c) Kannada, the State language of Karnataka, another ancient Dravidian language that has developed Muslims The Holy Quran individually Sikhs Guru Granth Sahib (d) Malayalam, the State language of Kerala, the Christians The Bible smallest and the youngest of the Dravidian family. Parsis Zend Avesta Of the 1652 mother tongues listed in the census,India - Principal Languages 33 are spoken by people numbering over a lakh. With independence, the question of a common language India has 18 officially recognised languages naturally came up.(Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to theofficial list of 15 in 1992). The 1961 and 1971 census The Constituent Assembly could not arrive at ahad listed 1652 languages as mother tongues spoken in consensus in the matter. The question was put to voteIndia. The Indian languages of today have evolved and Hindi won on a single vote-the casting vote of thefrom different language families. President. Hindi however was only one of the many regional languages of India.They may be grouped into 6 groups as The Indian National Congress had advocated theunder : formation of linguistic provinces. The acceptance of this policy involved the statutory recognition of all the 1. Negroid 4. Dravidian major regional languages. The Constitution therefore 2. Austric 5. Indo-Aryan recognised Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union (Art.343) and the regional 3. Sino-Tibetan 6. Other Speeches. languages as the official langugaes of the States These languages have interacted on one another concerned (Art.345).through the centuries and have produced the major English was recognised as the authoritativelinguistic divisions of modern India. Among the major legislative and judicial language (Art 348). The 8thgroups, the Aryan and the Dravidan are the dominating Schedule was added to the Constitution to indicate allfamilies. Indo-Aryan, the Indic branch of the Indo- regional languages statutarily recognised.European family, came into India with the Aryans. It isthe biggest of the language groups in India, accounting The Schedule originally contained 15for about 74 % of the entire Indian population. The languages as follows :important languages in this group are : Western 1. Assamese 6. Kashmiri 11. SanskritPunjabi, Sindhi, Eastern Punjabi, Hindi, Bihari,Rajasthani, Gujarati, Marathi, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, 2. Bengali 7. Malayalam 12. TamilPahari, Kashmiri and Sanskrit. Sankrit, the classical 3. Gujarati 8. Marathi 13. Telugulanguage of India, represents the highest achievement 4. Hindi 9. Oriya 14. Urduof the Indo-Aryan languages. Although hardly spokennow-a-days, Sanskrit has been listed a nationally 5. Kannada 10. Punjabi 15. Sindhi. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 19 By the 71st Amendment to the Constitution, Kannada, the official language of the State of Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to the Karnataka, belongs to the Dravidian family. list in 1992. Hindi, numerically the biggest of the Kannada, as an independent language, dates Indo-Aryan family is the official language of the from the 9th century. It has rich literary Government of India. This was originally spoken traditions. in Delhi and some Western UP districts. Official Malayalam, a branch of the Dravidian family, is Hindi is written in Devanagiri script. the official language of the State of Kerala. Tamil, the oldest of the Dravidian languages, is It is one of the most developed languages of the State language of Tamil Nadu. Tamil literature India. goes back to centuries before the Christian era. Telugu, numerically the biggest of the Dravidian The language is spoken by 74 million or more and languages is the State language of Andhra judging by its modern publications, it is advancing Pradesh. Next to Hindi, it is the biggest linguistic at a faster pace. unit in India. TRIBES AND RACESBhils Primitive race inhabiting Central India Santhals Aboriginal natives of OrissaMoplas Muslim Tribe of Malabar (Kerala) Todas Aboriginal Tribe of NilgirisNagas Hill Tribe of Nagaland INDIA - Key Facts - 2001 CENSUSArea : 3,287,263 sq.km. States : 28.Population : 1,027,015,247 (2001). Capital : New Delhi.Males : 531,277,078. Female-Male ratio : 933 females per 1000 males.Females : 495,738,169. National income : Rs.4,73,246 crore (1991-96)Literacy : Persons 566, 714, 995 (65.38%). Per Capita GNP : Rs.5528.6 (1991-92)Males : 339,969,048 (75.85%). Life Expectancy : 61.1 (1991-96).Females : 226,745,947 (54.16%). Infant Mortality Rate : 80 (1990). CAPITAL CITIES OF STATES AND UNION TERRITORIESSTATES CAPITALS 19. Nagaland Kohima 20. Orissa Bhubaneshwar1. Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad 21. Punjab Chandigarh2. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 22. Rajasthan Jaipur3. Assam Dispur 23. Sikkim Gangtok4. Bihar Patna 24. Tamil Nadu Chennai5. Chhattisgarh Raipur 25. Tripura Agartala6. Gujarat Gandhinagar 26. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow7. Goa Panaji 27. Uttaranchal Dehradun8. Haryana Chandigarh 28. West Bengal Kolkata9. Himachal Pradesh Shimla10. Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar National Capital Territory11. Jharkhand Ranchi New Delhi New Delhi12. Karnataka Bangalore Union Territories Headquarters13. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 1. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Port Blair14. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 2. Chandigarh Chandigarh15. Maharashtra Mumbai 3. Dadra & Nagar Haveli Silvassa16. Manipur Imphal 4. Daman & Diu Daman17. Meghalaya Shillong 5. Lakshadweep Kavaratti18. Mizoram Aizawl 6. Pondicherry Pondicherry © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 20 PLACES ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRIES IN INDIAPlace Name of Industries Place Name of IndustriesAhmedabad Cotton Textiles Mysore SilkAligarh Locks Nandambakkam (Chennai) Surgical InstrumentsAlwaye (Kerala) Rare Earths Factory, Nangal Fertilizers Aluminium Nepanagar (M.P) NewsprintAmbattur (Chennai) Cycle, Enfield Motor Neyveli Lignite Cycles Ooty (Nilgiris) (T.N) Film ManufactureAmbarnath Machine Tools Prototype Perambur (Chennai) Integral Coach FactoryAmritsar (Punjab) Printing Machines Pimpri (Poona) Pencillin FactoryAnand Amul Butter Pinjore (Haryana) Machine ToolsAnkleshwar (Gujarat) Oil Rana Pratap Sagar Atomic Power PlantAvadi (Chennai) Tank Factory Raniganj Coal MiningBangalore Aircraft Renukoot AluminiumBhilai (M.P) Steel Plant Rupnarainpur (W.B) CablesBhadravati Iron and Steel Sindri FertilizerBhopal Heavy Electricals Singhbhum Copper, Iron oreBokaro Steel Plant Sirpur PaperMumbai Atomic Reactors Sivakasi Match IndustryNomba High Oil Sriharikota (A.P) Satellite StationChittaranjan Locomotive Surat Gold laceCochin Ship-building Tarapur (Maharashtra) Nuclear PowerCoimbatore Pulp & Textiles Thumba (Kerala) Rocket Launching CentreDindigul Locks Tiruchirappalli CigarDurgapur (W.B) Steel Plant Tiruverumbur (T.N) Heavy ElectricalsEnnore Thermal Power Titagarh Paper MillsGuntur Cotton Trombay (Maharashtra) Atomic ReactorsHaldia Oil Refinery Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) Thermal, Pearl fishingJharia Coal Udaipur (Rajasthan) Zinc ProjectKagithapuram (T.N) Paper Udhana (Gujarat) RayonKalpakkam Atomic Power Urkunta (Karnataka) CementKanpur Leather Uttapara (W.B) Ambassador carsKollegal (Karnataka) Silk Vadodara (Gujarat) Nylon filament yarnKolar (Karnataka) Gold Mines Vandalur (Chennai) AutomobileLucknow Sugar Visakhapatnam Ship, SubmarineLudhiana Hosiery Worli (Mumbai) Baby FoodMoradabad Utensils Zaina Kot (J&K) HMT Watch Factory MINERALSMinerals Places Minerals PlacesAluminium Kerala Mica Koderma (Bihar), Nellore (AndhraBauxite Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir Pradesh)Coal Raniganj Petroleum Digboi, Mumbai High, CauveryCobalt Rajasthan and Kerala BasinCopper Khetri (Rajasthan) Red stone Jodhpur (Rajasthan)Carborundum Salem, Khasi Hills Salt Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan),Diamond Panna (Madhya Pradesh) Vedaranyam, KovalamGold Kolar (Karnataka) Tin Hazaribagh (Bihar)Gypsum Tiruchy, Bikaner & Jodhpur Thorium Trivandrum (Kerala)Heavy Water Tuticorin, Kota Tungsten Nagpur, Maharashtra and MarwarIron ore Singhbhum (Bihar) Uranium BiharLignite Neyveli (Tamil Nadu) Zinc Zawar mines (Udaipur)Marble Jaipur (Rajasthan) Zircon Kerala sea shores & Cape Comorin © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 21 NATIONAL PARKS AND SANCTUARIESAnna Zoological Sanctuary Vandalur (T.N.) Hazaribagh National Park Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)Anamalai Sanctuary Coimbatore, (T.N.) Kanha National Park Mandla (M.P.)Bandipur National Park Mysore (Karnataka) Kaziranga Natinoal Park Jorhat (Assam)Corbett National Park Nainital (Uttaranchal) Manas Tiger Sanctuary Barbeta (Assam)Crocodile Farm Kovalam (Chennai) Mudumalai Sanctuary NilgrisDachigam Santuary Srinagar (J & K) Periyar Sanctuary Idukki (Kerala)Ghana Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur (Rajasthan) Pichavaram Bird Sanctuary Chidambaram (T.N.)Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary Belgaum (Karnataka) Rangathitto Bird Sanctuary Mysore (Karnataka)Gir National Park Junagarh (Gujarat) Ranthanbor Tiger Sanctuary Sawai (Rajasthan)Guindy Deer Sanctuary Guindy (Chennai) Sivpuri National Park Sivpurai (M.P.)Guindy Snake Park Guindy (Chennai) Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Kancheepuram WILD ANIMALSBlack Bear Kashmir and parts of Himalayas Lions and Panther All Over IndiaDeer (Spotted) Many parts in India (Gir Forest, Gujarat)Elephants Western Ghats, Karnataka, Tamil Rhinoceros Assam Nadu & Orissa Tiger Many Parts in India GEOGRAPHICAL EPITHETSBengal’s Sorrow Damodar River Land of Setting Sun KanyakumariBlue Mountains Nilgiris Hills Manchester of India MumbaiCity Beautiful Chandigarh Manchester of South India CoimbatoreCity of Ghats & Temples Varanasi Poorman’s Ooty YercaudCity of Golden Temple Amritsar Queen of Arabian Sea CochinCity of Palaces Kolkata & Queen of Hills Mussoorie (U.P.) Chandigarh Rose Pink City JaipurGarden City of India Bangalore Scotland of the East MeghalayaGateway of India Mumbai Spice Garden of India KeralaLand of Five Rivers Punjab Switzerland of India Jammu & KashmirLand of Sunrise Arunachal Pradesh Venice of East Cochin ASSOCIATION OF PLACESBardoli Sardar Patel Pearl Harbour Japans attack during WorldBelur Ramakrishna Paramahamsa War IIChittor Rana Pratap Pondicherry Aurobindo GhoshCorsica Napoleon Bonaparte Porbunder, Rajghat Mahatma GandhiDandi Mahatma Gandhi Sabarmati Mahatma GandhiFatehpur Sikri Akbar the Great Seringapatnam Tipu SultanHaldighat Rana Pratap Shakti Sthal (New Delhi) Mrs. Indira GandhiHiroshima (Japan) Ist Atom Bomb dropped Shantivana Jawaharlal NehruJallianwala-Bagh Massacre of Indians Shantiniketan R.N. TagoreJerusalem Jesus Christ Talwandi Guru NanakKapilvastu Buddha Trafalgar NelsonLumbini Buddha Ujjain MahaviraMacedonia Alexander the Great Vijay Ghat (Delhi) L.B. ShastriMecca Prophet Mohammed Vrindaban (U.P.) Lord KrishnaNagasaki (Japan) IInd Atom Bomb dropped Waterloo Napoleon © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 22 INDIA - STATES Growth rate : 18.85% (1991-2001) ANDHRA PRADESH Density per sq.km : 340Area : 275,045 sq.km. Sex ratio : 932 (per 1000 males)Capital : Hyderabad Literacy rate : 64.28%No.of Districts : 23 Males : 71.93%Population : 75,727,541 (2001) Females : 56.03%Growth rate : 13.86% (1991-2000) Principal Language : AssameseDensity per sq.km. : 275 Legislature : UnicameralSex ratio : 978 (per 1000 males) Location : Located in Eastern India, Assam is almost separated from Central India by Bangladesh.It is boundedLiteracy rate : 61.11% West by West Bengal, North by Bhutan and ArunachalMales : 70.85% Pradesh, East by Nagaland, Manipur and Burma, SouthFemales : 51.17% by Meghalaya, Bangladesh, Tripura and Mizoram.Principal languages : Telugu & Urdu.Legislature : Unicameral. BIHARLocation : Located in South India, Andhra Pradesh isbounded by Tamil Nadu in the South-Orissa in the North Area : 94,163 sq.km.East, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the North Eastern Capital : PatnaMaharashtra and Karnataka in the West and by the Bay No. of Districts : 37of Bengal in the East. Population : 82,878,796 (2001) Growth rate : 28.43% (1991-2001) ARUNACHAL PRADESH Desnity per sq.km. : 880Area : 83,743 sq.km. Sex ratio : 921 (per 1000 males) Literacy rate : 47.53%Capital : Itanagar Males : 60.32%No.of Districts : 13 Females : 33.57%Population : 1,091,117 (2001) Principal Language : HindiGrowth rate : 26.21% (1991-2001) Legislature : Bicameral.Density per sq. km : 13 Location : Located in North India, Bihar is bounded bySex ratio : 901 (per 1000 males) Nepal in North, Jharkhand in South, West Bengal in East and Uttar Pradesh in West.Literacy rate : 54.74%Males : 64.07%Females : 44.24% CHHATTISGARHPrincipal languages : Nyishi, Dafla, Miji, Adi Gallong, Area : 1,35,133 sq.km.Wancho, Tagin Hill Miri, Mishmi, Monpa, Nocte, Alka, Capital : RaipurTangsa and Khampti No. of Districts : 16Legislature : Unicameral. Population : 20,795,956 (2001)Location : Bounded by Bhutan to the West, China to the Growth rate : 18.06% (1991-2001)North and North-East. Myanmar (Burma) to the East and Density per sq.km. : 154the plains of Assam to the South. Arunachal Pradesh is Sex ratio : 990 (per 1000 males)the home of more than 20 major tribes and acknowledged Literacy rate : 65.18%to be one of the most splendid, variegated and Males : 77.86%multilingual tribal areas of the world. Females : 52.40% ASSAM Principal Language : Hindi Legislature : Unicameral.Area : 78,438 sq.km. Location : Chhattisgarh is bounded by SouthernCapital : Dispur Jharkhand and Orissa in the East, Madhya Pradesh andNo.of Districts : 23 Maharashtra in the West, Uttar Pradesh and WesternPopulation : 26,638,407 (2001) Jharkhand in the North & Andhra Pradesh in the South. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 23 Location : Haryana is bounded by Uttar Pradesh & Delhi GOA in the East, Punjab & Himachal Pradesh in the North &Area : 3,702 sq.km. Rajasthan in the South & the West.Capital : PanajiNo. of Districts :2 HIMACHAL PRADESHPopulation : 1,343,998 (2001) Area : 55,673 sq.km.Growth rate : 14.89% (1991-2001) Capital : ShimlaDensity per sq.km. : 363 No. of Districts : 12Sex ratio : 960 (per 1000 males) Population : 6,077,248 (2001)Literacy rate : 82.32%Males : 88.88% Growth rate : 17.53% (1991-2001)Females : 75.51% Density per sq.km. : 109Principal Language : Marathi and Konkani Sex ratio : 970 (per 1000 males)Legislature : Unicameral. Literacy rate : 77.13%Location : Goa is bounded on the North by Males : 86.02%Maharashtra and on the East and South by Karnataka Females : 68.08%and has a coastline of 105 km, opening upto Arabian Sea Principal Languages : Hindi and Pahari.in the West. Legislature : Unicameral. Location : Himachal Pradesh is bounded North by Jammu GUJARAT and Kashmir, South by Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, TibetArea : 1,96,024 sq.km. (China)in the East and Punjab in the West.Capital : GandhinagarNo. of Districts : 25 JAMMU AND KASHMIRPopulation : 50, 596, 992 (2001) Area : 2,22,236 sq.km.Growth rate : 22.548% (1991-2001) Capital : Srinagar (Summer)Density per sq.km. : 258 Jammu (Winter)Sex ratio : 921 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 14Literacy rate : 69.97% Population : 10,069,917Males : 80.50% Growth rate : 29.04% (1991-2001)Females : 58.60%Principal Language : Gujarati Density per sq.km. : 99Legislature : Unicameral Sex ratio : 900 (per 1000 males)Location : Located in Western India, Gujarat is bounded Literacy rate : 54.46%in North by Pakistan & Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh in Males : 65.75%the East, Maharashtra in the South-East and Arabian Females : 41.82%Sea in the West. Principal Language : Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Balti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi; HARYANA Legislature : Bicameral Location : Located in the extreme North, the State isArea : 44,212 sq.km. bounded North by China, East by Tibet (China), SouthCapital : Chandigarh by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and West by Pakistan.No. of Districts : 19Population : 21,082,989 (2001) JHARKHANDGrowth rate : 28.06% (1991-2001) Area : 79, 714 sq.km.Density per sq.km. : 477 Capital : RanchiSex ratio : 861 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 18Literacy rate : 68.59%Males : 79.25% Population : 26,909,428 (2001)Females : 56.31% Growth rate : 23.19% (1991-2001)Principal Language : Hindi Density per sq.km. : 338Legislature : Unicameral. Sex ratio : 941 (per 1000 males) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 24Literacy rate : 54.13% Sex ratio : 920 (per 1000 males)Males : 67.94% Literacy rate : 64.11%Females : 39.38% Males : 76.80%Principal Language : Hindi Females : 50.28%Legislature : Bicameral Principal Language : HindiLocation : Jharkhand is bounded by West Bengal in the Legislature : Unicameral.East, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the West, Bihar Location : Madhya Pradesh is bounded by Chhattisgarhin North and Orissa in South. in the East, Rajasthan & Gujarat in the West, Uttar Pradesh in the North & Maharashtra in the South. KARNATAKAArea : 1,91,791 sq.km. MAHARASHTRACapital : Bangalore Area : 3,07,713 sq.km.No. of Districts : 27 Capital : MumbaiPopulation : 52,733,958 (2001) No. of Districts : 35Growth rate : 17.25% (1991-2001) Population : 96,752,247 (2001)Density per sq.km. : 275 Growth rate : 22.57% (1991-2001)Sex ratio : 964 (per 1000 males) Density per sq.km. : 314Literacy rate : 67.04% Sex ratio : 922 (per 1000 males)Males : 76.29% Literacy rate : 77.27%Females : 57.45% Males : 86.27%Principal Language : Kannada Females : 67.51%Legislature : Bicameral Principal Language : MaratiLocation : Located in South India, Karnataka is bounded Legislature : BicameralNorth by Maharashtra, East by Andhra Pradesh, South Location : Located in Central India, Maharashtra isby Tamil Nadu and Kerala, West by the Arabian Sea. bounded North by Madhya Pradesh East by Chhattisgarh, South by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and KERALA Goa, West by the Arabian Sea and North-West by Daman and Gujarat.Area : 38,863 sq.km.Capital : Thiruvananthapuram MANIPURNo. of Districts : 14Population : 31,838,619 (2001) Area : 22,327 sq.km.Growth rate : 9.42% (1991-2001) Capital : ImphalDensity per sq.km. : 819 No. of Districts :9Sex ratio : 1,058 (per 1000 males) Population : 2,388,634 (2001)Literacy rate : 90.92% Growth rate : 30.02% (1991-2001)Males : 94.20% Density per sq.km. : 107Females : 87.86% Sex ratio : 978 (per 1000 males)Principal Language : Malayalam Literacy rate : 68.87%Legialature : Unicameral. Males : 77.87%Location : Located in South India, Kerala is bounded Females : 59.70%North by Karnataka, East and South-East by Tamil Nadu, Principal Language : ManipuriSouth-West by the Indian Ocean & the Arabian Sea in Legislature : Unicameralthe West. Location : Located in North-East India, Manipur is bounded North by Nagaland, East by Myanmar (Burma), MADHYA PRADESH South by Mizoram and West by Assam. MEGHALAYAArea : 308,313 sq.km.Population : 60,385,118 (2001)Capital : Bhopal Area : 22,429 sq.km.Growth rate : 24.34% (1991-2001) Capital : ShillongNo. of Districts : 45 No. of Districts :7Density per sq.km. : 196 Population : 2,306,069 (2001) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 25Growth rate : 29.94% (1991-2001)Density per sq.km. : 103 ORISSASex ratio : 975 (per 1000 males) Area : 1,55,707 sq.km.Literacy rate : 63.31% Capital : BhubaneswarMales : 66.14% No. of Districts : 30Females : 60.41% Population : 36,706,920 (2001)Principal Languages : Khasi, Garo & English. Growth rate : 15.94% (1991-2001)Legislature : Unicameral. Density per sq.km. : 236Location : A landlocked territory of lovely hills with Sex ratio : 972 (per 1000 males)abounding sylvan beauty, Meghalaya (meaning “theabode of clouds”) is bounded on the North by Literacy rate : 63.61%Goalpara, Kamrup and Karbi-Anglong districts of Males : 75.95%Assam State, and on the East by the districts of Cachar Females : 50.97%and North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. On Principal Language : Oriyathe South and West is Bangladesh. Legislature : Unicameral. Location : Located in Eastern India, Orissa is bounded MIZORAM North by Jharkhand, North-East by West Bengal, East by the Bay of Bengal, South by Andhra Pradesh & WestArea : 21,081 sq.km. by Chhattisgarh.Capital : AizawlNo. of Districts :8 PUNJABPopulation : 891,058 (2001)Growth rate : 29.18% (1991-2001) Area : 50,362 sq.km.Density per sq.km. : 42 Capital : ChandigarhSex ratio : 938 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 17Literacy rate : 88.49% Population : 24,289,296 (2001)Males : 90. 69% Growth rate : 19.76% (1991-2001)Females : 86.13% Density per sq.km. : 482Principal Languages : Mizo and English. Sex ratio : 874 (per 1000 males)Legislature : Unicameral Literacy rate : 69.95%Location : One of the Eastern-most States, Mizoram lies Males : 75.63%between Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma), Tripura, Females : 63.55%Assam and Manipur border is on the North. Principal Language : Punjabi Legislature : Unicameral. NAGALAND Location : Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in theArea : 16,579 sq.km. North, Rajasthan & Haryana in the South, HimachalCapital : Kohima Pradesh in the East & Pakistan in the West.No. of Districts :8Population : 1,988,636 (2001) RAJASTHANGrowth rate : 64.41% (1991-2001) Area : 3,42,239 sq.km.Density per sq.km : 120 Capital : JaipurSex ratio : 909 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 32Literacy rate : 67.11% Population : 56,473,122 (2001)Males : 71.77% Growth rate : 28.33% (1991-2001)Females : 61.92% Density per sq.km. : 165Principal Languages : Ao, Chang, Chakhesang, Konyak,Sangtam, Angami, Sema & Lotha Sex ratio : 922 (per 1000 males)Legislature : Unicameral. Literacy rate : 61.03% Males : 76.46%Location: Situated in the extreme North-East of the Females : 44.34%country, Nagaland is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh inthe North, Manipur in the South, Myanmar in the East Principal Languages : Hindi and Rajasthaniand Assam in the West. Legislature : Unicameral. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 26Location : Located in North-West India, Rajasthan is Literacy rate : 73.66%bounded North by Punjab, North-East by Haryana and Males : 81.47%Uttar Pradesh, East by Madhya Pradesh, South by Gujarat Females : 65.41%and West by Pakistan.Rajasthan is the largest State of Principal Languages : Bengali, Kakborak andthe Indian union in terms of its size. Manipuri SIKKIM Legislature : Unicameral. Location : Tripura is bounded on the North, West andArea : 7,096 sq.km. South by Bangladesh and on the North-East by AssamCapital : Gangtok and Mizoram.No. of Districts :4Population : 540,493 (2001) UTTAR PRADESHGrowth rate : 32.98% (1991-2001) Area : 2,38,566 sq.km.Density per sq.km. : 76 Capital : LucknowSex ratio : 875 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 70Literacy rate : 69.68% Population : 166,052,859 (2001)Males : 76.73%Females : 61.46% Growth rate : 25.80% (1991-2001)Principal Languages : Bhutia, Nepali, Lepcha Density per sq.km. : 689 and Limbu Sex ratio : 898 (per 1000 males)Legislature : Unicameral. Literacy rate : 57.36% Males : 70.23%Location : Located in the Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim is Females : 42.98%bounded North by Tibet (China), East by Tibet andBhutan, South by West Bengal and West by Nepal.It is Principal Languages : Hindi & Urdu.the least populated State of the Indian Union. Legislature : Bicameral. Location : Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Uttaranchal and TAMIL NADU Nepal in North, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in South, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi in West & Bihar &Area : 1,30,058 sq.km. Jharkhand in East.Capital : ChennaiNo. of Districts : 30 UTTARANCHALPopulation : 62,110,839 (2001) Area : 55,845 sq.km.Growth rate : 11.19% (1991-2001) Capital : DehradunDensity per sq.km. : 478 No. of Districts : 13Sex ratio : 986 (per 1000 males) Population : 8,479,562 (2001)Literacy rate : 73.47%Males : 82.33% Growth rate : 19.20% (1991-2001)Females : 64.55% Density per sq.km. : 159Principal Language : Tamil Sex ratio : 964 (per 1000 males)Legislature : Unicameral Literacy rate : 72.28% Males : 84.01%Location : Located in South India, Tamil Nadu is Females : 60.26%bounded North by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, Eastby the Bay of Bengal, South by the Indian Ocean and Principal Language : HindiWest by Kerala. Legislature : Unicameral. Location : Uttaranchal is bounded by Tibet (China)in the TRIPURA North and Uttar Pradesh in the South, Nepal in the East & Himachal Pradesh in the West.Area : 10,492 sq.km.Capital : Agartala WEST BENGALNo. of Districts :4 Area : 88,752 sq.km.Population : 3,191,168 (2001) Population : 80,221,171 (2001)Growth rate : 15.74% (1991-2001) Capital : KolkataDensity per sq.km. : 304 Growth rate : 17.84% (1991-2001)Sex ratio : 950 (per 1000 males) No. of Districts : 18 © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 27Density per sq.km. : 904 Bengal 1,255 km from Kolkata & 1,190 km from Chennai.Sex ratio : 934 (per 1000 males) The islands are 193 km from Cape Negrais in Burma. FiveLiteracy rate : 69.22% large islands grouped together are called the GreatMales : 77.58% Andamans & to the South is the Island of Little Andaman.Females : 60.22% There are some 204 islets, the 2 principal groups beingPrincipal Language : Bengali the Ritchie Archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. The total area is about 6,408 sq km. The Great Andaman groupLegislature : Unicameral. is about 467 km long & at the widest, 51 km broad. TheLocation : Located in North-East India, West Bengal is Nicobar Islands are situated to the South of thebounded North by Sikkim and Bhutan, East by Assam Andamans, 121 km from Little Andaman. There are 19and Bangladesh, South by the Bay of Bengal and Orissa, islands, 7 uninhabited, with a total area of 1, 841 sq km.West by Bihar and Jharkhand and North-West by Nepal. The islands are usually divided into three sub-groups (southern, central and northern), the chief islands in each UNION TERRITORIES being. respectively, Great Nicobar, Camotra with Nancowrie & Car Nicobar. There is a fine landlocked NATIONAL harbour between the islands of Camotra & Nancowrie, CAPITAL TERRITORY- DELHI known as Nancowrie Harbour.Area : 1,483 sq.km.Capital : Delhi CHANDIGARHNo. of Districts :9 Area : 114 sq.km.Population : 13,782,976 (2001) Capital : ChandigarhGrowth rate : 46.31% (1991-2001) Growth rate : 40.33% (1991-2001)Density per sq.km. : 9,294 Density per sq.km. : 7,903Sex ratio : 821 (per 1000 males) Population : 900,914 (2001)Literacy rate : 81.82% Sex ratio : 773 (per 1000 males)Males : 87.37% Literacy rate : 81.76%Females : 75.00% Males : 85.65%Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi & Urdu. Females : 76.65%Legislature : Unicameral Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi andLocation : Delhi lying in the Northern part of the country, Englishis surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the East Legislature : Nonewhere it borders with Uttar Pradesh. It has become the Location : Chandigarh is in the Foot hills of Shivalik hillsNational Capital Territory in 1991. and is the most beautiful city in India. The city was created by French architect, Le Corbusier. Chandigarh is the ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR capital of both Punjab & Haryana states. It is bounded on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South ISLANDS by Haryana.Area : 8,249 sq.km.Capital : Port Blair DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELINo. of Districts :2 Area : 491 sq.km.Population : 356,256 (2001) Capital : SilvassaGrowth rate : 26.94% (1991-2001) Growth rate : 59.20% (1991-2001)Density per sq.km. : 43 Density per sq.km. : 449Sex ratio : 846 (per 1000 males) Population : 220,451 (2001)Literacy rate : 81.18% Sex ratio : 811 (per 1000 males)Males : 86.07% Literacy rate : 60.03%Females : 75.29% Males : 73.32%Principal Languages : Nicobarese, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Females : 42.99%Telugu & Malayalam. Principal Languages : Gujarati and Hindi.Legislature : None Legislature : NoneLocation : The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group Location : The Union Territory is located between Gujaratof more than 3000 islands out of which 265 are and Maharashtra. Vapi, located 15 km away from Silvassa,uninhabited. The Andaman Islands lie in the Bay of is the nearest railway station. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 28 Location : Lakshadweep lies about 220 to 440 kms from DAMAN AND DIU the coastal city of Cochin inKerala. It is an archipelago consisting of 12 atolls, three reefs and five sub mergedArea : 112 sq.km. banks. Out of its 36 Islands covering an area of 32 sq.kms.Capital : Daman only 10 are inhabited.No. of Districts :2Population : 158,059 (2001) PONDICHERRYGrowth rate : 55.59% (1991-2001) Area : 492 sq km.Density per sq.km. : 1,411 Population : 973,829 (2001)Sex ratio : 709 (per 1000 males) Capital : PondicherryLiteracy rate : 81.09%Males : 88.40% Growth rate : 20.56% (1991-2001)Females : 70.37% No. of Districts :4Principal Language : Gujarati Density per sq.km. : 2,029Location : Daman lies on the Gujarat Coast, 193 km North Sex ratio : 1,001 (per 1000 males)of Mumbai, while Diu lies off the South-East coast of Literacy rate : 81.49%Kathiawar in Gujarat. The two are located on the West Males : 88.89%coast of India in the Arabian Sea. Females : 74.13% Legislature : Unicameral; LAKSHADWEEP Principal Languages : Tamil,French, Telugu, Malayalam and English.Area : 32 sq km. Location : The Union Territory of PondicherryGrowth rate : 17.19% (1991-2001) encompasses an area of only 492 sq.km. with PondicherryCapital : Kavaratti town and its villages covering 293 sq.km. surrounded byDensity per sq.km. : 1,894 the South Arcot District, Karaikal town and its villagesPopulation : 60,595 (2001) covering 160 sq.km. surrounded by Thanjavur District,Sex ratio : 947 (per 1000 males) Mahe and its villages covering 9 sq.km. surrounded byLiteracy rate : 87.52% the Kerala State and Yanam covering 30 sq.km. within theMales : 93.15% East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh. PondicherryFemales : 81.56% lies 162 km Wouth of Chennai and 22 km North of Cuddalore. Karaikal is 150 km of South of Pondicherry.Principal Language : Malayalam & English. Yanam is 840 kms North-East of Pondicherry Mahe is 653Legislature : None kms away on the West Coast. IMPORTANT DAYS JANUARY MAY 8 International Literacy Day 12 National Youth Day 1 May Day, Workers’ Day, International 16 World Ozone Day 21 Army Day Labour Day 27 World Tourism Day 26 Republic Day 8 World Red Cross Day OCTOBER 30 Martyrs’ Day 17 World Tele-communication Day 1 International Day for the Elderly FEBRUARY 21 Anti-terrorism Day 2 World Vegetarian Day 24 Commonwealth Day 28 National Science Day 2 World Animal Day 31 No-Tobacco Day MARCH 4 National Integration Day JUNE 8 Air Force Day 8 International Women’s Day 5 World Environment Day 16 World Food Day 11 Commonwealth Day 15 World Consumers Rights Day JULY 21 Police Commemoration Day 15 World Disabled Day 24 UN Day 1 Doctors’ Day 21 World Forestry Day 30 World Thrift Day 11 World Population Day 22 World Day for Water 31 National Integration Day 23 World Meteorological Day AUGUST NOVEMBER 1-7 Breast Feeding Week 14 Children’s Day APRIL 6 Hiroshima Day 19 Citizens Day 5 National Maritime Day 9 Nagasaki Day 7 World Health Day DECEMBER 9 Quit India Day 10-16 Railway Week 1 World AIDS Day 15 Independence Day 13 Jallianwala Day 4 Navy Day 29 National Sports Day 18 World Heritage Day 7 Flag Day 22 Earth Day SEPTEMBER 10 Human Rights Day (UN) 23 World Book Day 5 Teachers’ Day 20 Kisan’s Day © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 29 MULTIPURPOSE RIVER-VALLEY PROJECTSBeas Project : It is a joint venture of the government of Gandak Project (Bihar and UP) : This is a joint venturePunjab; Haryana and Rajasthan. It consists of two units: of India and Nepal as per agreement signed between the(i) Beas - Sutlej link and (ii) Beas Dam at Pong. two governments on Dec. 4, 1959. Bihar and UP are the participating Indian States. Nepal would also deriveBeas-Sutlej Link : The Project links the Beas and the irrigation and power benefits from this project.Sutlej rivers in Punjab through 38.4 km of hill and valleys.The project is shared by Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan Hirakud Project (Orissa) : is the first of a chain of threewhich will benefit from its irrigation and power potential. Dams planned for harvesting the Mahanadi.The biggest beneficiary will be Haryana. Idduki Hydro-Electric Project : It is a giant hydro-electricBhadra Reservoir Project is across the river Bhadra in project of Kerala and one of the biggest in the countryKarnataka. constructed with Canadian assistance with an installedBhakara - Nangal Project (Himachal Pradesh) : It is the capacity of 390 MW in the first stage and 780 MW on thelargest multipurpose project in India and the highest second stage. The project envisages to harness Periyarstraight-gravity dam in the world (225.5 m high) ont the water and it has three major dams, the 160 m high Iddukkiriver Sutlej. arch dam across Periyar river, 138 m high Cheruthoni Dam across the tributary of Cheruthoni river and 99.9 m highChambal Project is a joint undertaking by the Rajasthan Kulmavu Dam.and Madhya Pradesh governments. The Rana Pratap Damat Bhata, 488 km from Kotah, was inaugurted on Fed 9, Jayakwadi Dam (Maharashtra): The 10-km long1970. The project comprises construction of two other Jayakwadi dam on the Godavari is Maharashtra’s largestdams : Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and Jawahar power project located near Paithan.Sagar (Kotah) Dam in Rajasthan. Kakarapara Project is on the river Tapti near Kakarapara,Chamera Hydro-Electric Project : The 540 MW Chamera 80 km upstream of Surat. The project is financed by theHydroelectric project on the river in Himachal Pradesh Gujarat government.was implemented with Canadian credit offer about Rs. Koel Karo Project : The project envisages construction335 crore. of eastern dam across river south Koel at Basia in BiharChukha Project : The 336 MW project is the most and another dam over north Karo at Lohajimi. Theprestigious and largest in Bhutan. It has been capacity will be 710 MW.completely built by India. The dam has been constructed Kol Project : The 600 MW project is to be located on theon Wang Chu river. The project costed Rs.244 crore. Sutlej, 6 km upstream of the Dehar House on the Beas-Damodar Velley Project (West Bengal and Bihar) : Sutlej link project in Mandi districts, Himachal Pradesh.Principal object of this multipurpose scheme is to control Beas generting power, the dam will also serve as a checkthe flowing of the Damodar which is notorious for its dam for the 1,050-MW Bhara Dam to prolong its life by atvagaries and destrutiveness. It is designed on the lines least 10 years.of the Tennesses Valley Authority (T.V.A.) in U.S.A. Kosi Project (Bihar) : This project will serve Bihar andDul-Hasti Hydro-electric Project : The 1263 crore project Nepal. The Kosi rises in Nepal, passes through Biharhas been built on river Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir. and it joins the Ganges. The river is subject to heavyThe foundation of the project was laid in September 1984. flood. Two are to be built across it.The project consists of a power plant of 390 MW capacity. Nagarjuna Sagar Project : is a venture of AndhraThe power house will be located underground. Pradesh for utilising water from the Krishna river. TheFarakka Barrage : The basic aim of the Farakka Barrage Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was inaugurated on Aug. 4, 1967.is to preserve and maintain Calcutta port and to improve It is situated near Nadikonad village in Mriyalguda talukthe navigability of the Hooghly river. It consists of a of Nalgonda district.barrage across the Ganga at Farakka. Another barrage at Nathpa-Jhakri Hydel Project : 1500 MW Nathpa-JhakriJangipur across the Bhagirathi, a 39-km long feeder canal Project is to be built over river Sutlej in Kinnaurtaking off from the right bank of the Ganga at Farakka district of Himachal Pradesh at a cost of about Rs.and tailing into the Bhagirathi below the Jangipur barrage, 2216.34 crore. The project will be Asia’s biggest Hydro-and a road-cum-rail bridge have already been completed. electric project.Especially, the object of Farakka is to use about 40,000cusecs of water out of the water stored in the dam to Parambikulam Aliyar Project : is a joint venture of Tamilflush the Calcutta port which is getting silted up. Nadu and Kerala States. It envisages construction of © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 30seven inter-connected reservoirs by harnessing river of 1.79 million hectares and generate 1450 MW of power.including 2 major rivers viz., Parambikulam on the western On completion of the project more than 40 per cent of theslopes of Anamalai hills and Aliyar on the eastern slopes. drought-affected areas of Gujarat would be ensured against the calamity.Parappalar Dam : The Rs.1-Crore Parappalar Dam with astorage capacity of 1677 million cubic feet near Sharavati Project (Karnataka) : Located about 400 kmOddenchatram about 75 km from Madurai in Palani taluk from Bangalore near the Gersoppa falls, the Sharavati(Tamil Nadu), was inaugurated on August 30, 1976. project is one of the world’s major power projects, built by Indian Engineers with American collaboration.Periyar Valley Scheme (Kerala) : The scheme envisagesthe construction of a masonary barrage 210.92 meters Subarnarekha Project : It is Rs. 130-crore multipurposelong across the river Periyar near Alwaye, in project which would, when completed, provide assuredErnakulam district. irrigation to 7,06,000 acres to the chronically drought- prone areas of Orissa and Bihar.Pong Dam : Also called the Beas Dam on the river Beas,near Talwara in Himachal Pradesh, is the highest (132 m Ranjit Sagar Dam : In view of the situation thathigh) rockfill dam in the country. The project is a joint developed after the expiry of the Indus water treaty (withventure of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. The dam has Pakistan) on March 31, 1970, the Punjab Government drewbeen designed to store 6.6 million cu. feet of water. up plans to utilize water of the Ravi. It is proposed to construct a 131.6 m high dam at Thein village across theRajasthan Canal Project : It is a bold venture of irrigation Ravi 25 km upstream, of Madhopur headworks at anto a desert area. The project, which uses water from the estimate cost of Rs.92 crore. The project was earlierPong Dam, consists of 215-km long Rajasthan feeder known as Thein Dam Project.canal with the first 178 km in Punjab and Haryana and theremaining 37 km in Rajasthan and the 467-km long Tehri Dam Project : The project is to be built by theRajasthan main canal lying entirely in Rajasthan. Soviet Union on a turnkey basis. This dam being constructed will be the third highest dam in the world.Ramganga River Project : UP envisages construction The total capacity will be increased to 2000 MW in theof a dam across the river Ramganga, one of the major second stage of the project.tributaries of the Ganges at 3.2 km upstreams of Kalagarh Telugu Ganga Project : Inaugurated in May 1983 thisin Garhwal district. project will consist of 400 km long canal named TeluguRihand Project : (Mirzapur District - U.P.) This project Ganga which starts from the Srisailam reservoir of Krishnahas been completed by the U.P. government and river in Kurnool district. The canal will join four morecomprises construction of a concrete gravity dam across reservoirs on way before joining the Poondi reservoir inthe Rihand river in Mirzapur District (UP) and a Power Tamil Nadu. The Poondi reservoir is to meet the drinkingHouse at Pimpri and necessary transmission lines. water needs of Chennai.Rongtong - World’s Highest Hydro Power Project : The Tunghabhadra Project (Andhra and Karnataka) : It is aRongtong project is situated in Kaza in the Spiti Valley in joint undertaking by the governments of Andhra PradeshHimachal Pradesh. The project will help transform the and Karnataka. The project comprises a dam across theentire cold mountain desert into a lush green belt. Tungabhadra river near Mallapuram.Salal Project : It has been built on River Chenab in Jammu Ukai Project : The Ukai power project of Gujaratand Kashmir. The first stage was completed on February equipped with power generating sets manufactured by9, 1989 and marked the beginning of the harnessing of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited was inaugurated onhydro-power potential of the river Chenab. At present October 12, 1977. It has added 540,00 MW of installedthe capacity of the power house is 345 MW. With the capacity to the State’s existing power network.completion of Second stage the capacity will be doubled. Upper Krishna (Karnataka) : A Project consisting ofSanja Vidyut (Hydel) Project : It is Asia’s first fully Narayanpur dam across the Krishna river and a dam atunderground Hydel Project. The 120 MW project is Almatti.located near Bhaba Nagar in Kinnur district of Himachal Upper Penganga (Maharashtra) : Two reservoirs onPradesh. It harnesses the water of the Bhaba khud, a penganga river at Isapur is Yavalmal district and the othertributary of Sutlej. on Rayadhu river at Sapli in Parbhani district.Sardar Sarovar Project : This is one of the largest river Uri Power Project : It is located on the river Jhelum invalley schemes in the country. The project envisages the Uri Tehsil of Baramulla district in Jammu and Kashmir.construction of 163-meter-high cement concrete dam at It is a 480 mw hydroelectric project which was dedicatedNavagam in Gujarat. This will create irrigation potential to the nation on February 13, 1997. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 31 INDIAN POLITY CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The election to the Constituent Assembly based The Constitution of a country is a very importanton the Cabinet Mission’s Plan took place in July 1946. document. No Government can be run without a clearThe sets in each Province were distributed among the set of laws. This set of laws is commonly known asthree main communities, Muslims, Sikh and General, in Constitution.proportion to their respective populations. The election Our Constitution was framed by an elected bodywas indirect in that members of each community in the called “The Constituent Assembly”. This assemblyProvincial Assemblies elected their own representatives started its work on 9 December 1946 in the Central Hallby the method of proportional representation with of our Parliament House in New Delhi. Dr.Rajendrasingle transferable vote. The Constituent Assembly Prasad, who was elected the first President of India infirst met on 9th December 1946, without the members 1952, was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.of the Muslim League. Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected Among other important members of the assembly werePresident and various committees were appointed to Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulanadraft the different parts of the Constitution. As a result Abul Kalam Azad, Dr.Shyama Prasad Mukherji,of the Partition and the Indian Independence Act of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, Dr.K.M.Munshi, Dr.S.Radha Krishnan,1947, which provided for separate Constituent Alladi Krishnaswami, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu and Mrs.Assemblies for India Pakistan, separate Constituent Vijayalakshmi Pandit. Dr.B.R. Ambedkar was theAssembly was set up for Pakistan. The Constituent Chairman of the Drafting Committee which prepared theAssembly of India reassembled on 14 August 1947, as draft of the Constitution.the Sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominionof India. The membership of the Assembly was The Drafting Committee studied the Constitutionreduced to 299 when it met again on 31 October 1947 of many Countries such as U.K., U.S.A., Ireland,with some members ceasing to be so after their U.S.S.R., France and Switzerland. The draft wasProvinces opted to join Pakistan. discussed and debated in detail by the Assembly. The Constitution was finally signed by the members on 26 ACCEPTANCE November, 1949. The Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950. On this day India became a The Constituent Assembly appointed a Drafting “Sovereign Democratic Republic”.Committee on 29 August 1947 under the Chairmanshipof Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. The members includedN.Gopalaswamy Ayyangar, Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, SALIENT FEATURESK.M.Munshi Mohammad Sadullah, B.L.Mitter and Preamble:Our Constitution has a Preamble or aDr.D.P.Khaitan. The last two were replaced by statement of the Constitution. The Preamble opensN.Madhava Rao and T.T.Krishnamachari respectively. with the words, “We the People of India”. The peopleA draft Constitution of India was published in February resolve to secure to all the citizens of India Justice,1948. The Assembly met in November 1948 to consider Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.the draft clause by clause. The second reading wascompleted by 17 October 1949. On 14 November the SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAssembly sat for the third reading and finished it on26 November 1949. On that date the constitutionreceived the signature of the President of the Assembly, The most important feature of our Constitution isDr.Rajendra Prasad, and was declared as passed. The that the supreme political power belongs to the people.Provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional The people drafted the constitution through theirParliament, etc. came into effect immediately. i.e. from representatives. It is the people of India who govern26 November 1949. the country through their elected representatives. The The rest of the Constitution came into force on 26 people are the real masters with whom the ultimateJanuary 1950 the date which is referred to in the authority rests.Constitution as the date of its commencement. The India is a Sovereign Democratic Republic. It isdate was specifically chosen for the inaguration of the Sovereign because it is supreme and free in all mattersIndian Republic as it was on 26 January 1930 that the governing the country. No outside nation can interferehistoric call for “Purna Swaraj” as a goal was passed with its affairs. It is Democratic because the peopleat the Lahore Session of the Congress. The final govern the country through their electedsession of the Constituent Assembly was held on 24 representatives. It is a Republic because the Head ofJanuary 1950 when it unanimously elected Dr.Rajendra the State, The President of India, is elected for a limitedPrasad as the First President of the Republic of India period of five years. He may seek re-election on theunder the new Constitution. expire of his term. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 32A Secular State : The Preamble of the Constitution was An Instrument of Social Change : To sum up, ourmodified in 1976. India is now a Sovereign Socialist Constitution aims at fulfilling the hopes and aspirationsSecular Democratic Republic. It is secular because the of the people. It resolves to secure to all its citizensstate does not favour or propagate or finance any Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. It aims atparticular religion. It does not discriminate among establishing a democratic secular, Socialist Society in apeople of different religions or faiths. peaceful manner and is an instrument of social change.A Socialist State : Our Constitution stands for a Union list, State list and Concurrent list : The Unionsociety based on economic and social equality. Ours Goverment and the state Governments have exclusiveis a Socialist Republic. It exists for the welfare of the powers to make laws on the subjects.masses. Union list : The main subjects are defence, externalWritten Constitution : Ours is a written Constitution. affairs, railways, shipping, airways, post and telegraph,It is the lengthiest in the World. It originally contained currency and coinage, banking, insurance, RBI etc.,395 Articles. State list : Agriculture, health, irrigation, electricity, lawSingle Citizenship : Our Constitution provides for and order in the state, entertainment etc.,single citizenship for all Indians. A citizen of our Concurrent List : Both the Union Parliament and thecountry can freely move to any part of the country for State Legislature have power to legislate. Somethe sake of employment. He can purchase property or important subjects under the list are: criminal law,start a business in almost all parts of the country. criminal procedure, marriage, divorce, labour welfare,Union of State : Our motherland, India or “BHARAT”,is factories, newspaper books, priniting, social welfare,a Union of States. There are 26 states and 6 Union education price control etc.,Territories in the Union. President of IndiaUniversal Adult Franchise : The Constitution gives President of India is the executive head of the“the right to vote” to all the people of India who are Union of India. Citizens of India take no direct part innot less than21 years (now reduced to 18 years) of age, election of their President. Instead he is elected bywhether they are educated or uneducated, rich or poor, members of the Parliament and the State legislatures,men or women. This is known as Universal Adult i.e., by representatives of the people. The legislatorsFranchise. elect the President by secret ballot.Fundamental Rights and Duties : An important feature The name of a candidate for the office of theof our Constitution is that it guarantees some basic President of India may be proposed by any onerights to the people and also prescribes some basic member of the electoral college. The electoral collegeduties. These rights are essential rights and provide shall consist of (a) the elected members of bothhelp and safeguards to the citizens in many ways. Ten Houses of Parliament, and (b) elected members of thefundamental duties of citizen were included in the Legislative Assembly of the States. (Elected membersConstitution in 1976. It is the duty of a citizen to pay of the Legislative Council, however, do not constitutetaxes, to vote wisely and to serve the country in peace the electoral college for election of the President ofand war. Rights and duties help society to achieve its India. The Chief Minister of a State of India is NOTgoals. eligible to vote in the Presidential election if he is a member of Upper House of the State Legislature). TheDirective Principles : Our Constitution states in clear President can be removed from office if he goes againstterms that the Governments should make all efforts to the Constitution. When he does that, not less thanremove poverty, ignorance, economic disparities and one-fourth of the total membership of both the Housessocial inequalities in the country. These directions of Parliament should give 14 days’ notice that theyhave been mentioned in what we call Directive Principles propose bringing a motion of “impeachment” againstof State Policy. the President. The motion can be introduced in eitherParliamentary Form of Government : Our Constitution House i.e., in the Lok Sabha or in the Rajya Sabha. Ifprovides a precise outline of the framework of the a two-thirds majority of the total membership of theGovernment. All policies and programmes of the Parliament votes that the charges against the PresidentGovernment must be approved by a majority of the stand proved, the latter is removed forthwith.elected representative in the legislature. No tax can be Powers of the President with respect to Parliament :imposed nor any amount of money be spent without The President can summon, prorogue, address andthe sanction of the parliament or the State Legislature. send messages to the two Houses of Parliament. HeIndependent Judiciary : The Constitution provides for gives assent to bills passed by the Parliament. He cana uniform pattern of judiciary. The Supreme Court is issue ordinances when Parliament is not in session. Hethe highest court in India. The judiciary in India is has the power to declare war or make peace. He canindependent of the executive control. declare a state of emergency arising due to war, © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 33external aggression, internal disturbances, failure of 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two Anglo-Indianconstitutional machinery in any State or threat to the members to the Lok Sabha; (b) Dissolves the House offinancial stability or credit of India. People; (c) Assents or withholds his assent to any BillIndian Parliament can invade the State List if passed by the Parliament; (d) Issues ordinances. (iii) Financial Powers : (a) Causes the budget to be laid(1) a subject in the State List assumes national before the Parliament; (b) Sanctions introduction of importance, and money bills; (c) Apportions revenue between the(2) a proclamation of emergency has been issued by Centre and the States. (iv) Judicial Powers : Empowered the President of India. to grant pardons, reprieve, remit the sentences, or suspend, remit or commute punishments. (v) EmergencyOath of office : The oath of office by the President of Powers : Article 352 empowers the President toIndia is conducted by the Chief Justice of India. The proclaim an emergency and take under his direct chargePresident is not a member of Parliament (or any State the administration of any State. The President cannotLegislature). The President holds an office of profit in be questioned by any court for the action taken by himthe Government of India, thus he cannot be a member in the discharge of his duties. No criminal proceedingsof Parliament. can be launched against him. He may be removed fromQualifications to become President : A Candidate for office for violation of the Constitution by impeachmentthe office of the President should have the following (Article 61).qualifications : (1) He should be an Indian citizen; (2)He should not be less than 35 years of age; (3) He Vice-Presidentshould have qualifications for elections as a member of Election : The Vice-President is elected by members ofthe House of the people; (4) He should not be holding an electoral college consisting of the members of bothany office of profit under any government for local Houses of Parliament. However, his election is differentbody; (5) He should not be a member of Parliament or from that of the President as the state legislatures haveany State Legislature. A government servant or a no part in it.servant of a local authority is, however, ineligible for Tenure : Five years and is eligible for immediate re-election as President. election.Election of the President : The election of the Functions : (1) Acts as ex-officio Chairman of the RajyaPresident is made by secret ballot in accordance with Sabha. (2) Officiates as President in case of death,the system of proportional representation by a single resignation or removal of the latter. (3) Functions as thetransferable vote i.e., by indirect direction. The President President when the President is unable to discharge hisis thus elected by an electroral college consisting of functions due to illness, absence or any other cause.elected members of Parliament and of the LegislativeAssemblies of the States i.e., by representatives of the Emoluments : Vice-President is entitled to a salary ofpeople. The citizens have no direct part in this election. Rs.40,000 per month in his capacity as the Chairman ofA candidate for the office of the President should not Rajya Sabha.be a member of Parliament or any State Legislature. Inthe case of a conflict between the Centre and a State The Prime Ministerin respect of a subject included in the Concurrent List The Prime Minister of India heads the council ofin the Constitution, the matter is to be resolved by the ministers. He is the leader of the party that enjoys aSupreme Court of India. The President of India can majority in the Lok Sabha. He is appointed by thepreside in the proceedings of either House of Parliament President.without having a right to vote. The disputes regarding Tenure : Five years, and holds the office with theelection of the President are referred to the Supreme consent of the President till a new Lok Sabha is formed.Court of India. Resignation : If the government is defeated in theAmendment of election procedure of the President : Lok Sabha (not in Rajya Sabha), the cabinet as wellFor this purpose, a Bill is required to be passed in as the Prime Minister have to resign.Parliament by the required majority and to be ratifiedby the legislatures of atleast half of the States. Union Council of MinistersTenure : Elected for five years but is eligible for The President appoints such person as Primeimmediate re-election and can serve any number of Minister whose leadership in the House (Lok Sabha)terms. is explicitly recognised. The other Ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the PrimeEmoluments : Rs.50,000 per month. Minister and thus the Union Council of Ministers isPowers : (i) Executive and Administrative Powers : He formed to aid and advise the President in the exerciseappoints the senior officials of the state including the of his functions. The Prime Minister is a link betweenPrime Minister. All Union Territories are under the the President and the Cabinet. The term ordinarily isPresident of India. (ii) Legislative Powers : (a) Appoints for 5 years. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 34Parliament social services etc. The Rajya Sabha is a permanentParliament or the Central Legislature consists of the body, i.e., it is not subject to dissolution. One third ofPresident and the two Houses : its members retire after every two years. The elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect. The alloted quota of(i) The Rajya Sabha (Council of State) and every State is elected by the elected members of the(ii) the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Legislative Assembly of that State. The election is President is an integral part of Parliament and all conducted in accordance with the system of bills passed by Parliament must have his assent proportional representation by a single transferable before they become law. Parliament is to meet at vote. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of least twice a year and at an interval of not more the Rajya Sabha. than six months between one session and another. The maximum strength of the two Houses is fixed Lok Sabha (House of the People) : The number of seats at 545 for the Lok Sabha (not more than 525 from to each State is allotted in such a way that the ratio the States and 20 from the Union Territories) and between the number and the population of the State is, 250 (12 nominated) for the Rajya Sabha. as far as practicable, the same for all States. Each member represents not less than 500,000 citizens. TheQualifications to become a member of Parliament : term ordinarily does not exceed 5 years.(1) A person should be a citizen of India. Anglo-Indians : The President may, if he is of the(2) He should not be less than 30 years of age in opinion that the Anglo-Indian community is not order to fill a seat in Rajya Sabha and not less adequately represented in the Lok Sabha, nominate not than 25 years of age to fill a seat in the Lok more than two members of that community to the Sabha. House of People (Lok Sabha). The Lok Sabha(3) He should possess such other qualifications as Secretariat comes under the direct supervision of may be prescribed under any law made by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The Secretary General Parliament. He is also required to make and of the Lok Sabha, who is chief of the Secretariat, subscribe an oath or affirmation to bear the true is appointed by the President of India as per Article faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India. 98 of the Constitution. Except in the case of Money A person is disqualified both for being chosen Bills, the Constitution provides equality of status of as, and for being, a member of Parliament if he : the two Houses. The Speaker is elected by members of (i) holds an office of profit under any the Lok Sabha for a period of 5 years. The term of the Government in India, other than an office Lok Sabha can be extended for one year at a time. The declared by Parliament by law not to Lok Sabha can be dissolved before the expiry of its disqualify its holder, normal term of five years by the President. (ii) is of unsound mind, Speaker (iii) is an undischarged insolvent, The House of the People elects a Speaker and a (iv) has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a Deputy Speaker from among its members. The foreign State or principal function of the Speaker is to preside over (v) is disqualified by or under any law made by the meetings of the House in addition to other duties Parliament. in connection with the internal affairs of the House of the People.Powers and Functions of Parliament : Parliament hasvast legislative powers : Money Bill :(1) It can make laws on the subjects contained in the A Money Bill is not introduced in the Rajya Union and Concurrent Lists. Sabha which has no power over Money Bills. It can(2) In certain cases, Parliament can also make laws on originate only in the Lok Sabha. In financial matters, the subjects mentioned in the State List. the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. After a Money Bill has been passed by the Lok Sabha,(3) It has vast financial powers. It passes the budget it is to be sent to the Rajya Sabha for its and authorises all the income and expenditure. recommendations. The Rajya Sabha cannot reject or(4) It exercises control over the executive. amend a Money Bill by virtue of its own powers. If the(5) The Lok Sabha or the House of the People has Rajya Sabha does not return the Bill within fourteen also a share in the election of the President and days, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both the Vice-President. Houses.Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha Elections :Rajya Sabha (Council of State) : The elected members Election held to elect members of Parliament andare representatives of the States and the nominated State Legislative Assemblies as also to the office of themembers are eminent men in art, literature, science and President and Vice-President is termed as “General © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 35Election”. General Elections are normally held every thing. The writs mentioned in the Constitution are thefive years in India. But mid-term elections can be held following:if the circumstances so demand. General Elections are 1. Habeas Corpus, 4. Certiorari,controlled by the Election Commission consisting ofone Chief Election Commissioner and a number of 2. Mandamus, 5. Quo Warranto.Election Commissioners appointed by the President. 3. Prohibition,The Election Commission conducts the election of the Let us now see the nature and significance of each ofPresident and Vice-President of India as well. them.Main Duties of the Election Commission : The mainduties of the Election Commission are : Habeas Corpus Habeas Corpus is a Latin term which literally1. to superintend, direct, control and conduct all means “you should have the body”. The writ was elections to Parliament and State Legislatures as regarded in England as a foundation of human freedom also to the office of the President and Vice- and the British citizen insisted upon this privilege President of India; wherever he went whether for business or colonisation.2. to lay down general rules for election; This is how it found place in the Constitution of the3. to determine constituencies and to prepare United States when the British colonies in America electoral rolls; won their independence and established a new state4. to give recognition to the political parties; under that Constitution. In India the power to issue a writ of habeas corpus is vested only in the Supreme5. to allot election symbols to different political Court and the High Court. The writ is a direction of the parties and individual contestants, and court to a person who is detaining another, commanding6. to appoint tribunals for the decision of doubts him to bring the body of the person in his custody at and disputes arising out of or in connection with a specified time to a specified place for a specified election to Parliament and State Legislatures. purpose. The writ has only one purpose; to set at Powers of the Election Commission are given in liberty, a person who is confined without legal Article 324. justification; to secure release from confinement of aMinimum age prescribed for election is : (i) President person unlawfully detained. The writ is issued notof India - 35 years (ii) Member of Lok Sabha - 25 years only against the State and its authorities but also to(iii) Member of Rajya Sabha - 30 years. private individuals or organisation, if necessary.Mid-term election : is an election held out of schedule Mandamusas a result of the dissolution of Parliament or a State The Latin word Mandamus means ‘we order’.legislature before it has been in existence for its normal The writ of Mandamus is an order of the Supremeterm of five years. Court or the High Court commanding a person or aBy-election : is held in respect of a seat rendered body to do that which is his or its duty to do. Forvacant during the running term of an elected person, instance, a licensing officer is obliged to issue a licencewhich might occur on resignation, death or due to any to an appicant if he fulfills all the conditions laid downother subsequent disqualification of the already elected for the issue of such licence. Similarly, an appointingMember. Every person who is a citizen of India and authority should issue a letter of appointment to awho is not less than 18 years of age and who is not candidate if all the formalities of selection are over andotherwise disqualified, is entitled to vote at the if the candidate is declared fit for appointment or theelections of the House of the People (and also of the authority concerned refuses or fails to issue the licenceLegislative Assembly of the States). A member of or the appointment letter, the aggrieved person has aeither House of Parliament will be disqualified from right to seek the remedy through a writ of Mandamus.being a member if he has voluntarily given up Certiorarimembership of the party on whose ticket he waselected. Democracy in India rests on the fact that Certiorari is a writ which orders the removal of apeople have the right to choose and change the suit from an inferior court to a superior court. It maygovernment. be used before a trial take place to prevent an excess or abuse of jurisdiction and to move the case for trial to a higher court. It is invoked also after trial to quash REMEDIES FOR ENFORCEMENT an order which has been made without jurisdiction or Articles 32 of the Constitution provides a in difiance of the rules of natural justice.guaranteed remedy for the enforcement of fundamental Prohibitionrights. The remedy is in the form of specific writs A writ of prohibition is issued primarily tomentioned in the Article or any other appropriate orderby the Supreme Court. A writ is a written court order prevent an inferior court from exceeding its jurisdictionby which one is summoned or required to do some- or acting contrary to the rules of natural justice. For © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 36example, a Judge may be restrained from hearing a case INDEPENDENCE OF SUPREMEin which he is personally interested. The writ ofprohibition is a counterpart of the writ of certiorari and COURT JUDGESan aggrieved person may make an application for the The independence of the Judges of the Supremeissue of both the writs. Court is ensured by the following:Quo-Warranto 1. The salaries of the Judges have been fixed under An application for a writ of quo-warranto seeks the Second Schedule and these shall not bean order from the Supreme Court or High Court to varied to their disadvantages after theirrestrain a person from acting in an office to which he appointment.is not entitled. It may also seek the office to be 2. The administrative expenses of the Supremedeclared as vacant. What the court has to do is to Court, including pay and allowances of thedetermine whether there has been surpation of an Judges and their staff, are charged on theoffice of a public nature. For example, a member of a Consolidated Fund of India. These expenses areMunicipal Corporation may through an application of not subject to Parliamentary Vote.writ of quo-warranto challenge the authority of the 3. The President has to consult, among others, theMayor if he is of opinion that the Mayor was not Chief Justice or the Judges of the Supremeproperly elected. Court while appointing the Judges or the chief Justice of India, as the case may be. This ensures INDIAN JUDICIARY appointment of Judges with independent bent of mind.The Supreme Court of India 4. A Supreme Court Judge cannot be removed by The highest court of Justice in the country is the the President except on a joint address by bothSupreme Court. It now consists of the Chief Justice Houses of Parliament on ground of provedand 25 other Judges. misbehaviour or incapacity of Judge in question. The Chief Justice is appointed by the President of 5. Discussion of the conduct of a Judge of theIndia in consultation with the Judges of the Supreme Supreme Court (or a High Court) in Parliament isCourt. forbidden except in a case when a motion has The President appoints the other Judges of the already been introduced to remove the Judge.Supreme Court in consultation with the Chief Justice. 6. After retirement, a Supreme Court Judge shall not plead or act in any Court or before any authorityQualifications of the Judges in the country. In order to be a judge of the Supreme Court, a There are analogous provision in the case ofperson must be; High Court Judges.(a) a citizen of India Jurisdiction(b) a judge of a High Court of not less than five The Supreme Court has three kinds of jurisdiction, years’ standing or an advocate of ten years’ namely (i) Original; (ii) Appellate, and (iii) Advisory. standing in a High Court or an eminent jurist.Term : The Judge of the Supreme Court holds office till Original Jurisdictionthe age of 65 years. He can be removed only on the (i) The Supreme Court is empowered to decide allground of proven misbehaviour.Both the Houses of disputes between the Union and one or moreParliament will pass a motion to that effect by a two States.third majority of the members present and voting. But (ii) Under Article 32 of the Constitution, the Supremethis cannot be less than a majority of the total Court can enforce fundamental rights guaranteedmembership of the House. After this, the President under Part III of the Constitution.issues an order for the removal of the judge. (iii) It is empowered to issue directions or orders ofSalary and Allowances : The Chief Justice draws a writs including those in the nature of writs ofsalary of Rs.33,000/- per month. The salary of other habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-Judges is Rs.30,000/- per month. Every Judge is given warranto and certiorari, whichever may bea rent free official residence. The pay and allownces of appropriate, to enforce the fundamental rights.judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund ofIndia. A retired Judge of the Supreme Court is debarred Appellate Jurisdictionfrom practising in any Court of law or before any other (i) The Supreme Court hears appeals from anyauthority in India. judgement passed by a High Court and whichLocation : The Supreme Court of India is located in involves a substantial question of law as to theNew Delhi. interpretation of the Constitution. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 37(ii) The appeals for civil and criminal cases arising Qualifications from the judgements of High Courts lie with the To be a judge of a High Court a person must Supreme Court. However in case of a civil suit 1. be a citizen of India appeal, the case must involve a substantial question of law of general importance. 2. have been a judge of a civil and session court in India for atleast ten years(iii) It has jurisdiction over all courts and tribunals in 3. an advocate in a High court for atleast ten India and can grant special leave to appeal against years any judgement made by these courts and tribunals.Advisory Jurisdiction The Chief Justice draws a salary of Rs.30,000/-per month and other judges draw a salary of Rs.26,000/- The President can seek the opinion of Supreme per month. They also get pension and other retirementCourt on important questions of law and fact. The benefits. The pay and allowances of High Court JudgesSupreme Court shall have the power to make rules for are changed on the Consolidated Fund of the State.its working, subject to the laws made by the parliamentin this regard. The minimum number of Judges to Powers of High Courtsdecide an issue involving the interpretation of the The High court is mainly a Court of Appeal. Itconstitution or any Presidential reference is five. can hear appeals in both civil and criminal cases. ADoctrine of Judicial Review person can appeal to the High Court to protect his Judicial Review, as emphasised in the Indian Fundamental Rights. The High Court controls andConstitution, reprensents the competence of the supervises the working of the lower courts. The HighSupreme Court to act as the guardian and protector of courts is empowered to issue to any person or thefundamental rights as also the institutions which are Government within its jurisdiction, orders or writs,set up under the Constitution. The Judiciary, in other including writs which are in the nature of habeaswords, has been assigned the role of preventing the corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto andexecutive and the legislature from violating the rights certorari. The High Courts have powers ofand freedoms guaranteed to the citizen. It has the superintendence over all subordinate courts andpower to nullify an executive order or an Act passed tribunals within their jurisdiction. The Advoate Generalby the Parliament or by a State legislature, by declaring is appointed by the Governor.in ultra vires of the Constitution or an act as not Transfer of Chief Justiceauthorized by law. The President after consultation with the ChiefAttorney General of India Justice of India, transfers a Chief Justice from one High The Constitution provides for the appointment Court to another High Court.by the President of a person who is qualified to be Appointment of officers and staffappointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Officers and servants of the High court are to beAttorney-General for India. The Attorney-Genral holds appointed by the Chief Justice. The expenses of Highoffice during the pleasure of the President. He gives court will be charged on the Consolidated Fund of theexpert legal advice to the Government of India and state.performs such duties of legal character as are assignedto him. He has right of audience in all courts in India Subordinate Courtsand can take part in the proceedings of either House Subject to minor local variations, the structureof Parliament but he is not entitled to vote. and functions of the subordinate courts are more or less uniform throughout the country. Each State is HIGH COURTS divided into a number of districts, each under the A High Court is the highest court of justice in the jurisdiction of the principal civil court provided over bystate. A High Court consists of the chief Justice and a district judge. Subordinate to him is a hierarchy ofsome other judges. The Chief Justice of a High Court different grades of civil judicial authorities. The courtis appointed by the President in consultation with the of the District Judge is the highest Civil Court in aChief Justice of India and the Governor of the State district. When a Judge decides a civil cases, he isconcerned. The other Judges are appointed by the called the District Judge and when he deals withPresident of India in consultation with the Chief Justice criminal cases he is called the Sessions Judge, appointedof India, the Chief Justice of the High court and the by the Governor in consultation with the Chief JusticeGovernor of the State concerned. The Judges can of the state. Besides the district court there are Courtsserve upto the age of 62 years, unless they resign or of Sub-Judges, Munisif Courts and Courts of Smallare removed by the President of India on a Causes. For criminal cases, District Magistrate andrepresentation by both the Houses of Parliament in the Sub Magistrates in the districs and taluk centersprescribed constitutional manner. It is the same as the respectively. In cities they are called Metropolitancase of a judge of Supreme Court. Magistrates. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 38 HIGH COURTS AND THEIR NATIONAL PARTIES JURISDICTION 1. Bharatiya Janata Party 2. Communist Party of IndiaName of High Court Territorial jurisdiction 3. Communist Party of India (Marxist)1. Allahabad State of Uttar Pradesh 4. Indian Congress (Socialist - S.C. Sinha)2. Andhra Pradesh State of Andhra Pradesh 5. Indian National Congress3. Gawahati States of Assam, Arunachal 6. Janata Party (JP) Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, 7. Samajvadi Janata Party Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. 8. Lok Dal (B)4. Mumbai States of Maharashtra & Goa 9. Lok Dal (Ajit) and Union Territories of Daman 10. Janata Dal & Diu and Dadra & Nagar STATE PARTIES Haveli.5. Kolkata State of West Bengal & Union 1. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Territory of Andaman & 2. All India Forward Bloc 3. All India Muslim League Nicobar Islands 4. All Parties’ Hill Leaders’ Conference6. Delhi Delhi 5. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam7. Gujarat State of Gujarat 6. Goa Congress8. Himachal Pradesh State of Himachal Pradesh 7. Hill State Peoples’ Democratic Party9. Jammu & Kashmir State of Jammu and Kashmir and 8. Indian Congress (J) Ladakh 9. Jammu & Kashmir National Conference10. Kerala (Ernakulam) State of Kerala and Union 10. Jammu & Kashmir People’s Conference Territory of Lakshadweep 11. Jammu and Kashmir Panthers’ Party11. Madhya Pradesh State of Madhya Pradesh 12. Kerala Congress 13. Kerala Congress (J)12. Chennai State of Tamil Nadu and Union 14. Kuki National Assembly Territory of Pondicherry. 15. Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party13. Karnataka State of Karnataka 16. Manipur People’s Party14. Orissa State of Orissa 17. Muslim League15. Patna State of Bihar 18. Naga National Democratic Party16. Punjab & Haryana States of Punjab and Haryana 19. Pattali Makkal Katchi & Union Territory of 20. Peasants’ and Workers’ Party of India Chandigarh. 21. People’s Conference17. Rajasthan State of Rajasthan 22. People’s Party of Arunachal18. Sikkim State of Sikkim 23. Plains Tribal Council of Assam 24. Public Demands Implementation Convention19. Bilaspur State of Chhattisgarh 25. Revolutionary Socialist Party20. Nainital State of Uttaranchal 26. Shiromani Akali Dal21. Ranchi State of Jharkhand 27. Sikkim Prajatantra Congress 28. Sikkim Congress (R) POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDIA 29. Sikkim Sangram Parishad According to one estimate, there have been over 30. Tripura Upajati Juba Samiti200 political parties in India since Independence. But 31. Telugu Desamthe country has experienced single-party dominance. A 32. Bhaushab Bandodkar Gomantaklarge number of regional parties exist in India. The 33. Asom Gana Parishad, AssamPolitical parties in the country may be classified into 34. United Minorities Front, Assamthree major groups:- 35. United Democratic Party, Manipur 36. Hill People Union(A) Rightist, (B) Leftist and (C) Centrist and Left of 37. Mizo National FrontCentre. 38. Shiv Sena A recognised political party has been classified 39. Shiv Sena (B) 40. Forward Bloceither as a ‘national party’ or a ‘state party’, the norm 41. Jharkhand Mukti Morchabeing: If a political party is recognised in four or more 42. National ConferenceStates, it is deemed a ‘national party’ and one 43. Rising Sun Partyrecognised in less than four States, is a ‘State Party’ 44. Indian Congress (J)in the State/s in which it is recognised as such. A party 45. Nagaland People’s Councilwhich state/s in which it is recognised as such. A party 46. Nagaland People’s Partywhich secures atlest 4 percent of the votes polled in 47. Marrumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagamthe State can be recognised as a state or regional part. 48. Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 39 SCHEDULES TO THE CONSTITUTION Constitution of India contains Ten Schedules, which are an integral part of the Constitution. A briefsummary is given below:First Schedule : It contains the list of the States and Tenth Schedule : (Fifty Second Amendments) Actthe Union Territories comprising the Indian Union. 1985. It contains anti-defection Acts.2nd Schedule : It has Five Parts. EMOLUMENTS OF VVIPsPart (a) fixes the remuneration and emoluments payableto the President of India and Governors of the States. Second Schedule Salary per monthPart (b) was deleted from the Constitution (7th President Rs.50,000(20,000)Amendment) Act 1956) Vice-President Rs.40,000(14,500)Part (c) contains provisions as of the Speaker and State Governor Rs.36,000(11,000)Deputy Speaker of the House of people, Chairman andDeputy Chairman of the council of States and the Member of the Parliaments Rs.15,000(14,000)Speaker of the Legislative Assemblies and Chairman Chief Justice of Supreme Court Rs.33,000(10,000)and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Councils. Judges of the Supreme Court Rs.30,000(9000)Part (d) fixes the emoluments of the Judges of the Chief Justice of State High Court Rs.30,000(9000)Supreme Court and High Courts. Judges of the High Court Rs.26,000(8000)Part (e) contains provision of the Comptroller andAuditor - General of India.3rd Schedule : It contains the allocation of seats of CONSTITUTION REVIEW PANELeach States and Union Territories in the Council of A 11-member Constitution Review CommissionStates. chaired by Mr. Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah was set up by the government on February 13, 2000. A gazette4th Schedule : It provides for the administration and notification formally setting up the Commission wascontrol of scheduled areas. It can be amended by a issued on February 23, 2000.simple majority of theParliament. The Commission will suggest changes, if any,6th Schedule : It provides for the administration of within the framework of parliamentary democracy, bytribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, and Mizopram and submitting a report within a year ending on Februarygoes into details of the administration in these areas. 21, 2001.It can be amended by a simple majority of theParliament. On 14-1-2001 the Union Cabinet formally decided to extend the term by eight months, upto October 31,7th Schedule : It gives the allocation of powers and 2001.The Commission set up with a mandate to examinefunctions between the Union & the States. It contains how best the Constitution could respond to thethree lists: (1) Union list of 97 subjects over which the changing needs of the country in the limelight of theUnion government has an exclusive authority, (2) State experience for the past 50 years.list of 66 subjects over which States have exclusiveauthority and (3) Concurrent list of 47 subjects over The other 10 members of the Commission are :which the Union and the States have concurrent Mr. Justice B.P. Jeewan Reddy, Chairman, Lawpowers. Commission and former Supreme Court Judge.8th Schedule : It contains a list of eighteen languages Mr. Justice R.S. Sarkaria, former Supreme Courtof India recognised in the Constitution. They are : Judge and Chairperson, Sarkaria Commission on (1) Assamese (7) Konkani (13) Punjabi Centre-State relations. (2) Bengali (8) Malayalam (14) Sanskrit Mr. Justice Kandapalli Punniah, Former Andhra (3) Gujarati (9) Manipuri (15) Sindhi High Court Judge (4) Hindi (10) Marati (16) Tamil Mr. Soli Sorabjee, Attorney-General (5) Kannada (11) Nepali (17) Telugu Mr. Parasaran, former Attorney-General (6) Kashmiri (12) Oriya (18) Urdu. Mr. P.A. Sangma, former Speaker, Lok Sabha, Mr. Subhash Kashyap, former Secretary General,9th Schedule : It was added by the Constitution 1st Lok SabhaAmendment Act 1951. It contains Acts and Ordersrelating to Land tenure, Land tax, Railways, Industries, Mr. C.R. Irani, Chief Editor, The Statesmanetc., possessed by the Union government and State Mr. Abid Hussain, former Indian Ambassador togovernments (including Jammu & Kashmir), which are the United Statesbeyond the jurisdiction of the Civil Courts. Mrs. Sumitra Kulkarni, former M.P. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 40 Amendments to the ConstitutionProcedure (Article 368) : The methods of Amendment are three - according to the subject matter of the Articleconcerned. : 1. Articles that may be amended by a simple majority. 2. Articles that may be amended by a two-thirds majority of both Houses of Parliament - these are comparatively important matters. 3. Articles that requirenot only a two-thirds majority of the Parliament but also ratification by at least one-half of the State Legislatures.Some important recent Constitutional Amendments are :Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 : It (ii) The amendment provides that the fundamentalis a piece of comprehensive legislation containing 39 right to life and liberty cannot be demolishedclauses, the main features of which may be summarised even during the operation of emergency.as follows : (iii) The right of information, media, and especially(a) The Preamble has been altered from sovereign, the press, has been guaranteed, to freely report democratic republic to sovereign, socialist, secular without censorship, the proceedings in Parliament democratic republic and unity of the nation has and State Legislatures. been modified to unity and integrity of the (iv) Restored the jurisdiction and powers of the nation. Supreme Court and High Courts as they existed(b) Provision of Fundamental Duties. before the forty-second Amendment Act.(c) Directive Principles brought under legal purview (v) Term of the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies was and given precedence over Fundamental Rights. again reduced from 6 years to 5 years.(d) Division of jurisdiction between the Supreme Court and the High Courts in the matter of The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985 determination of the constitutional validity of : Defection has been prohibited by this amendment. If central and state laws. an elected representative changes his party, he would lose his seat in the State / Central legislature. However,(e) Limitation of the jurisdiction of High Courts in in case at least one-third of the members of the party certain respects and provision, or for creation of Administrative Tribunals for adjudication for change affiliation, it shall not be termed as defection. service matters. A nominated or an independent representative cannot join any party for 6 months after nomination or election.(f) Duration of the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies increased from 5 to 6 years. The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act,(g) Provision for dealing with anti-national and 1986: This amendment increased salaries of the Chief communal activities. Justice, Judges.(h) Proclamation of Emergency may be made The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987: applicable to any part of the country (instead of Hindi version of the Constitution accepted as the whole country), and emergency could be authoritative and that the translation of this Constitution lifted from any part of the county while it shall have the same meaning as the original text in remained in force in other parts. English.The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1978 The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988:: This amendment repealed the obnoxious provisions of To facilitate proclamation of emergency by the President,the Contitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act passed the phrase armed rebellion in the Article 39 has beenduring the emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha replaced by internal disturbance.and State Assemblies was restored to five years. Thespecial privileges for the Prime Minister and the The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1989 :Speaker in disputes pretaining to their elections to the It has reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 yearsLok Sabha were annulled. for the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1979 The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act,: This amendment reversed many of the provisions of 1989 : It extended reservation of seats for Scheduledthe Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act and Castes and Scheduled Tribes for a further period of 10also made far-reaching changes in many of the years, i.e, upto 2000.provisions of the Constitution. The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992(i) The right to property has been deleted from the : It included Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali in the list of Fundamental Rights. Now it becomes an Eighth Schedule of the Consitution. The Eighth ordinary legal right. Schedule now has 18 languages. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 41The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, The Eighty Second Amendment,2000 : It relates to1993 : Article 40 of the Constitution which enshrines relaxation in qualifying marks and reservation of postsone of the Directive Principles of the State Policy lays in super speciality course in Medical and Engg. etc.,down that the state shall take steps to organise village for SCs and STs.Panchayats and endow them with such powers and The Eighty Third Amendment,2000 : It exemptsauthorities as may be necessary to enable them to Arunachal Pradesh from reserving seats for scheduledfunction as a unit of self-government. castes in Panchayati Raj institutions as there are noThe Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, Scheduled Castes.1993 : A new part IX-A relating to the Municipalities The Eighty Fourth Amendment,2000 : It relates to thehas been incorporated in the Constitution to provide, creation of new states of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal andamong other things, constitution of three types of Jharkhand.Municipalities, i.e, Nagar Panchayats for areas intransition from a rural area to urban area, Municipal The Eighty Fifth Amendment, 2000 : It provides forCouncils for smaller urban area, and Municipal the benefit of reservation in promotions in governmentCorporations for larger urban areas. service to the members of Scheduled Castes(SC)/ Scheduled Tribes (ST).The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, The Eighty Ninth Amendment, 2000 : The bill passed1995 : Article 31B of the Constitution confers on by Parliament on May, 2000, provides for the transferthe enactment included in the Ninth Schedule to of 25% share of net tax proceeds to States for a five-the Constitution, immunity from legal challenge of year period and seeks to bring several Central taxesthe ground that it violates the fundamental rights and duties like Corporation Tax and Customs Duty atenshrined in Part III of the Constitution. The Schedule par with personal income-tax for the purpose of sharingconsists of list of laws enacted by the central with the States.governments and various state governments which,inter alia, affect rights and interest in property The Ninety Third Amendment, 2001 : Union Cabinetincluding land. approved the Constitution (93rd Amendment) Bill, 2001 on 20th September 2001. It seeks to provide free andThe Constitution (79th Amendment Act) 2000 : It compulsory education for the children aged 6 to 14extends reservation to SCs & STs in Lok Sabha and across the country.State Legislative Assemblies for 10 years beyond 2000.The Eightieth Amendment, 2000 : It relates to the The Ninety Sixth Amendment, 2003 : The Lok Sabharevenue sharing between the Centre and the States unanimously approved it on 6th May 2003. It seeks to provide for readjustment of electoral constituencies,whereby States over-all share was increased to 29% as including those reserved for Scheduled Castes andper the Tenth Finance Commissions recommendation. Scheduled Tribes on the basis of the populationThe Eighty First Amendment,2000 : It relates to census for the year 2001 without affecting the numbercarrying forward backlog vacancies of SCs and STs. of seats allocated to States in the Legislative bodies. OFFICIAL BOOKS AND PAPERS Blue Book : Official report of the Government of U.K. White Paper : Short Phamplet giving authoritative recital of facts given by the Government. Red Book : Book banished in a country. Green Book : Official Publications of Italy and Iran. Grey Book : Official Publications of Japan and Belgium. Orange Book : Official Publications of Netherlands. White Book : Official Publications of Germany, China and Portugal. Yellow Book : Official Publications of France. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 42 HISTORY OF INDIA History of India—Dates and events relating to Indus valley Civilization, Vedic, Aryan and Sangam age,Maurya Dynasty, Buddhism and Jainism, Guptas and Vardhanas, Pallavas, Cholas and Pandias, Sultanate andMughal Period, Advent of European powers specially the British and other related, topics. The name “India” is derived from Sindhu (Indus) one”. Buddha laid stress on the Four Noble Truths andthe name of the great river in the North-West. the pursuit of the Noble Eight-fold path. To attain nirvana, Buddha prescribed the Eight-fold path. TheTHE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION : Buddhist section which started worshipping the Buddha The approximate period of Indus Valley Civilisation as a God is known as Mahayana. Buddha preached hisappears to have flourished between 2000 to 1700 B.C. first sermon at Saranath. Tripitacas are the sacredThe first known civilisation in India is called the books of the Buddhists.Indus Valley Civilisation because the important siteswhich were excavated first are located in the valley of JAINISM :Indus. The civiliasation appears to have spread over The founder of Jainism is unknown. Mahavira, aPunjab, Sindh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Baluchistan. The contemporary of Buddha was the preceptor of Jainism.most significant feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation He was the last of the Jain teachers called Tirthankaras.is burnt brick buildings. The “Great Bath” was foundin Mohen-jo-Daro. Mohen-jo-Daro is also known as ALEXANDER’S INVASION:“Mound of the Dead”. The Indus people were probably Alexander, son of Philip, King of Macedoniaruled by merchants. The script used by the Indus (Greece)crossed the Indus in 327 B.C. After defeatingValley people has not yet been deciphered. The first Porus, he retreated as his army refused to proceedmetal to be discovered and used for making tools was further. He returned by the way of Indus and diedcopper. Iron was not known to the people of Indus on his way to Babylon in 323 B.C. Alexander’sValley Civilisation. Rice cultivation is associated with invasion opened the land route from Europe to Indiathe Harappan site of Lothal. Mohen-jo-Daro and and it paved the way for the political unity of India.Harappa are not in India. According to the historians, SANGAM AGE :there were close commercial and cultural contacts It is stated that there were three Sangams,between Indus Valley and the Sumerian Civilisation. Agasthiar presided over the two Sangams. The thirdThe Indus Valley people had not learnt to domesticate Sangam was held in Madurai. It was the age for thehorses but those who lived in the Vedic age did makeuse of the horse. Wheat was the staple food of the birth of art and literature. The Cholas, the Cheras andIndus people. The Indus Valley people worshipped the Pandyas ruled the ancient Tamil Kingdom. The emblems were the tiger, bow and the fish respectively.Pasupathi. The Indus Valley people venerated the bull. They were the flower garlands of Aathi, Palm and NeemIt was non-Aryan because it had a pictographic script. respectively. The Tamils were the first to build damsTHE VEDIC CULTURE : across rivers. They were the first experts in ship- The Aryans came to India from Central Asia. The building. The people of Sangam age divided their landsRig Vedic Aryans were largely urban people. The first into Kurinji, Mullai, Marudham, Neithal and Palai.home of the Aryans was Punjab. The Rig Vedic Aryans They worshipped Murugar, Thirumal, Indra, Varunawere generally under a monarchical Government. Copper and Kottravai.was first used by the Vedic people. Upanishads are MAURYA DYNASTY :books in Philosophy. They were translated into Persian,during the reign of Shah Jahan. The Aryans were Chandra Gupta Maurya was the founder of theskilful farmers. They knew the art of domesticating Maurya Dynasty and also the founder of the firstanimals. They were engaged in trade and knew maritime historical empire in India. With the help of his wisenavigation. The religious books of the Aryans are four and able minister Kautilya or Chanakya - he drove thein number (1) the Rig Veda, the oldest (2) the Yajur Greeks out of punjab and conquered Magadha.Veda (3) the Sama Veda (4) the Atharvana Veda. The Megasthenes, the Greek Ambassador sent by SeleucusEpics - the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. came to his court and wrote the book “Indica” -Mahabharata is the longest epic in the world, the Kautilya’s book Arhtasastra deals with principles andPuranas - 18 in number; the Shastras or the Darshanas practice of state crafts. Ashoka the Great, the most- six in number and the Manu. famous king of the Maurya Dynasty and one of the greatest kings in history, conquered Kalinga in 261BUDDHISM : B.C., but the battle turned his warlike attitude and he Buddhism was founded by a Kshatriya Prince, embraced Buddhism. Ashoka spread his DharmaSiddhartha born in 1567 B.C. at Lumbini. Siddhartha through edicts by using Prakrit language and sendingwas afterwards known as the Buddha, “the enlightened bikshus to the foreign countries. The core of Asoka’s © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 43Dharma was peace and non-violence. Dharma and musician; known as the “Indian Napoleon” onMahamatras were appointed to preach Dharma. The account of his great conquests. He had very cordialeffects of the Kalinga war are described on rock edicts. relations with Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), also performedHe stressed the principles of Ahimsa and Toleration Asvamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice). His achievementsthrough these edicts. Ashoka believed in paternal are inscribed in Allahabad Prasasti. Chandra Gupta IIkingship, “All men are my children” he said, and felt or Vikramaditya was the second great king of Guptathat he should care of them in the same way. dynasty. Fahien, the first Chinese pilgrim visited his kingdom. Art and literature flourished. Kalidasa - poetKUSHAN DYNASTY : and dramatist; known as the “Shakespeare of India”. The Kushanas are important rulers of India and and “Prince of Indian Poets” lived during his period.among them is Kanishka. The coins of the Kanishka Aryabhatta, Varahimihira and Brahma Gupta- thekings help us to know the history of this dynasty. greatest mathematicians and astronomers of their time;Kanishka is undoubtedly the most striking figure Kumarila Bhatta and Shankaracharya - the greatamong the Kushana Kings of India. “A great conqueror preachers of Hinduism and Dhanwantri, Nagarjuna -and a patron of Buddhism, he combined in himself the great physicians. The nine scholars who adorned themilitary ability of Chandra Gupta Maurya and the court of Gupta were called the Navratnas. The Ajantareligious zeal of Ashoka”. Kanishka conquered and cave paintings mostly belong to the period of Gupta.annexed Kashmir to his empire. Kanishka used to The paintings of Ajanta depict stories of the Jatakas.spend his summer time in Kashmir. Kanishkapura, a Kumara Gupta founded the Nalanda University. Thecity after the name of Kanishka was also founded by Delhi Iron Pillar belonging to the Gupta period stillhim in Kashmir. After his conversion to Buddhism, remains rustless.Kanishka channelized his indefatigable energies to thepropagatin of Buddhism. The crowning service which VARDHANA DYNASTY :he rendered to Buddhism was convened at Jalandhara Harsha Vardhana was the king of Thaneshwaraccording to certian authorities, while others hold the and established a strong empire. He was the last greatview that it met at Kashmir. The chief aim of the council Hindu king of Northern India. Hieun-Tsnag, a Chinesewas the compilation of the doctrines of Buddhism and pilgrim visited. Harshacharita - a biography of Harshathe writing of commentaries on them. According to was written by Banabhatta. Kanauj became the importantKalhana’s Rajatarangini, Kanishka founded various city of Northern India under Harsha. Bana was themonasteries and stupas. He also sent missions abroad court poet of Harsha.to propagate Buddhism. Kanishka’s reign also witnesseda remarkable change in the fundamental doctrines of CHALUKYA DYNASTY :Buddhism. Buddhist creed was now divided into two Pulakesin II was the most powerful ruler ofbig camps - Hinayan and Mahayana. The latter was Chalukya dynasty in the Deccan. He came into conflictaccepted as the State religon by the Kushanas. During with both Harsha in the North and the Pallavas in theKushana period, two schools of art flourished in India South. In the Battle of Narmada, Harsha was defeatedcalled Gandhara School of Art and Mathura School of by Pulakesin II. Finally, Pulakesin II was defeated andArt. Gandhara Art remained in existence from the first killed in battle with the Pallavas.centrury B.C. to fifth century A.D. Gandhara Art was PALLAVA DYNASTY :the combination of the Indian and Greek styles of Pallava dynasty was great from cultural as well assculpture. Geographically this region was so situated political point of view. Sivaskanda Varman was the firstthat it lay exposed to all sorts of foreign contacts and great ruler of Pallava dynasty. Narasimha Varman I wasinfluences - Persian, Greek, Roman, Saka and Kushana. regarded as the greatest king of the PallavaIn the Gandhara art sculptures representing the stories dynasty. He defeated Pulakesin II, the Chalukya rulerand legends of Lord Buddha’s Life were made, as they at Vatapi and so he was called “Vatapi Kondan”. Hewere in great demand. These sculptures were produced was also a poet and Kudumianmalai inscriptionsalmost in a mechanical manner. Kanishka was succeeded reveal his mastery in music. During this periodby his younger son Huvishka who was also a follower Hieun-Tsang visited Kanchi. Narsimha Varman II gotof Buddhism. Huvishka was succeeded by his son erected a beautiful temple of Kailasnath near KanchiVasudeva who was a weak ruler. He believed in and one at Mahabalipuram. He sent an ambassador toSaivism. After him, the Kushana dynasty practically China. Dandin lived in his period. Nandi Varman II gotcame to an end. erected the Mukteswar temple at Kanchi. He alsoGUPTA DYNASTY : performed the famous horse ceremony called Chandra Gupta I founded the powerful kingdom “Asvamedha”.and started the Gupta Era. The Gupta rule was the CHOLA DYNASTY :Golden period of the Hindus. Samudra Gupta, son of The Chola dynasty was an ancient Tamil KingdomChandra Gupta - I was the most powerful and ablest of on the lower coast of India along the banks of the riverthe Hindu Kings, a great military genius, scholar, poet Cauvery. The real founder of the Chola dynasty of © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 44Thanjavur was Vijayalaya. Woriur was the capital of learned people and scholars. Amir Khusro, called “Thethe Cholas of Sangam age. The ascendancy of Rajarajas Parrot of India” was the well-known Poet flourished ingave Chola the paramount power in India. With a his court. Amir Hasan was another poet of his time.powerful naval fleet at his disposal he was able tobring under his control the Arabian Sea and the Indian KHILJI DYNASTY :Ocean. Rajaraja was an expert architect. His Siva Alad-ud-Din Khilji was the first Muslim Sultan.Temple Brihadeeswara in Thanjavur is a masterpiece He was not only a great warrior and conqueror but alsoof art of his rule. an excellent administrative genius and economist. He Rajaraja was succeeded by his son, Rajendra. He was the first to bring control of prices of essentialalso established authority over the islands of Andaman, commodities. Amir Khusro also flourished in the timeNicobar and Malaya. The Cholas had a democratic of Ala-ud Din Khilji. He wrote mainly in Persian.system of administration. The village assemblies TUGHLAQ DYNASTY :collected the land revenue and dispensed justice. Muhammad bin Tughlaq : The first great politicalVillage was the smallest unit of administration. Land experiment was the transfer of capital from Delhi torevenue was their main source of income. The village Devgiri which was rechristened “Daulatabad”. Secondly,community got a lot of power during the reign of the he introduced copper coins as the legal tender andCholas. The Chola age was the most famous for putting them at par with gold and silver coins. Thevillage assemblies and Kudavolai system. The system failed and resulted in heavy loss and trade withUttiramerur inscription of Parantak I is the main source foreign countries came to a standstill. He was no doubtof village government under the Cholas. a gifted Sultan with extraordinary powers but hisPANDYA DYNASTY : schemes were far advance of his time. Pandya dynasty is the oldest. Pandyas had SANGAM DYNASTY :commercial contacts with Rome in 20 B.C.Jatlivarman was the greatest imperialist of his Harihara and Bukka founded the kingdom ofdynasty. The invasion of Malik Kafur shattered the Vijayanagar. The two foreign travellers Nicoli Conti,Pandya empire. an Italian and Abdur Razzaq, a Persian visited during the reign of Deva Raya II.DELHI SULTANATES : The Arabs were the first Muslims to come to TULUVA DYNASTY :India. Sultan Mohammed of Ghazni led a series of Krishna Deva Raya was the greatest and theplundering raids, about 17 in number. He attacked and most famous of the Kings of Tuluva dynasty. Heplundered Somnath Temple in Kathiawar. The scholar himself was an accomplished scholar and did, a lot forwho accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni in India was learning. He had eight celebrated poets known asAlbaruni. In 1191, Mohd. Ghori was defeated by “Astadiggajas” at his court.Prithvi Raj Chohan at the Battle of Tarain near His poet laureate, Alasani-Peddanna is regardedThaneswar. The dynasty which ruled from Delhi as an author of the first rank. Domingos Paes, atill the coming of the Mughals in the 16th century Portuguese traveller visited his court. Sadasiva was thewere the Slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Sayids last ruler of the dynasty. His powerful minister Ramarayaand the Lodhis. This phase of Indian History is was very ambitious. Battle of Talikota (1565) Muslimknown as the “Sultanate Period”. Under Altmash and kingdoms joined and defeated the Vijayanagar king.Balban, they extended their sway over practically the Ramaraya was killed, Vijayanagar was ruined. The ruinswhole of North India. of the Vijayanagar empire can be found in Hampi.SLAVE DYNASTY : THE MUGHALS : Qutub-ud-Din Aibak was first a slave of Qazi Babar : The foundation of the Mughal rule in IndiaFakha-ud-Din and later on purchased by Mohammed was laid by Babar in 1526. He defeated Ibrahim LodiGhori. in the First Battle of Panipat. Aibak was a great general and was very generous Akbar : He was the greatest of the Mughals. He wasand called “Lakh Bakhsha”. He started the construction the real founder of the Mughal empire and the firstof the “Qutub Minar” in Delhi and the same was Muslim ruler who divorced religion from politics. Hecompleted by Iltutmish; Iltutmish was also a slave and created a new religion called “Din-i-Ilahi or Divineso he was called “slave of a slave”. Faith”. Ibadat Khana was constructed by Akbar to Razia Begum was the daughter of Iltutmish. She provide religious leaders an opportunity to expresswas the first and the only Muslim lady who ever sat their view point. He was considered “National Monarch”.on the throne of Delhi. The new system introduced by Akbar in military organisation is called “mansabdari system”. Akbar Balban is considered to be one of the greatest made the Buland Darwaza to commemorate his conquestmonarchs of Delhi Sultanate. He was the patron of the over Gujarat. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 45Shah Jahan : called “Engineer King” built Taj Mahal. discovered the sea route to India and reached Calicut.Shah Jahan’s reign is regarded as a “Glorious Epoch” Alfonso Albuqurque laid the real foundation of thein the histrory of the empire in architecture. The Portuguese power in India. Following them were thefamous peacock throne originally belonged to Shah Dutch, the English, the Danish and the French.Jahan. Mosque building reached its peak during hisreign. European paintings were introduced in the court THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY :of Jahangir. The East India Company was incorporated in 1600 to trade with India by a charter given to it byTHE MARATHAS : Queen Elizabeth I. In 1615, the company built the first The most powerful of the Maratha chiefs was factory at Surat with the permission of Jahangir, securedShivaji. Shivaji visited Aurangzeb’s court in Agra in through Sir Thomas Roe, the ambassador to James I.1666 where he was made a prisoner but escaped. He Dupleix, the last Governor General of the Frenchdeclared himself independent ruler of the Maratha possession in India, wanted to drive the English out ofKingdom and was crowned, "Chatrapathi" in 1674 in India but the arrival of Robert Clive on the scene dashedRajgarh. all hopes. The French challenge to the British supremacy in India came to an end with the Battle of Wandiwash. The Maratha State was governed by the King, The crowning achievement of Clive was in the Battleadvised and assisted by a; council of eight ministers - of Plassey in 1757 in which he defeated Siraj-ud-the Ashtapradhan. The Maratha Government levied Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal and laid the foundation oftwo taxes. One was called the Chauth, one fourth of the company’s power in Bengal. The conquest wasthe total revenue paid to the Mughal Government or complete in the Battle of Buxar in 1764. Bengal was thethe Deccan Kingdoms which was taken in return for first province in India to be conquered by the English.promising not to plunder and raid their territory. Robert Clive was the first Governor of Bengal. The other one was Sardeshmukhi, which was anadditional, one tenth. Shivaji’s successors were weak BRITISH GOVERNOR GENERALSand the government gradually moved into the hands of and VICEROYS :Peshawas and later on by the Mughal king Aurangzebcalled “Alamgir”. Warren Hastings : (1772-85) First Governor General of Bengal of East India Company. Appointment ofDownfall of Mughal Rule : Board of Revenue - Interference in Rohilla War, Nanda Kumar’s murder, the case of Chet Singh and acceptance Aurangzeb captured and executed Sambhaji, son of bribes. Impeachment proceedings in Londonof Shivaji. Internally, Aurangzeb had to deal with the prolonged for seven years.rebellion of the Jats in the Mathura region. The Rajputswere also a source of trouble. The Sikhs were the Lord Cornwallis : (1786-93) Permanent Settlement offollowers of Guru Nanak. Nine Gurus succeeded Guru Bengal. Reorganisation of the Revenue Courts -Nanak. In order to curtail their power, Aurangzeb Criminal Courts - compilation of Cornwallis Code.ordered the execution of Tegh Bahadur. This naturally Sir John Shore : (1793-98) Non-intervention policy.enraged the Sikhs. So, the tenth and the last guru, GuruGovind Sing founded the military brotherhood or Lord Wellesley : (1798-1805) Subsidiary Alliance - athe Khasla meaning “the pure”. Apart from this, scheme to keep British forces under the Indian rulersAurangzeb destroyed many temples and reimposed - opened a college to train the Company’s servants inJazia. Aurangzeb’s death set off the rapid decline of the Calcutta. He is called the “Father of the Civil ServiceMughal empire. in India”. Sir George Barlow : (1805-1807) Mutiny in Vellore.THE SIKHS : The Sikh community was founded as a religious Lord Minto I : (1807-1813) Treaty of Amritsar.section by Guru Nanak. Guru Govind Singh, the tenth Marquess of Hastings : (1813-1823) He was the first toand the last guru of the Sikhs transformed the religious appoint Indians to high posts. The first venacularsect into a military brotherhood. Maharaj Ranjit Singh newspaper Samachar Patrika began to be published.was the greatest Indian ruler of his time and founder of Passed the Tenancy Act to protect the cultivators.the Sikh rule in the Punjab. Guru Tegh Bahadur was theninth guru of the Sikhs. He was ordered by Emperor Lord Amherst : (1823-1828) Mutiny of Barrackpur.Aurangzeb to embrace Islam, he refused and was The Indians refused to be carried away by shipsexecuted. to Burma and it led to mutiny. Lord William Bentinck : (1829-1835) English acceptedTHE COMING OF THE EUROPEANS : as the medium of instruction after the famous The Portuguese were the first among the European Macaulays recommendations-Medical College ofnations to trade with India. In 1498, Vasco da Gama Calcutta was started. Abolition of Sati, suppression of © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 46thugee, banning of female infanticide, abolition of to the British empire in 1889. Indian National Congresshuman sacrifice, reform in the Hindu Law of inheritance. was formed during this time. Public Service CommissionFirst Governor of India under East India Company. was appointed in 1886.Sir Charles Metcalfe : (1835-1836) He removed the Lord Lansdowne : (1888-1894) A weekly holiday wasrestrictions on the vernacular press. awarded to all factory workers.Lord Auckland : (1836-1842) Grand Trunk Road from Lord Curzon : (1899-1905) Agricultural Banks wereCalcutta to Delhi. established. He founded the Agricultural ResearchLord Hardinge : (1844-1848) The First Sikh War (1845- Institute at Pusa in Bengal. Ancient Monuments1846 AD) started in his period. The success in this war Protection Act passed. Archaeological Department wasextended the British Empire upto the Doab of Jallunder. established. Partition of Bengal in 1905 created trouble. Emperor George cancelled the partition.Lord Dalhousie : (1848-1856) Doctrine of Lapse -annexing the princely states whose ruler died without Lord Minto II : (1905-1910) Minto-Morley Reforms.a natural heir. Accordingly, Satara, Jaipur, Sambalpur, Lord Hardinge II : (1910-1916) Capital shifted fromBaghat, Udaipur, Jhansi and Nagpur annexed. Simla Calcutta to Delhi in 1911. Foundation of the Banarasmade summer capital. First Railway Line was laid from Hindu University, Banaras, Pandit Madan MohanBombay to Thana in 1853. Competitive examination for Malaviya was the founder-Chancellor of this University.the I.C.S. began. Lord Chelmsford : (1916-1921) Rowlatt Act calledViceroys of India : Black Act was passed. Under the Act Government armed itself with unlimited rights even to detain a personLord Canning : (1856 -1858) Hindu Widow re-marriage and arrest him without producing him before a Court.Act. First Universities in India were established at The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy took place in April 13,Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. On May 10, 1857, the 1919 under the command of Gen. Dyer. KhilafatSepoy Mutiny called First War of Indiependence Movement, Non co-ooperation movement took place.began. Mutiny was suppressed. Queen Victoria’sProclamation called Magna Carta of India was Lord Reading : (1921-1926) Visit of Prince of Wales.announced. East India Company Rule ended. Canning Moplah Rebellion (1921) on the South Western coastwas appointed the first Viceroy of India. He had given of India.amnesty to persons who took part in mutiny. Lord Lord Irwin : (1926-31) Simon Commission. Demand forCanning is therefore called “Canning the Clemency”. complete Independence. Civil Disobedience MovementPenal Code was prepared. High Courts were set up at (1930) First Round Table conference-Gandhi-Irwin Pact.Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Lord Wellington : (1931-1936) Second and ThirdLord Lawrence : (1864-1869) Telegraphy System was Round Table Conferences - Communcal Award - Poonaopened between India and Europe. Pact - Government of India Act 1935 passed. CrippsLord Mayo: (1869-1872) First Census was taken in 1871 Mission. Quit India Movement (1942).Lord Northbrook : (1872-1876) Suez Canal was opened Lord Linlithgow : (1936-1943) During his viceroyalty,and trade between India and England greatly flourished. provincial autonomy was established. The State of PakistanLord Lytton : (1876-1880) Famine Fund was created. for the Muslims was demanded by Muslim League leader,Vernacular Press Act was passed. Indian Arms Act Jinnah. Second World War broke out in 1939.forbade Indians from keeping or dealing in arms Lord Wavell : (1943-1947) Simla Conference. Muslimwithout the permission of the Government. League launched “Direct Action Day”.Lord Ripon : (1880-1884) The Vernacular Press Act was Lord Mountbatten : (1947-48) Deputed by the Britishrepealed. Formed Local self-Government, was called the Prime Minister Lord Atlee. Indian Independence Act“Father of Local Self-Government”. Factory Act was 1947 passed-India and Pakistan created under thepassed. 1881 census was taken and it would be Mountbatten Plan - Lord Mountbatten became the firstrepeated after every 10 years. Governor General of Free India and the lastLord Dufferin : (1884-1888) In his period Burma (now Viceroy of India. India attained Independence onMyanmar) was invaded in 1895 and then was annexed August 15, 1947. C.Rajagopalachari was the first & the last Indian Governor-General of free India. Dr.B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. The Constitution of India was adopted on the November 26, 1949 and it came into force on January 26, 1950. Dr. Rajendra Prasad - the first President of India and Jawaharlal Nehru - the First Prime Minister of India. Dr. S.Radhakrishnan-the first Vice-President of India. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel-first Deputy Prime Minister of India. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 47 INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT Indian National Movement— National freedom movement and attainment of independence-contribution ofnational leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Dada Bhai Naorji, M.K. Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehruand others-role of Tamil Nadu in freedom movement, Bharathiyar, V.O.C., Subramaniya Siva, Rajaji and others. The National Movement or the movement for German Foreign Office. He started the Indian NationalIndependence from the British Rule nearly started in Party which was attached to the German General Staff.1857 which the British historians have called “Sepoy In early 1915, Mrs.Annie Besant launched a campaignMutiny” and the Indian historians, as the “First War through her two papers.of Independence”. Previously Indian soldiers have New India and Commonweal and organisedbroken out in open mutiny against British Officers at public meetings and conferences to demand that IndiaVellore in 1806, in 1842 in Bengal, in 1844 in Sind, then be granted self-government. In April 1916, Tilak set upin Bihar and Punjab. the Home Rule League. Annie Besant announced the The immediate cause which precipitated the formation of her Home Rule League, with GeorgeSepoy Mutiny of 1857 was due to the introduction of Arundale, as the organising secretary. She alsocartridges greased into cow’s and pig’s fat. The revolt organised Theosophical Society at Adyar.started from Meerut and the first sepoy who refused to The two leagues worked in co-operationuse the greased cartridge was Mangal Pandey. Mangal demarcating their area of activity, at belgaum meeting,Pandey was killed by the British Army. The Indian Tilak declared “Swaraj is my birthright and I will havesoldiers have massacred the British personnel marched it”. At another meeting he told the people : “Do notto Delhi in May 1857. The revolt of 1857 started from ask for crumbs; ask for the whole bread”. JawaharlalMeerut. Nehru joined both the Home Rule Leagues, but worked The Indian Soldiers proclaimed the Mughal mostly for Annie Besants Home Rule League. TilakEmperor Bahadur Shah II as the Emperor of India. The joined the Lucknow Session of the Congress in 1916heroine of this first war of Independence for India was and with the co-operation of Annie Besant and BipinRani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, one of the most courageous Chandra Paul secured control of the Congress.and capable leaders of the mutiny. She fought theBritish forces strongly but fell. Among others who fell GANDHIAN ERA :fighting were Nana Saheb and Tantya Tope, the brave During the war years, 1914-1918, Nationalismcommander of Nana Saheb’s forces. The leaders lost gathered its forces, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhithe war mainly because of lack of unity of purpose was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Saurashtra.effective organisation, and a unified system of He proceeded to England in 1888 and returned to Indialeadership. as Barrister-at-Law. He proceeded to Natal in South Africa and fought for the Indian Congress and also a One of the immediate results of the mutiny was newspaper called “Indian Opinion” with a view tothat it led to the assumption of direct responsibility for educating Indians in political matters. Gandhiji returnedadministration of India by the British Crown. Queen to India in January 1915, and was warmly welcomed.Victoria’s Proclamation was issued in 1858. Queen His first involvement was in Champaaran in Bihar andVictoria was proclaimed the Empress of India and the the second in Kheda (Kaira). Gandhiji organisedGovernor - General was designated the Viceroy and the Satyagraha and asked the cultivators not to pay theGovernor-General Lord Canning became the first Viceroy land revenue. The Government yielded and aof India. compromise was reached.BIRTH OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre : The birth of Indian National Congress was a great On the afternoon of April 13, 1919 a publicachievement for the unity of India. The Indian National meeting was held in Jallianwala Bagh in Amristsar,Congress was founded by A.O.Hume in 1885, during despite a ban on meetings. Sir Michael O Dyer, the Lt.the Governor-General ship of Lord Dufferin. The first Governor took command of the troops and ordered fire.session of the Indian National Congress was the Many innocent people died on the spot. Rabindranathtraining and organisation of public opinion in the Tagore renounced his Knighthood as a measure ofcountry. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 protest. Gandhiji returned the Kaiser-i-Hind medalgave a new lease of life to the nationalist movement. given to him for his work during the Boer War.On the outbreak of World War I, some of the Indianrevolutionaries thought of alliance into Germany against Non-Co-operation Movement :England. A young Tamil named Champakraman Pillai, The Non Co-operation Movement was launchedPresident of a body in Zurich, called the International by Gandhiji on August 1920. Tilak died on the samePro-India Committee, went to Berlin to work under the day. Tilak’s last message to the nation was Unless © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 48Swaraj is achieved, India shall not prosper. It is Quit India Movement :required for our existence. Gandhiji withdrew the Non In 1942, the Congress decided to launch the QuitCo-operation Movement when an angry crowd burnt India Movement with a view to compel the Britishthe police station at Chauri Chaura (U.P.). Government to offer more favourable terms.Lahore Congress “Purna Swaraj” : Cabinet Mission : The Congress assembled at Lahore towards theend of December 1929. The Lahore Congress declared The Cabinet Mission came to India to evolve athat the agreement to Dominion Status in the Nehru consensus on the constitutional question. In 1945,Report had lapsed and committed the Congress to full when Mr. Atlee of the Labour Party became the PrimeSwaraj. At midnight on December 31, 1929. Jawaharlal Minister of Britain, he took a realistic view for theNehru unfurled the tri-colour national flag on the banks fulfilment of India’s dream for freedom.of the Ravi. Mountbatten Plan :Civil Disobedience Movement : The Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 contained The Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-31 a solution for the political and constitutional deadlockmarked a critically important stage in the progress of created by teh refusal for the Muslim League to jointhe anti-imperialist struggle. Gandhi launched Civil the Constituent Assembly, formed to frame theDisobedience Movement by organising the Dandi Constitution of India.March with a view to break the salt law. Organisation It laid down detailed principles for the partition ofof country-wide demonstrations and hartals, boycott of India and the speedy transfer of political power in thethe foreign goods and refusal to pay taxes were stages form of Dominion Status to the newly born Dominionsof Civil Disobedience Movement. As a result of Gandhi of India and Pakistan.- Irwin Pact of 1931, Congress agreed to withdraw theCivil Disobedience Movement and took part in the A Bill containing the main provisions of theRound Table Conference. Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 was introduced in the British Parliament and passed as the IndianBardoli Satyagraha : Independence Act of 1947. In Gujarat, a conflict developed between thepeasantry and the Government. The Government Lord Atlee was the Prime Minister of Englandattempted to increase revenue, Vallabhbhai Patel took when India got Independence. India thus obtainedup the cause of the peasants and the struggle was known Independence on the 15th of August 1947 and becameas the Bardoli Satyagraha. The Struggle met with success a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic and Republic Stateand Vallabhbhai Patel came to be called Sardar. on the 26th January 1950. TOWNS ON RIVER BANKSAgra Jamuna Ottawa Ottawa New Orleans MississippiAllahabad Confluence of the Pandharpur Bhima New York Hudson Ganges & the Jamuna Hyderabad Musi Paris SeineAyodhya Saryu Jabalpur Narmada Patna GangesBadrinath Ganges Kabul Kabul Prague VitavaBaghdad Tigris Kanpur Ganges Quebec St.LawrenceBelgrade Danube Karachi Sindh Rangoon IrrawadiBerlin Spree Khartoun Confluence of Blue Rome TiberBudapest Danube & White Nile Saikowaghat BrahmaputraBuenos Aires La Plata Kotah Chambal Sambalpur MahanadiCairo Nile Kurnool Tungbhadra Shanghai Yangtse-KiangKolkata Hooghly Lahore Ravi Srinagar JhelumChittagong Maiyani Leh Indus Srirangapatnam CauveryCologne Rhine Leningrad Neva Stalingrad VolgaCuttack Mahanadi Liverpool Mersey St.Louis MississippiDelhi Yamuna Lisbon Tagus Surat TaptiDibrugarh Brahmaputra London Thames Sydney DarlingDublin Liffey Lucknow Gomati Tokyo ArakawaFerozepur Sutlej Ludhiana Sutlej Varanasi GangesGuwahati Brahmaputra Madrid Manzaneres Vienna DanubeHamburg Elbe Montreal St.Lawrence Vijayawada KrishnaHankow Yangtse-Kiang Moscow Moskva Warsaw VistulaHardwar Ganges Nasik Godavari Washington Potomac © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 49 GENERAL SCIENCE General Science will cover general appreciation and understanding of science including matters of everydayobservations and experience as may be expected of a well educated person who has not made any special studyof any scientific discipline. The questions shall be from topics, in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, viz., Scientificlaws, Scientific Instruments, Inventions and Discoveries, Scientists and their contributions, Human Physiology,Diseases their cause, cure and prevention, diet-balanced diet, human Genetics, Animals Mammals and Birds,Environment and Ecology elements and compounds, acids, Bases and salts and allied subjects, Motion, Newton’sLaws, Matter—Properties of Matters Electricity, National Laboratories and other related topics. VARIOUS SCIENCESAcoustics : The study of sound and sound Mycology : Concerned with fungi and waves fungal diseasesAgrostology : The study of grasses Nephrology : A branch of medicine dealingAnatomy : The science of the structure with kidney diseases study of the animal / human Oncology : Study dealing with tumours body learnt by dissection Orology : The study of mountainsAstronautics : A science dealing with space Paediatrics : A branch of medicine dealing travel & space vehicles with child diseasesAstronomy : The science of heavenly bodies Pathology : A branch of medicine that deals (planets) with etiologies, mechanisms andBiology : The science of living organisms manifestation of diseasesBotany : The science of the plant Psychiatry : The study & treatment of mental kingdom & emotional disordersBryology : The study of mosses Radiology : A branch of medical scienceCardiology : A branch of medicine dealing dealing with the use of x-rays with heart for diagnosis and treatmentChemistry : The study of elements, their Rheumatology : The study of small joints in behaviour and laws of their human body combination, etc. Seismology : The study of earthquakes &Cosmetology : The study of cosmetics and related phenomena their use Theology : The study of religionsDactylogy : The study of fingerprints Virology : The science that deals withDietetics : The science of diet and viruses nutrition Zoology : A branch of biology that dealsEndocrinology : The study of glands with animal lifeLithology : The study of the characteristics Zymology : A study that deals with the of rocks process of fermentation. SCIENTIFIC LAWS ETC.,Archimedes’ Principle:It states that a body, when is kept constant i.e., P x V = a constant, if T remainsimmersed in a liquid, experiences an upward thrust the same.equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it. Charles’s Law:It states that at constant pressure allAvogadro’s Hypothesis:It is a modification of Berzelius’ gases expand by of their volume at 0oC i.e., thehypothesis. It states that equal volumes of all gases volume of a given mass of gas at constant pressure isunder similar conditions of temperature and pressure directly proportional to the absolute temperature.contain equal number of molecules. Dulong and Petit’s Law:States that the product of atomic weight and specific heat of solid elements isBoyle’s Law:States that the volume of certain gas is nearly equal to 6.4 i.e., At. wt. sp. heat = 6.4 approx.inversely proportional to the pressure at a constanttemperature. In other words, the product of pressure Gay-lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes:Gases reactand volume remains constant provided the temperature together in Volumes which bear simple whole number © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 50ratios to one another and also to the volumes of the Newton’s Second Law of Motion : The rate of changeproducts, if gaseous - all the volumes being measured of momentum is proportional to the impressed forceunder similar conditions of temperature and pressure. and takes place in the direction of the force.Graham’s Law of Diffusion : States that the rates of Newton’s Third Law of Motion : To every action, therediffusion of gases are inversely proportional to the is an equal and opposite reaction, e.g. Rockets, recoilsquare roots of their densities under similar conditions of a gun.of temperature and pressure. Newton’s Law of Cooling : States that the rate ofLaw of Definite Proportions : A chemical compound is loss of heat of a hot body is directly proportional toalways found to be made up of the same elements the difference of temperature between the body andcombined together in the same ratio by weight. the surrounding and is independent of the nature ofLaw of Floatation : For a body to float, the following the body.conditions must be fulfilled: (1)The weight of the body Ohm’s Law : States that the ratio of the potentialshould be equal to the weight of the water displaced. difference between the ends of a conductor and the(2) The centre of gravity of the body and that of the current flowing in the conductor is constant. e.g., forliquid displaced should be in the same straight line. a potential difference of E volts and a current/amperes,Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation : States that the resistance R, in Ohms is equal to E/I.“Every portion of matter attracts or tends to approach Principle of Conservation of Energy : It statesevery other portion of matter in the universe with a that, in any system, energy cannot be created orforce proportional to the masses and inversely as the destroyed; the sum of mass and energy remainssquare of the distance”. constant.Newton’s First Law of Motion : A body continues in Specific heat of substance : The quantity of heatits state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line required to rise the temperature of 1 gm. of a substanceunless compelled by an external force to change that state. through 1oC. MEASUREMENT UNITSAngstrom : For measuring length of light waves Horse Power : Used for measuring the power of petrolBarrel : For measuring liquids. One barrel is equal to or steam engine31½ gallons or 7,326.5 cubic inches Light Year : A light year is the distance light travelsCable: For measuring length of cables. It is about 183 in one year at a speed of 2,97,600 km per secondm. in length Nautical Mile : A unit of distance used in navigationCarat : Used for measuring precious stones. It is also - one minute of longitude measured along the equator.a measure for the purity of gold alloy A Nautical Mile is approximately equal to 1853 metresFathom : It is used for measuring depth of water. One Ohm : The unit of electrical resistance of a conductorfathom is equal to 4 inches Quintal : Metric measure of weight, 100 kilograms = 1Knot: For measuring speed of ships Quintal. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTSAccumulator : Electrical energy is stored Colorimeter : An instrument for comparing intensities of colour.Altimeter : Used in aircraft for measuring altitudesAmmeter : Measuring the electrical current in amperes Commutator : An instrument to change or remove the direction of an electric current, in dynamoAnemometer : Measuring the strength of winds used to convert alternating current into directAudiometer : Measuring intensity of wind current.Barometer : Measuring atmospheric pressure Computer : A technical device designed to findBinocular : An optical instrument designed for instantaneous solutions of huge complex calculationsmagnified view of distant objects by both eyes based on the information already fed.simultaneously Crescograph : For recording the growth of plantsCardiogram : For recording the heart movements Cyclotron : Studying the properties of atoms byCalorimeter : Measuring of quantities of heat smashing themChronometer : A clock that keeps very accurate time Drinker’s Apparatus : To help breathing in infantileas the one that is used to determine longitude at sea. paralysisClinical Thermometer : A thermometer for measuring Dynamo : A device for converting mechanical energythe temperature of human body. into electrical energy © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 51Dynamometer : An instrument for measuring the Resistance Thermometer : Used for determiningelectrical power. the electrical resistance of conductorsE.C.G. : Device to diagnose heart disfunctioning Salinometer : A type of hydrometer used to determineE.E.G. : To diagnose disorder in the human brain the concentration of salt solutions by measuring their densitiesElectroscope : An instrument for detecting the presenceof electric charge. Seismometer (Seismograph) : An Apparatus for measuring and recording earthquake shockEudiometer : Measuring volume changes in chemicalreaction between gases Sextant : For guiding ships or surveying land.Fathometer : Measuring depth of the ocean Spectroscope: An instrument used for spectrum analysisGalvanometer : For detecting and measuring electric Speedometer : It registers the speed at which thecurrent vehicle is movingGeiger Muller Counter (GM Counter) : An instrument Spherometer : For measuring curvature of surfacesfor detecting and counting atomic particles and Sphygmomanometer : An instrument used to detectradiations blood pressure in a human body. It is also calledHydrometer: For determining the specific gravity of liquids B.P.ApparatusHygrometer: For measuring the amount of water vapours Sphygmophone : Instrument with the help of which, a pulse beat makes a soundIron Lung : For artificial respiration Spring Balance : Useful for measuring weightLactometer : For determining the purity of milk Stethoscope : To hear and analyse movements of heartManometer : To measure gas pressure and lungsMicrometer : For accurately measuring small distance Stop Watch : Recording small intervals of time in the racesor angles Stroboscope : An instrument used for viewing theMicroscope : An instrument for magnified view of verysmall objects. objects moving rapidly with a periodic motion and to see them as if they were at rest.Odometer : The distance covered by a wheeled vehicleis recorded Tachometer : For measuring speed of aeroplanes and motor boatsOscillograph : For recording electrical or mechanicalvibrations Tangent Galvanometer : An instrument for measuring the strength of direct current.Periscope : It is used in submarine to survey the shipsetc., on the sea while the submarine is under water Telemeter : For recording physical events happening at a distancePhonograph : For reproducing sound Teleprinter : A machine which records automaticallyPhotometer : An instrument for comparing the luminous messages received on telephone wiresintensity of the sources of light Telescope : For viewing distant objectsPlantimeter : A mechanical integrating instrument tomeasure area of a plane surface. Television (T.V.) : For transmitting the visible moving images by means of wireless waves.Pyrometer : For measuring high temperature from adistance Theodolite : Measuring distances on the surface of the earthPyknometer : An instrument used to measure thedensity and coefficient of expansion of a liquid Thermometer : For recording temperature of a human bodyQuadrant : An instrument for measuring altitudes andangles in navigation and astronomy Thermocouple : Measuring temperatureQuartz Clock : A highly accurate clock used in Thermostat : Automatically controlling the temperatureastronomical observations and other precision work to a particular degreeRadar : Radio, angle, detection and range is used to Transformer : To convert high voltage to low and vicedetect the direction and range of an approaching versaaeroplane by means of radio micro waves Transistor : A small device which may be used toRadiometer : An instrument for measuring the emission amplify currents and perform other functions usuallyof radiant energy performed by a thermionic valveRadio Micrometer : An instrument for measuring Vernier : An adjustable scale for measuring small subheat radiations divisions of scaleRain Guage : An instrument for measuring rainfall Viscometer : For measuring viscosityRectifier : An instrument used for the conversion of Voltmeter : To measure potential difference betweenAC into DC. two pointsRefractometer : An instrument used to measure the ZETA : Zero Energy Thermometer Assembly forrefractive index of a substance developing thermonuclear Assembly. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 52 INVENTIONS AND SCIENTISTS A Chloroform James YoungAdding Machine Blaise Pascal & Simpson William Cholera bacillus Robert Koch Burroughs Chronometer John HarrisonAir Conditioning Carrier Cinema Nicolas Lumiere &Air Plane (Jet Engine) Whittle EdisonAir-brake G e o r g e Cinematography Thomas Edison Westinghouse Clock Pendulum HuygensAirplane with motor Orville and Wright Computer (Original Model) Charles BabbageAirship Giffard Computer (electronic) J.G.BrainerdAirship (Non-rigid) Zeppelin J.P.Eckert &Aniline Dyes Hoffman J.W.ManchlyAnimal Classification Aristotle (Father of Cosmic Rays R.A.Millikan Zoology) Crystal Dynamics C.V.RamanAnti-polio Vaccine Jonas E.SalkAntiseptic Surgery Joseph Lister DArc Lamp C.F.Brush D.D.T. D. Paul MullerArtificial heart Michael de Baxey DNA (model) Watson and CrickArt of Printing Guttenburg Diesel Oil Engine Rudolf DieselAtomic Physics Ernest Rutherford Disc Brake LanchesterAtomic Theory John Dalton Dynamite Alfred NobelAtom-breaking up the nucleus Rutherford Dynamo Michael FaradayAtomic Numbers MoseleyAtomic Structure Bohr & Rutherford EAtomic bomb Otto Hahn Electric Attraction CoulombAutomobile (Self Starter) Kettering Electric Battery VoltaAutomobile (gasoline) Daimler Electric Current, Induction of Michael FaradayAutomobile (gears) Benz Electric Energy Joule, JamesAutomobile (magneto) Daimler Electric Lamp EdisonAutomobile (Steam) Nicolas Cugnot Electric Motor (DC) Zenobe GrammeAvogradra’s Hypothesis Avogadro Electric Motor (AC) Nikola TeslaAyurveda Atreya Electrical Resistance Ohm B Electricity, Current VoltaBacteria Leeuwenhock Electrons J.J.ThomsonBall Point Pen John Loud Elevator brake (lift) OtisBalloon Montgolfier Evolution, Theory Charles DarwinBarometer Torricelli FBattery & Current Electricity Volta Film (Musical) Lee de ForestBeriberi (cause) Eijkman Film (talking) Warner Bros.Bicycle Macmillan Fountain Pen WatermanBicycle tyre Dunlop Four Stroke Engine Nikolaus LottoBifocal lens Franklin Flying Shuttle John KayBlood Circulation HarveyBlood Transfusion Landsteneir GBlood grouping Dr.Costella and Galvanometer Sweigger Dr.Moss Gas Engine DiamlerBrownian Movements Robert Brown Gas Lighting William MurdockBurglar Alarm Edwin T.Holmes Geiger counter Geiger C Geometry Genetic Code (deciphering) Euclid Hargobind KhoranaCamera Zeiss Gramophone Thomas EdisonCarburettor Daimler Gravitation, Laws of NewtonCash Register James Kitty Gunpowder Roger BaconCells in the plants Robert HookeCell Theory Schleiden & H Schwann Heavy Hydrogen H.C.UreyCement Joseph Aspdin Helicopter BroquetChain Drive Leonardoda Vinci Helium Janssen & Lockyer © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 53Homoeopathy Hahnemann Phonograph EdisonHydrogen Henry Cavendish Photography L.Daguerre I Photography (Coloured) Gabriel LippmanInert Gases (Argon, Neon, Ramsay Pneumatic Tyre Dunlop Poliomyelitis (vaccine) Jonas SalkHelium etc) Polythene FawcettInsulin F.Banting Pressure Cooker Dennis Papin Robert J BoyleJet Propulsion Frank Whittle Printing Press CaxtonJet Engine Frank Whittle Printing for the Blind Louis Braille K QKala-a-zar Fever U.N.Bramachari Quantum Theory Max PlanckKidney Machine Kolf R L Radar Robert Watson WattLaughing Gas Priestley Radio Telephone Lee De ForestLaser Charles Townes Radio Transmitter AlexandersonLever, Principle of Archimedes Radio signals G.MarconiLift (power elevator) Otis Railway Engine Stephenson Raman Effect C.V.RamanLightning Conductor Benjamin Franklin Razor (Safety) GilletteLogarithms John Napier Razor (Electric) Jacob SchickLocomotive Richard Travithick Rayon Joseph Swann M Refrigerator Harrison & CatlinMalaria Parasite Dr.Ronald Ross Relativity, theory of A.EinsteinMachine gun James Puckle Replacing human heart Christian Barnard Revolver Samuel ColtMalaria germs Laveran Rh-factor Karl LandsteinerMalaria Parasite Dr.Ronald Ross Rubber (latex foam) Dunlop Co.Match (safety) J.E.Landstorm Rubber (tyres) Thomas HancockMathematics (India) Ramanujan.S. Rubber (vulcanised) GoodyearMicrophone Berliner Rubber (waterproof) MacintoshMicroscope Jansen (improved by S Galileo) Safety Lamp Humphrey DavyMicroscope (electron) Vladimir Kosme Safety Matches J.E.Landstorm Sworykin Safety Pin William HuntMotor Car Austin Safety Razor GilletteMotion, Law of Newton Salk Vaccine (Anti Polio) Dr.Jonas E.SalkMotor cycle Edward Butler Seismograph Robert MalletMotor Scooter Greville Bradshaw Sewing Machine Issac SingerMitochondria C.Benda Ship (Steam) J.C.Pierier Ship (turbine) Charles Parsons N Shorthand PitmanNatural Selection, Laws of Darwin Skyscraper Baron JennyNeon-gas W.Ramsay Solar system CopernicusNeon Lamp George Clande Spectacles Venice (Italy)Neutron Chadwick Stethoscope Rene Lainnec &Nuclear Fission Otto Hahn William StockesNuclear Physics John Crockfort Steel (Stainless) Henry BearleyNylon W.Carothers Space Flying Wernher Von Submarine Bushell OOrigin of Life (artificial) Stanley Millar T T.N.T. (high explosive) Will BrandOxygen J.B.Priestley Tank (Military) Swinton P Telegraph William CookPaints Shalimar Telegraph Code Samuel MorseParachute Andre-Jacques Telephone Graham BellPenicillin Alexander Fleming Telescope GalileoPeriodic Law Mendeleev Telescope (Reflecting) Newton © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 54Television J.L.Baird WThermometer FahrenheitTorpedo Rabert Whitehead Washing Machine Hurley Machine Co.Transformer William Stanley Washing Soda LablancTransistor W.Shockley & Watch (winding) Greguet Bardeen Weaving Machine KayTuberculosis bacilli Robert Koch Welding (Electric) ThomsonTungsten Coolidge Wireless Telegraphy G.MarconiTurbine EngineTypewriter Charles Parsons Sholes XTyre (Cycle) Dunlop X-ray RoentgenTyre (Pneumatic) Dunlop X-ray tube Coolidge Xenon W.Ramsay & M. U TraversUmbrella Samuel Fox Xerography Chester CarisonUranium Henry Becquerel Xerox Haloid-XeroxUranus (planet) William Herchel Y V Yellow fever, cause of ReedVacuum Flask James DewarVaccination (Small Pox) Edward Jenner ZVitamin D F.C. Hopkins ZETA (Zero Energy Thermo HarwellVitamins Funk nuclear Assembly)Vulcanisation Goodyear Zip Fastener W.L.Judson VITAMINS © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 55 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, DISEASES WATER Hyponatremia : It is caused due to deficiency of About 60% of the weight of the body is due to sodium. The body experiences deficiency of sodiumwater. Water plays such a vital role in the physiology due to (i) intense vomitting (ii) acute diarrhoea.of living beings which no material can serve. The Diabetes Mellitus : This disease is characterised byimportance of water in our body is so great that even the presence of excess quantity of sugar in the blood10% of the water loss may prove fatal. and urine. It is caused due to defective functioning of the Beta cells of islet of langer-hans in the pancreas BALANCED DIET which fail to secrete insulin hormone. Due to the A diet which contains of all the essential food absence of insulin, the tissues are unable to utilizeconstituents viz. protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, glucose. This results in the increase in the quantity ofvitamins, water in correct proportion is called Balanced glucose in the blood. The sufficient oxidation ofDiet. A balanced diet has following composition: (i) glucose affects the metabolism of fats. During fatCarbohydrates 60%; (ii) Proteins 25%; (iii) Fats 15%. metabolism, the ketones are produced as intermediateIndividual Caloric Requirements: People doing different products. These ketones accumulate in the blood andtypes of work need different calories of energy in a result in the ketosis. This disease can be controlled byday. The energy requirement depends on the age, sex, restricting sugar in the diet. The injections of insulinnature of work and climate. can also help to check the level of glucose in blood. DEFICIENCY DISEASES Obesity Calcium, iron, iodine, sodium, potassium, It is a nutritional disorder. If any person takesmagnesium, phosphorous, chloride, are some of the more food than the body needs, then the surplus foodcommon minerals essential for the normal physiological turns into fat and accumulates in the body. This isfunctioning of the body. Deficiency of these minerals known as obesity. In man, obesity means body fatsresults in the diseases. Few of them are discussed below: more than 20% of his total weight whereas in woman,Anaemia : It is caused by the deficiency of iron in the obesity results when body fats are more than 30% ofdiet. Since iron is an important constituent of her total body weight.haemoglobin therefore there is deficiency of Lathyrism : This disease is caused by eating largehaemoglobin in the red blood corpuscles. Since quantities of ‘Khesari Dal’ (Lathyrus sativus) by thehaemoglobin plays a vital role in the transport of poor people. It is a disease of the nervous system andoxygen, enough oxygen is not made available to cells that cripples man. Common symptom of the disease areto oxidise the nutrients and production of energy. It is lesions on the lower spinal segments followed bybecause of this reason anaemic patients look pale and paralysis of legs.get exhausted soon with little amount of work. The rich Xeropthalmia or dry eye disease : It is caused due tosource of iron is liver, meat, green leafy vegetables deficiency of vitamin A. In this disease lacahrymal(such as spinach) and fruits (guava, apple, banana,etc.). glands stop producing tears, a condition conduciveThese sources of iron if taken in diet can recover to subsequent bacterial infection and eventualthe patient from this ailment. The reason for higher blindness.incidence of anaemia in women than in men ismenstrual loss, loss of blood during child birth etc. Pernicious Anaemia : It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B12 and in this disease, formation of R.B.C. isGoitre : It is caused due to deficiency of Iodine. Due reduced in the bone marrow. It is also calledto iodine deficiency, the thyroid fails to synthesize Megaloblastic anaemia.. Vitamin B was first recognisedenough amount of thyroxine. The low amount of by Japanese sea men.thyroxine stimulates anterior lobe of pituitary to releaseThyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). The increasing Rickets : It is caused in children due to deficiency ofamount of TSH in turn stimulates thyroid gland to calcium and phosphorous.enlarge. This enlargement of thyroid gland so as to Ariboflavinosis : Insufficient amount of riboflavinsecrete more of thyroxine is known as goitre.Cure: (Vitamin B2) results in a disorder called ariboflavinosis.Those who live in areas where iodine content in water The symptoms of this disease are: cracking of skin atis low are advised to use iodized salt containing 0.01% angles of mouth, dermatosis, blurred vision, burningPotassium Iodine. and soreness of eye and tongue.Hypokalemia : It is caused due to deficiency of Pellagra : Insufficient amount of niacin results in apotassium. The body experiences deficiency of disease called Pellagra. The symptoms of thispotassium due to (i) severe vomitting (ii)acute disease are: tip and lateral margins of the tongue,diarrhoea (iii)excessive secretion of the hormones of mouth and gums become red and swollen and lateradrenal cortex. develop ulcers. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 56Disorders due to sex chromosomal Symptoms :genes: Since the incubation period of this virus is 10Colour Blindness : In this disease, a person cannot days, therefore first symptom appears after 10 days.distinguish between red, green and blue colours. The The symptoms are:gene determining colour blindness is carried on the X- 1. Fever, dry cough and running nose.chromosome. The Y-chromosome does not carry any 2. Inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane.gene connected with colour perception. Strangelyenough, woman rarely suffers from this defect and yet, 3. Loss of appetite.a man always inherit this defect from his mother. 4. Pink or red rashes or eruption appear on the face, neck and trunk. These rashes last for 4-7 daysHaemophilia (Bleeder’s disease) : In this disease, and the marks of dark pigmentation left thereafterblood lacks the capacity to coagulate. Under normal disappear after a few days.conditions if a person gets some external injury or cutin the body, the blood starts oozing out and gets 5. Vomitting.clotted in 2 to 8 minutes. But if a person is suffering 6. Eyes become sensitive to light.from haemophilia, a small cut may lead ultimately to 7. Contract pneumonia as a secondary infection.death due to lack of ability of blood to clot. Like colourblindness this disease is also found in males and rarely Prevention and Control :in females. 1. Passive immunity can be attained by injecting of gamma globulin. This immunity thus developed COMMUNICABLE DISEASES lasts for only three to four weeks.A. Diseases caused by Viruses : 2. Isolation of patient and personal hygiene are Following are some of the important viral diseases important to prevent the spread of infection.in man: 3. Use of glycerine or carbolized oil prevents its 1. Chicken Pox 5. Small Pox further spread. 2. Measles 6. Trachoma Poliomyelitis or Polio-Causal organism : Entero- virus 3. Poliomyelitis 7. Influenza. Mode of spread: 4. Rabies 1. By contaminated food and water.Chicken Pox - Causal Organism: Varialla-Zoster 2. By intestinal discharge of diseased person.Mode of spread: 3. Insects and flies play an important role in the1. By direct contact with diseased person. transmission of viruses.2. By indirect contact i.e., by clothings, bed and Site of infection : other articles used by patient might spread the The virus enters the intestine through diseases to a healthy person. contaminated food. It multiplies in the intestineSymptoms: through contaminated food. It multiplies in the1. Occurrence of moderate fever in the beginning. intestine from where it reaches the nervous system through the blood stream i.e., circulatory2. Appearance of rashes or eruptions within 24 system. In the spinal cord it causes inflammation hours from the time of infection. These rashes of motor cells which control the movement of pass through several stages. voluntary muscles. In the absence of nervous3. Appearance of crusts or scabs finally. These control, the muscles wither away and get crusts or scabs fall off within 14 days after the paralysed. rash begins. Symptoms:Prevention and control: 1. The initial symptoms of the disease are occurrence1. The patient suffering from this disease should be of fever and stiffness of neck. Due to stiffness of isolated from public places until all crusts or neck, the head cannot bend forward and scabs are fallen off. downward.2. Bed and clothing of patient should be kept clean. 2. Skeletal muscles get weakened and paralysed.3. Calamine lotion should be applied on the rashes. 3. Movement of limbs becomes weak and finallyMeasles or Rubeola - Causal organism: Myxovirus stops as the muscles fail to contract.Mode of spread: Prevention and Control :1. By direct contact with patient. 1. Poliomyelitis vaccine is quite safe and effective2. By coughing or sneezing. against this disease. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 572. All children should be immunised in the beginning Mode of spread: of infancy to ensure complete safety against the 1. By inhalation of droplets of infected sputum disease. expelled by patient during coughing, sneezing or3. The immunity can be maintained if booster dose speaking. is given every few years. Other viral diseases are 2. By contaminated food, water or milk. Rabies, Small Pox, Trachoma, Influenza etc. 3. By inoculation of bacteria into the skin or mucus membrane.B. Diseases Caused by Bacteria: Symptoms: Following are some of the important Bacterial 1. Constant fever.diseases in man. 2. Pain in chest.Cholera - Causal organism : Vibrio cholerae 3. Cough and blood in sputum.Mode of spread: 4. Loss in body weight. 5. Gradual weakening of body.1. By contaminated food and water. Prevention and control:2. By inhalation of droplets expelled by diseased person through coughing, speaking, sneezing or 1. Isolation of patient. sputum. 2. The B.C.G. vaccine against tuberculosis gives3. Flies are the main carrier of these bacteria and considerable protection against disease. spread the disease. Leprosy - Causal organism : Microbacterium leprae4. Epidemic of cholera usually occur during fairs and after flood and other such natural calamities. Mode of spread :Symptoms : By prolonged contact with diseased parts of patient. Since the incubation period of this bacteria is 2-3 days, therefore symptoms will appear after 2-3 days Symptoms:of infection. The various symptoms of this disease are: 1. Appearance of light coloured patches on the1. Vomitting and acute diarrhoea with rice water skin. stools resulting in dehydration and loss of 2. In acute cases the organs are deformed and parts minerals from body. In acute cases death may of body are lost. also occur. 3. Perpheral nerves are damaged therefore affected2. Muscular cramps. organ becomes senseless.3. Suppression of urine. 4. Ulcers, nodules, scaly scabs and deformities of toes and fingers may also be caused.Typhoid - Causal organism : Salmonella typhiMode of spread: Meningitis - Causal organism : Neisseria meningit1. By contaminated food and water. Mode of spread:2. By faeces and urine of the patient. By coughing and sneezing the germs spread from3. By direct contact with patient. infected person to healthy person.Symptoms : Symptoms : Since the incubation period of the bacteria is 10- 1. Sore throat, fever, severe headache.14 days therefore symptoms of disease will appear 2. Vomitting.after 10-14 days of infection. Various symptoms of 3. Difficulty in bending the head to forward due todisease are: stiffness of neck.1. High fever. 4. Occasional appearance of red spots all over the2. Slow pulse. body surface.3. Tender and distended abdomen. 5. The clear cerebrospinal fluid becomes turbid due4. Eruption of rose coloured rashes on body. to inflammation of meninges (membranes covering5. Diarrhoea with water-green stools. the brain and spinal cord) also called meningitis.Tuberculosis - Causal organism : Mycobacterium Syphilis - It is called veneral disease.tuberculosis Mode of spread : Tuberculosis is most common in crowded city 1. Through intercourse with an infected man.slums. Bacterium which causes tuberculosis can infect 2. They enter the body through any crack or cut inany organ of body but the most favourite site is lung. the skin.It can also attack lymph nodes, bones and joints. 3. Through contaminated objects. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 58Symptoms : Symptoms :1. Occurrence of fever and skin eruptions. 1. sudden onset of fever and sensation of extreme2. After 3-4 weeks of infection, the primary sore or cold. pimple appears on external genitals (the penis in 2. signs of shivering and intense headache also male and labia minora and majora in female) which follow. gradually becomes big and hard and later on 3. fall in temperature is accompanied by profuse becomes more prominent. sweating.3. Enlargement of lymph nodes in groin takes place. 4. the symptoms are repeated after every fixed hours4. After 2-3 months, white shiny patches appear depending upon the species of Plasmodium. inside the mouth. Prevention and control :5. Eruption appears on the skin particularly on face, 1. Destruction of breeding places (stagnated water) palms, soles and scalp. of mosquito by spreading an oil film on the water.6. Destructive changes in the internal organs of the 2. Use of mosquito nets. body take place even after many years. 3. Use of mosquito repellents like odomos.7. Cardio vascular system may be badly affected. 4. Spraying of D.D.T. or malathion in residential areas and other places.8. The infection can pass from infected pregnant mother to developing foetus through placenta 5. Use of various drugs like Quinine, Atebrine, and may result in the premature death of the Isopenta-quine is quite effective in control of foetus. malaria. 6. By fumigation i.e., certain chemicals are burnt soGonorrhoea as to produce fumes that either kill mosquitoes orMode of spread : drive them away from their dwelling places.1. through intercourse with infected man D. Diseases caused by Fungi Ringworm:2. through indirect way like cloths, bedding.Symptoms : Mode of spread :1. urine passes out with difficulty and there is an Ringworm of foot spreads on the skin peripherally urge for frequent urination. and heals centrally and the pathogen gains entry through foot if the person moves bare-footed.2. infection may pass into foetus through placenta if the infected female is pregnant. Symptoms:3. eruptions appear on the skin. Other common 1. the early lesion which appears on body is ring diseases caused by bacteria are: Plague, Botulism, like-with a scaly border. Pneumonia etc. 2. in case if the ringworm appears on nail, the free edges of nails become grey or brown, rough, dullC. Diseases caused by Protozoa : and sometimes nails are shed.Amoebic dysentry or Amoebiasis Prevention and control :Mode of spread : 1. Personal hygiene is the best method of prevention1. indirectly through flies which may pollute human of disease. food with cysts. 2. The infected body parts should be washed with2. through contaminated water, vegetables, fruits dilute potassium permanganate and kept clean. and other food stuffs.Symptoms: NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES1. frequent loose stools or diarrhoea. These diseases do not spread by contact with the2. the blood stained mucous passes along with diseased person or any other agency. stool. 1. Coronary heart disease : The blood is suppliedPrevention and Control: to the heart muscles by coronary arteries. If these1. Proper disposal of faecal matter of the patient. arteries become hardened and narrowed due to2. Vegetables and fruits when used raw, should be deposition of fatty materials, the heart does not thoroughly washed preferably with potassium receive enough amount of blood and as a result permanganate. the person feels severe pain in the chest. Sometimes the blood vessels (arteries) may ruptureMalaria : Plasmodium or a clot may be formed in them. This stops theMode of spread : supply of blood to heart and the patient has a By the bite of an infected female anopheles heart attack which is also called as coronary mosquito which acts as a carrier. thrombosis. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 592. Hypertenison : This disease is caused due to allergy. The common allergents (Substances or agents emotional stress such as fear, worry, anxiety and which cause allergy) are plant pollents, dust, certain excessive joy and nervous tension. In this food stuffs, animal hair, heat, cold,drugs, chemicals, disease the walls of the arteries contract certain fabrics and pathogens. These allergents when persistantly resulting in the rise of blood pressure. come in contact with body of an allergic person, This rise of blood pressure is known as Hyper- physiological disturbances start within the body and tension. Destruction of the arteries of kidney’s, many allergic reactions take place. condition is known as ‘chronic nephritis’ is a common result of hypertension. AIDS disease :3. Arterosclerosis : In this disease, the arteries and A virus has been identified to be responsible for arterioles become narrow due to the deposition of acquired immuno deficiency syndrome disease known cholestrol or fibrous tissue and lose their elasticity. as AIDS which has been termed as the disease of the In advanced stages of arterosclerosis the rise in century. This disease is more dreadful than Cancer. blood pressure may cause the arteries to rupture Causal organism : AIDS virus. and let out the blood. If arteries rupture in brain, Mode of spread: partial paralysis occurs and the person is said to have had a ‘cerebral haemorrhage’. 1. Through sexual intercourse.Prevention and control : 2. Through blood transfusion.1. the diet having low fat should be used. 3. Through contaminated injection needles.2. during hypertension, use of salt should be General account : avoided. In the host, virus attacks W.B.C. which are3. use of tea, coffee and alcohol should be avoided. responsible for immunity. The rate at which virus4. avoid smoking. multiplies in W.B.C. of host is thousand times higher5. the nitroglycerine tablets relax the coronary than that of a virus. As a result of fast multiplication, arteries and reduce pain in the chest. the immunity system of the body (due to W.B.C.) is devasted. Such persons become highly susceptible to6. Anticoagulant like heparin prevent the clotting of various types of pathogens due to decrease of blood and promote its flow. immunity.Cancer : Symptoms : This disease results due to uncontrolled divisions 1. Damage to brain.of cells in any part of the body. Due to uncontrolledand repeated mitotic divisions a lump or tumour is 2. Loss of memory.formed. Parts of tumour often break off, move through 3. he ability to speak and think is impaired.the blood stream of lymph to other parts of the body Till today no suitable drug is known for treatmentand start a new or secondary tumour. This stage is of the disease. No vaccine has been developed so farknown as Metastatia and proves fatal. to prevent the disease. Thus it is a serious threat to life for years to come.Leukemia : It is a type of blood cancer in which the white SOCIAL DISEASESblood corpuscles increase in number enormously. Alcoholism :These W.B.C. infiltrate into other tissues such as thebone marrow, the spleen, the lymph nodes etc. This It is a social disease. It ruins the health of thedisease is mostly found in young children (below five people and causes a loss of manpower and hampersyears) and no remedy is known for it. economic progress. It may lead to increased accidents, social crimes and other illegal activities. People startDanger signals or symptoms of cancer : with small quantities out of curiosity and pleasure and soon become addict to it and take to heavy drinking.1. Any wound that does not heal.2. A thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere. Drug addiction :3. Difficulty in swallowing. Primarily drugs are meant for treatment of a4. Persistent indigestion. disease. But sometimes people start taking drugs even5. Unusual discharge or bleeding. though they don’t have any disease. They do so for6. Persistent cough or harshness. excitement or pleasure or to relieve themselves of mental tension. Constant and regular use of these drugs formsAllergy : a habit and once acquired, it becomes very difficult to Hypertension or supersensitivity of the body or get rid off this habit. This condition is called Drugmind to some chemical or physical agent is known as Addiction. Like alcoholism it is also a social disease. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 60 SCIENTIFIC PHENOMENAWhy is rainbow seen after rain? How do you convert Centigrade reading to Fahrenheit? After a rainfall, the clouds break and lie hanging With the help of the following formula:-in the sky and the sun is also visible. The Sun’s rays,falling on the water drops, are dispersed, totally C F − 32 =reflected at the back of the drops and then again 100 180refracted into the eye of the observer with his backtowards the sun. These dispersed rays which have The sky appears blue, Give reasons, why?suffered deviation give rise to a concentrated beam of The blue colour of the sky is due to the scatteringlight indicating all the colours of light. of light by dust particles or air molecules. This scattering is inversely proportional to the fourthIce wrapped in a blanket or packed with saw dust does power of wavelength. Consequently the shorternot melt away quickly. Why? wavelengths are profusely scattered and when we Ice wrapped in blanket does not melt, because look at a portion of the sky away from sun, we receiveblanket being bad conductor, cut off heat rays. Saw this scattered and re-scattered light which is rich indust is also a bad conductor of heat. It protects blue (short wavelength).the ice from the external heat and prevents it frommelting away. An electric bulb makes a bang when it is broken The bulb has a partial vaccum. When it is brokenPetrol fire cannot be put with wamter. Why? the air rushes in to fill the vaccum and thus a noise is Petrol has less density than water. So when water produced.is poured the petrol floats on it and keeps on burning. How is it that food gets cooked quicker in a pressureThe temperature of the burning petrol is so high than cooker than in an ordinary vessel?the water and it would be evaporated before it canextinguish the fire. In a pressure cooker, on account of the increase of pressure, the boiling point is raised, so the food getsFuse wires are always provided in electrical cooked quicker than in an ordinary vessel. A pressureinstallations. cooker is very useful in high mountains where, on Fuse wire is a high resistance wire and when it is account of low pressure and hence low boiling point,put in the series of electrical installations under strong the vegetables cannot be cooked properly.currents, the wire melts away avoiding damage to main A burning candle gets extinguished when covered withinstallations. a tumbler. Why?Copper wire cannot be used as heating element in The tumbler cuts off the oxygen supply which iselectric heaters. necessary for its burning. Copper melts at 1083°C and also reacts with air toform a black powder. Why rain water is soft but river water is hard? River water during its course in the mountainousGlass when heated cracks while metal does not. terrain dissolve the calcareous matter or lime Glass is a bad conductor of heat. On heating, compounds and thus becomes hard. While duringonly the upper layers of the glass expand while lower evaporation only the molecules of water go up andones remain unaffected, hence it cracks due to unequal minerals are left behind; hence the rain water is soft.expansion. Metal is a good conductor of heat and soall its bulk gets uniformly heated up. Thus the expansion Why is water from hand pump warm in winter and coldalso has uniform surface strain, hence no cracking. in summer?Why a cyclist has to apply a greater force at the start In winter, the temperature outside is low and thethan when the cycle is in motion? unexposed water underground is at a higher A cyclist has to apply a greater force at the start temperature. In summer, the outside temperture isin order to produce momentum, but once a suitable higher than the temperature inside. Hence water ismomentum has been gained only then a smaller force warm in winter and cool in summer.is required to balance the frictional forces. An iron nail floats on mercury but sinks in water.Why sea-water is saline? Give reasons, why? Because the rivers falling into the sea, bring An iron nail floats on mercury, because thedeposits of salt along with them during their journey weight of mercury displaced by it and hence thefrom mountains and plains and this process has been upward thrust is more than its weight, the density ofgoing on for ages. mercury and iron being respectively 13.6 gm per c.c. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 61and 7.6 gm. per c.c. The density of water being 1 gm./ motion it receives a reaction upwards and hence itc.c., the upward thrust is much less and hence the iron bounces up.nail sinks. Why a needle sinks in water, whereas an iron shipA flash of lightning is seen before the sound of floats on it?thunder heard. Why? The specific gravity of a needle which is a solid It is because of the fact that light travels faster piece of steel, is decidedly greater than water and it,than sound. therefore, sinks in water; whereas an iron ship is so designed that the total weight of water displaced by itOne leans forward while climbing a hill. is greater than the weight of the ship itself. The ship, While leaning forward, the centre of gravity of therefore, floats by the upward thrust of water.the body also shifts forward and this helps climbing. Why a convex mirror is used by the motorist to see theA dead body floats in water after some time. road behind him? A body weighs less when weighed in water Due to the formation of miniature size images, abecause of the apparent loss in weight being equal to convex mirror has a large field of view. Consequently,the weight of the water displaced. There is an upward the motorist sees a large number of objects behind thethrust exerted upon a body immersed in a fluid called car simultaneously. It also avoids reflection of the sunbuoyancy, equal to the weight of the fluid displaced rays which are diverged and scattered.and thus the dead body floats in water after some time. Why is it dangerous to allow extra passengers on theWhy are we advised to empty the ink from our fountain upper deck of a double-decker bus?pen before going up in an aeroplane? There are chances of the double-decker bus As we go up in an aeroplane the air becomes rarer tilting, if the upper deck gets over-loaded withand the pressure of the atmosphere therefore falls, so passengers. In fact, the upper deck and lower deck actthat the volume of the air inside the fountain pen will as a counter-balance to each other and secondly, thealso increase and the ink will be pushed out thus upper deck has no support on top of it. With extraspoiling the clothes and hence the advice. load on the upper deck, the centre of gravity of the bus is raised and the resulting instability can makeWet clothes dry slowly on a rainy day. Why? the vehicle tilt. On a rainy day the air in the atmosphere A hydrogen balloon rises. Why?contains more water vapour than on a dry day. Hydrogen is lighter than air. The weight ofAs a result evaporation is slower. hydrogen in the balloon is less than the weight of theWhy it does not hurt when we cut our nails? air displaced by it. Nails are the parts of the body which have no Why an iron nail gains weight on rusting?connection with either the blood vessels or the Rusting is nothing but iron oxide. If fact, iron incartilage and hence the nerve system is unaffected. the presence of moisture absorbs oxygen to form ironConsequently cutting them will not injure us. oxide. Hence on absorption, iron gains a weight equalIt takes more time to cook meat and vegetables at hill to the amount of oxygen consumed.stations. Give reasons, why? Give scientific reasons as to why a clinical Meat and vegetables can be cooked properly and thermometer should not be dipped in boiling water?quickly at a temperature of 100°C. Since at hill stations, A clinical thermometer is an ordinary Fahrenheitthe pressure is decreased and hence the boiling point thermometer, calibrated from 95°F to 110°F, whereasis lowered thus causing a serious drawback in cooking boiling water usually acquires a temperature of morewhich will therefore take a much longer time. than 100°C or 212°F in water. It is, therefore dangerous to dip a clinical thermometer in boiling water becauseA blotting paper absorbs ink. Why? it is difficult for it to accommodate such high A blotting paper contains minute pores. These temperature, as a result of which it might burst.pores will be filled with ink. Thus the ink will beretained by the paper. Why is it more difficult to breathe on mountains than on plains?How a ball which falls down, bounces up? On the mountains the density of air is much less A ball on falling to the ground is slightly than in the plains and so the oxygen content fordeformed. On account of the elastic force coming into volume is reduced considerably. During the act ofexistence due to the deformation the ball tries to breathing a definite supply of oxygen is needed perrecover its original size. In doing so it presses the breathe which being deficient, breathing becomesground and in accordance with Newton’s third law of difficult. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 62Why cloudly nights are warmer than clear nights? Where days and nights are equal throughout the year Cloudy nights are warmer than clear nights and why?because clouds prevent radiation of heat from the Day and nights are equal throughout the yearground and air. at the Equator. During the course of the earth’s revolution round the sun, one half of the Equator isA green leaf appears green in daylight but looks dark always in the light and the other half is in the dark. i.e.,in red light. Why is it so? the circle of illumination always cuts the Equator into During daylight, a green leaf appears green equal parts.because out of all the constituents of white light, itreflects green only, all other colours being absorbed. What is the difference between a star and a planet?But when red light falls on it, it is all absorbed and Star is the name given to a fixed celestial bodyhence the green leaf reflects none and looks dark. which has its own light whereas Planet is the name given to a celestial body which revolves round the sunWhy the outer surface of a glass containing iced in elliptical (regular oval shape) orbit. A planet has nowater becomes wet? light of its own but it reflects light of the sun. A tumbler containing cold water cools the air nearit so that a film of moisture is deposited on the outside Where days and nights are longer in the year?of the tumbler by the condensation of water vapours Longest day : 21st June. Longest night 22ndpresent in the air. December (in Northern hemisphere).A solar eclipse can occur only on a new moon Why are mountains cooler than plains?day. Why? Because (i) the air of the mountains is rarer than Soloar eclipse is due to the full moon coming in that of the plains and contains fewer dust particles.between the sun and the earth, and hence it is natural The air on the mountains absorbs less heat thanthat it should be a new moon day. the air on the plains, (ii) the heat absorbed during the day on the mountains radiates very quickly at nightWhy the lunar eclipse occurs only at full moon but not owing to the rarity of the air and nights on theevery full moon? mountains are cooler, (iii) due to uneven surface of the The lunar eclipse occurs only when the moon is mountains, the major portion always remains in thefull and is near to one of its nodes which does not shade. The sun does not heat much of the land whichoccur every full moon. may heat the air. Animals, Mammals and BirdsAlbatross: Sea birds, North Pacific, off the American Chameleon: It is a family of lizards. The commoncoast. Also found in Antarctica chameleon is a native of Africa. Chameleon is remarkable for its power of changing colour to resembleAlpaca: Animal found in Chile (South America) its surroundings when surprised a power that is due toApes: These are four kinds of apes in the world, two the presence of pigment bearing cells beneath the skin.in Africa: Gorilla and the Chimpanzee, and two in Asia: It is slow in movement.Gibbon and the Orang - Utan. Cheetah: Found in India and Africa. Fastest landBeaver: Found in Europe (Russia and Poland) and animal at short runNorth America. It is a genus of mammals of the Corals: Small marine animals closely related to sea-Rodentia order with short scaly ears and webbed hind anemone, found mainly in the Mediterranean; alsofeet and broad flat muscular tail. Its skin is of found in the Indian Ocean.considerable commercial value. It is noted for ingenuity Crocodiles: can be recognised by their narrow snoutsand industry in building houses and damming shallow which have a notch near the front on both sides. Theystreams. It is also valued for its reddish brown fur and live mostly in the tropics along the sides of rivers anda secretion costoreum (Caster oil) used in medicines lakes. Alligators also resemble the crocodile but haveand perfumes. broader snouts.Camel: Found in deserts of Arabia and India. It has Dinosaurs: They are great reptiles flourished aboutlong legs with padded feet, a long neck with a hump 150 million years ago in the Jurassic period. It was overon its back. Its hump is made up of fat and is a store- 24 m long and must have weighed some 30,000house for food. It can also store water in the stomach kilograms. Its tiny head contained a brain no largerand can go for days without a drink. It is also called than a hen’s egg. It was clumsy and slow-moving and“Ship of the Desert”. probably quite harmless. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 63Elephant: Found in Africa and India. It is the largest Penguin: is a genus of large birds with small wings andexisting quadruped. Both males and females have large webbed feet. They exist in enormous numbers in theivory tusk of considerable commercial value. The Southern Ocean and Antarctica Sea. They are facileIndian elephant is domesticated and can carry up to swimmers, and live on fish.2,000 lbs. on long journeys maintaining a pace of about Plover: Bird, common in all continents except Africa6 km per hour. and South America.Emu: Running bird of Australia. It is the largest of Puma: A carnivorous quadruped of North America. Itliving birds after the Ostrich. is called “American Lion”. It is smaller than lion.Giraffe : Found in Africa and South Sahara except Reindeer: A genus of deer horned in both sexes;in the Congo forests. It is the tallest of existing Siberia.animals. Rhinoceros: Found in swamps of Assam andIlama: A dwarf camel-like animal found in South Sunderbans; South-East Asia; Africa.America. It has no hump, but has a long neck and is Seal: fish found in Northern Russia.used as a beast of burden. Sea Lions: One of the families of Seal found in theKangaroo: Is a pouched (Marsupial) mammal of Pacific.Australia. It can reach a height of over 6 ft. It is thenational animal of Australia. Shark: A large and powerful ocean fish, mostly found in tropical seas. Oil is obtained from its liver.Kiwi: Flightless bird, found in New Zealand, now veryrare. It is little larger than a domestic hen and lays Swifts: are birds of the air with extraordinary ability andastonishingly large eggs for their size. Its feathers are speed in flight. The world’s tiniest humming birds ofhair-like and it has rudimentary wings concealed by the tropical America. They dart about with dazzling speed,plumage. hovering moving up & down sideways and even backwards.Koala: Animal found in Australia. Tiger: India is the home land of Tiger which rangesLadybird: It is an insect usually of a red or yellow across the Far East to the Indonesia. National animal ofcolour with small coloured or black spots. India, its stripes help to blend with the tall grassLion: Among the big cats, the lions live in open grass- and bamboo thickets in which it hides.land, its tawny coat blending with the dry bush. It is Trout: a fresh water fish of the Salmonidae family;lazy in habit, Gir forest is familiar in India. found in Kashmir.Mustang: Animal found in American prairies Walrus: A very large marine mammal related to theNightingale: A singing bird found in India Seals; Arctic Sea.Octopus: A genus of marine mollusc with eight Whales: The magnificient blue Whale is the greatesttentacles that bear suckers. animal on earth, reaching a length of 30 m and weighing upto 18,000 kilograms. No other animal hasOstrich : Largest living bird now found only on reached this. Although a mammal, the Whale looks fishthe sandy plains of Africa and parts of South West - like only because it lives in water and has aAsia. The male has beautiful white plumes on wings streamlined body.and tails. The wings are useless for flight, but thebirds have a fleetness of foot exceeding that of the Yak: A curious long-haired ox, found in Tibet.swiftest horse. Yeti: Or the abominable snow-man of the high Himalayas is variously being from 6 to 12 ft. tall half- Gorilla-like,Oyster: is a bivalve molluscs which is eaten as a with shaggy body and hairless face. His foot-printsdelicacy, the pearl oyster may grow a pearl under have been seen and photographed many times.its shell. This is due to an initation probably a tinyspect of sand, which the oyster covers with Zebra: African quadruped of whitish-grey colour withmother-of-pearl. regular black stripes. READ CURRENT AFFAIRS ENGLISH MONTHLY : G.K. POWER WHOs WHO CURRENT AFFAIRS G.K. DIARY © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 64 DISEASES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS BACTERIAL DISEASES Filaria Lympth vesselsAnthrax Cattles Goitre Thyroid glandKomari Cattles Glaucoma Eyes VIRAL DISEASES Hypermetropia or Longsight Eyes Infantile paralysis LimbsFoot and Mouth Diseases Cattles (Arms & Legs)Blue Tongue CattlesRinderpest & Cattle Plague Cattles Jaundice Eyes; liverRabbies or Hydrophobia Dogs,, Jackals Leprosy Skin and nerves Leukaemia Blood cells DISEASES OF POULTRY Meningitis Spinal glandsRanikhet,, Foulfox and Tick Fever Myopia or Shortsight EyesDEFICIENCY, DEFECTIVE PARTS OF THE Neuralgia Nerves& GENERAL DISEASES BODY AFFECTED Night Blindness EyesAppendicitis Intestine Pellagra SkinArthritis Inflammation of joints Pleurisy Chest wallAsthma Chest Pneumonia LungsAstigmatism Eyes Polio Spinal cord nervesBeriberi Body growth Pyorrhoea GumsBronchitis Windpipe Rabies Hydrophobia Mental systemsCataract Eyes Rheumatism JointsCoronary Thrombosis Heart vascular muscles Rickets BonesDiabetes Pancreas Scurvy GumsDiptheria ThroatDysentery Bowels Thrombosis BloodEczema Skin Trachoma EyesElephantiasis Swelling of tissues Tuberculosis Any part of the body particularly lower parts of except hair and nail the body Typhoid Intestine, whole body NATIONAL LABORATORIES (Including Scientific Research Institute and Industrial Undertakings etc.,)Function of National Laboratories : The National Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants :Laboratories undertake basic and applied research with Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).special reference to the problems of industries failing Central Leather Research Institute : Chennai (Tamilwithin their spheres. These refer to the problems with Nadu).the work of industrial development and each having itsown detailed programme of work drawn up by expert Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute :committees. Durgapur (West Bengal). Central Mining Research Station : Dhanbad (Bihar).Birla Industrial and Technological Museum : Kolkata(West Bengal) Central Road Research Institute : New Delhi (Delhi).Central Building Research Institute : Roorkee (U.P.) Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute : Bhavnagar (Gujarat).Central Drug Research Institute : Lucknow (U.P.). Central Scientific Instruments Organisation : ChandigarhCentral Electro - Chemical Research Institute : Karaikudi (Chandigarh).(Tamil Nadu). Indian Institute of Chemical Biology : Kolkata (WestCentral Electronic Engineering Research Institute : Bengal).Pilani (Rajasthan). Indian Institute of Petroleum : Dehra Dun (UttarCentral Food Technological Research Institute : Pradesh)Mysore (Karnataka). Indian Toxicology Research Centre : Lucknow (UttarCentral Fuel Research Institute : Dhanbad (Bihar). Pradesh).Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute : Kolkata National Aeronautical Laboratory : Bangalore(West Bengal). (Karnataka). © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 65National Biological Laboratory (in Planning) : Palampur, National Physical Laboratory : New Delhi (Delhi).Kangra Dist. (Himachal Pradesh). Pulsars Research Laboratory : New Delhi (Delhi).National Botanical Research Institute : Lucknow, (U.P.) Regional Research Laboratory : BhuvaneshwarNational Chemical Laboratory : Pune, (Maharashtra). (Cuttack), Jorhant (Assam), Jammu and Kashmir andNational Environmental Engineering Institute : Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh).Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh). Structural Engineering Research Centre : RoorkeeNational Institute of Oceanography : Panaji (Goa). (U.P.). and Chennai.National Metallurgical Laboratory : Jamshedpur Visveswarayya Industrial and Technological Museum:(Bihar). Bangalore, (Karnataka). NUCLEAR RESEARCH AND ATOMIC ENERGYBhabha Atomic Research Centre (Formerly the Atomic Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research : Kalpakkam.Energy Establishment) : Trombay near Mumbai Physical Research Laboratory : Ahmedabad (Gujarat).(Maharashtra). Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics : Kolkata (West Bengal)Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) : Indore. Seismic Research Centre : Gaurividanur nearHigh Altitude research Laboratory : Gulmarg Bangalore (Karnataka).(Kashmir) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research : MumbaiIndian Cancer Research Centre : Mumbai. (Maharashtra) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTESBharat Ophthalmic Glass Limited : Kolkata, (West Central Research Laboratory : Chepauk, ChennaiBengal). (Tamil Nadu)Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaecobotany : Lucknow Central State Farm : Suratgarh (Rajasthan).(Uttar Pradesh) Central Tobacco Research Station : Rajamundry (AndhraBose Research Institute : Kolkata (W.Bengal). Pradesh).Central Arid Zoo Research Institute : Jodhpur Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology : Hyderabad(Rajasthan). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Institute:Central Coconut Research Institute : Kaserkode (Kerala) New Delhi.Central Glass and Ceramic Research Station : New Fluid Control Research Institute : Kanjikode (Kerala).Delhi Forest Research Institute : Dehra Dun (Uttar Pradesh)Central Inland Fisheries Research Station : Barrackpore Indian Institute of Agricultural Research Institute :(W.Bengal) New Delhi.Central Institute of Fisheries Technology : Ernakulam Indian Institute of Science : Bangalore.(Kerala). Indian Institute of Sugar Technology : Kanpur, (U.P).Central Jute Technological Research Institute : Kolkata Indian Lac Research Institute : Ranchi (Bihar).(W.Bengal). Indian Space Research Organisation : BangaloreCentral Marine Research Station : Chennai (Tamil (Karnataka)Nadu). Institute of Microbial Technology : Hyderabad.Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute : National Dairy Research Institute : Karnal (Haryana).Durgapur (West Bengal). National Environmental Engineering Institute : Nagpur.Central Mining Research Station : Dhanbad (Bihar). National Sugar Research Institute : Kanpur (U.P.) MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTESAll India Institute fo Hygiene and Public Health : Indian Institute of Experimental Medicine : KolkataKolkata (W.Bengal). (W.Bengal)All India Institute of Medical Science : New Delhi Indian Vetrinary Research Institute : Mukteshwar and(Delhi). Izatnagar (Gujarat).All India Malaria Institute : Delhi. National Institute of Communicable Disease : Delhi.Central Research Institute : Kasauli (Himachal Nutrition Research Laboratory : Coonoor (TamilPradesh). Nadu)Haftkine Institute : Mumbai. Tuberculosis Institute : Delhi. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 66 GOVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGSAshoka Hotel Ltd. : New Delhi. Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. : (1) BangaloreAtomic Power Project : (1) Rana Prtap Sagar near (Karnataka), (2) Pinjore, Haryana, (3) KalamasseryKotah (Rajasthan), (2) Tarapur near Mumbai (Kerala), (4) Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh).(Maharashtra) and (3) Kalpakkam near Mahabalipuram H.M.T. Watch Factory is at Bangalore. A Second(Tamil Nadu). Watch Factory has been set up at Srinagar (Kashmir).Bharat Electronics Ltd. : Jalahalli Bangalore Hindustan Photo Fims Manufacturing Co., Ltd., :(Karnataka). Ottacamund (Tamil Nadu).Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. : (1) Ranipur, Haridwar Hindustan Salt Ltd. : Jaipur (Rajasthan).(Uttar Pradesh) Ramachandrapuram, Hyderabad Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. : (1) Visakhapatnam (Andhra(Andhra Pradesh) and (3) Tiruverumbur, Pradesh) and (2) Cochin (Kerala).Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu). Hindustan Steel Ltd. : Ranchi (Bihar).Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Ltd. : (1) Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd. : Chennai (Tamil Nadu).Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, Bokaro Steel Ltd.,Bokaro, District Hazaribagh (Bihar). Hindustan Zinc Ltd. : Udaipur (Rajasthan).Chittaranjan Locomotive Works : Chittaranjan, District India Government Silver Refinery : Kolkata (W.Bengal).Burdwan (West Bengal) Cochin Refineries Ltd., Cochin Indian Drug and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. : New Delhi.(Kerala). Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. : Mumbai (Maharashtra).Diesel Locomotie Works : Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) Indian Rare Earth Ltd. : Alwaye (Kerala).Engineers India Ltd. : New Delhi. Indian Telephone Industries Ltd. : BangaloreThe Fertilizer and Chemicals Travancore Ltd., : Alwaye (Karnataka)(Kerala). Instrumentation Ltd. : Kotah (Rajasthan).Garden Research Workship Ltd. : Kolkata (W.Bengal). Integral Coach Factory : Perambur, Chennai (TamilHeavy Electricals India Ltd. : Piplani, Bhopal (Madhya Nadu).Pradesh) Janpath Hotels Ltd. : New Delhi.Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd. : P.O.Dhurwa, Kolar Gold Mining Undertakings : Kolar Field, OoragumRanchi (Bihar). P.O. (Karnataka).Heavy Machine Building Plant : Ranchi (Bihar). Machine Tool Prototype Factory : AmbernathHeavy Vehicles Factory : Avadi, Chennai (Tamil Nadu). (Maharashtra).Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. : Bangalore (Karnataka). Mazagon Dock Ltd. : Mumbai (Maharashtra).Hindustan Cables Ltd. : Rupnarampur, Dist. Burdwan Nahan Foundry Ltd. : Nahan (Himachal Pradesh).(West Bengal). National Instruments Ltd. : Jadavpur, Kolkata (WestHindustan Housing Factory Ltd. : New Delhi. Bengal).Hindustan Insecticides Ltd. : (1) New Delhi (2) Alwaye Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd.: Neyveli (Tamil Nadu).(Kerala). Optical Glass (Centre Glass and Ceramic ResearchD.D.T. Factories are at New Delhi and Alwaye. Institute) : Kolkata (West Bengal).Hindustan Latex Ltd. : Peroorkada, Trivandrum Pyrites and Chemical Development Co., Ltd., : Dehri-(Kerala). on-Sone District, Shahabad (Bihar). ACADEMIES AND INSTITUTIESAdministrative Staff College : Hyderabad (Andhra Central Sanskrit Institute : Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh)Pradesh). College of Military Engineering : Kirkee, PuneAir Defence and Guided Missiles School : Gopalpur (Maharashtra).(Orissa). College of Satellite Communication Technology :Air Force Administrative Staff College : Coimbatore Ahmedabad (Gujarat).(Tamil Nadu) Defence Service Staff College : Wellington, NilgiriAir Force Flying College : Jodhpur (Rajasthan) Hills (Tamil Nadu).Armoured Corps Centre and School : Ahmadnagar. Film and Television Institute of India : PuneArmed Force Medical College : Pune (Maharashtra). (Maharashtra)Central Institute of Languages : Mysore Himalayan Mountaineering Institute : Darjeeling(Karnataka). (West Bengal) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 67Indian Institute of Management : Ahmedabad, Kolkata, National Industrial Academy : Hyderabad.Bangalore, Lucknow, Indore and Kozhikode. National Institute of Community Development :Indian Institute of Mass Communication : New Delhi. Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh).Indian Institute of Public Administration : New Delhi. National Institute of Fashion Technology : New Delhi.Indian Institute of Technology : (1) Kharagpur, (2) Nehru University : New Delhi.Kanpur, (3) Chennai, (4) Mumbai and (5) Delhi (6) National Police Academy : Abu Road (Rajasthan).Guwahati, (7) University of Roorkee. National School of Drama of Asian Theatre : NewIndian Military Academy : Dehra Dun, (Uttar Pradesh). Delhi.Indian Cochin Academy : Cochin (Kerala). Numismatology Institute : Nasik.Indian School of Mines and Applies Geology : Paratroop Training College : Agra (Uttar Pradesh).Dhanbad (Bihar). Rashtriya Indian Military College: Dehra Dun (UttarIndira Gandhi Rashtriya Urban academic : Rai Bareli Pradesh).(Uttar Pradesh). Sangeet Natak Academy : New Delhi.Laxhmibai National College of Physical Education: School of Foreign Languages : New Delhi.Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh). School of Tropical Medicines : Kolkata (West Bengal).Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Water Management Engineering Laboratory : NewAdministration : Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh). Delhi.National Defence College : New Delhi. Wildlife Institute of India : Chandrasvani (UttarNational Defence Academy : Khadakvasla near Pune . Pradesh) MISCELLANEOUS INSTALLATIONS CENTRES ETC.Arey Milk Colony : Mumbai (Maharashtra). Inter University Centre on Astronomy andAgro Industries Corporation : Chandigarh. Astrophysics (IUCAA) : Poona University.Archaeological Survey of India : Indian Museum, Mafatlal Scientific and Technical Museum : Mumbai.Calcutta (West Bengal). Meterological Observatory : Pune (Maharashtra) andArtificial Limb Centre : Pune (Maharashtra). Delhi.Atomic Reactors : (1) Aprasara (2) Cirus and (3) National Archives of India : New Delhi.Zerlina at Trombay near Mumbai (Maharashtra) (4) National Atlas Organisation : Kolkata (West Bengal).Purnima at Kalpakkam near Chennai, (5) Dhruva at National Coal Development Corporations : RanchiTrombay, near Mumbai, (6) Kamini at Kalpakkam, (Bihar)near Chennai. National Dairy Development Board : Anand (Gujarat).Bhaba Auditorium : Mumbai National Gallery of Modern Art : New Delhi.Birla Planetarium : Kolkata (West Bengal) and National Library : Kolkata (West Bengal).Chennai (Tamil Nadu). National Museum : New Delhi.Central Board of Film Censors : Mumbai (Maharashtra). Nehru Planetorium : New Delhi, Mumbai and Ludhiana.Central Board of Geophysics : Hyderabad (AndhraPradesh). Nuclear Science Centre : Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi.Central Tractor Organisation : New Delhi. Publication and Information Directorate (IncludingCouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) : Indian Languages Unit) : New Delhi.New Delhi. Rabindar Rangshala Open-air theatre : New Delhi.Currency Printing Press (or) Indian Security Press :Nasik. Rangapur Observatory : Rangapur near Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh).Directorate of Scientific and Technological Personnel :New Delhi. Research Survey & Planning Organisation : New Delhi.High Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory : Gulmarg Rocket Launching Station : (1) Thumba near(Kashmir). Trivandrum (Kerala) and (2) Sriharikota IslandHindustan Aluminium Corporation : Renkoot (Uttar (Andhra Pradesh).Pradesh). Security Paper Mill : Houshangabad (Madhya Pradesh).Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre : Seismological Observatory : Shillong (Assam).New Delhi. Solar Physics Observatory : Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu).Indian Security Press : Nasik Road (Maharashtra) T.V. Reception Centre (India’s First) : Pune (Maharashtra)Indo-Australian Sheep Farm : Hissar (Haryana). World Diary : Mumbai (Maharashtra). © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 68 CURRENT EVENTS ABBREVIATIONS SPORTS UNO BOOKS & AUTHORS ECONOMY TERMINOLOGY FIRST AND LAST DEFENCE PERSONALITIES ABBREVIATIONS A CCI CDAC Cricket Club of India Centre for Development of AdvancedAAFI Amateur Athletic Federation of India ComputingABC Atomic, Biological and Chemical (warfare); CDP Community Development Programme American Broad-casting Company; Australian CHOGM Commonwealth Heads of Government Broadcasting Company. MeetingABM Anti Ballistic Missiles CIA Central Intelligence Agency (of U.S.A)ABVP Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad CIS Commonwealth of Independent StatesACC Auxiliary Cadet Corps; Air Coordinating CISF Central Industrial Security Force Committee CMC Computer Maintenance CorporationADB Asian Development Bank CMIE Centre for Monitoring Indian EconomyADC Aide-de-Camp CNS Chief of the Naval StaffAEC Atomic Energy Commission COD Central Ordinance DepotAICTE All India Council for Technical Education COFEPOSA Conservation of Foreign Exchange andAIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Prevention of Smuggling Activities ActAIMS All India Institute of Medical Sciences CPCSEA Committee for the Purpose of Control andAITUC All India Trade Union Congress Supervision of Experiments on AnimalsALCMS Air Launched Nuclear Armed Cruise Missiles CRPF Central Reserve Police ForceAMC Army Medical Corps CRR Cash Reserve RatioANCA Alternative Nuclear Command Authority CSCAP Council For Security Co-operation for AsiaANN Asian News Network PacificAPPEAL Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for ALL CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchAPPLE Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and IndustrialASAT Anti-Satellite Weapon Research OrganisationASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations CSO Central Statistical OrganisationASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle CTBT Comprehensing Test Ban TreatyASPAC Asian and Pacific Council CWC Central Warehouse CorporationASROCK Anti-Submarine Rocket LaunchersASSOCHAM Associated Chambers of Commerce and D Industry DAVP Directorate of Advertising and VisualATS Anti-Tetanus Serum (injection) PublicityAWACS Airborne Warning and Control System DDT Dichloro-Diphenyl Trichloro-ethane B (disinfectant) DNA Deoxy ribo-Nuchie-AcidBARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre DOD Department of Ocean DevelopmentBBC British Broadcasting Corporation DRDO Defence Research & DevelopmentBEL Bharat Electronics Limited OrganisationBCG Bacillus Calmette Guerin - Anti- Tuberculosis DRES Department of Renewable Energy Sources VaccineBHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. EBIMSTEC Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, ECG Electro Cardiogram Thailand, Economic Co-operation ECGC Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation ofBLT Bado Liberation Tiger IndiaBMR Basal Metabolic Rate ECIL Electronic Corporation of India LimitedBP Blood Pressure ECT Electro-convulsat Therapy (electric shockBRO Border Road Organisation treatment)BSF Border Security Force ECU European Currency Unit EEC European Economic Community (Common C Market)CA Chartered Accountant EEG Electro-encephalographyCAG Comptroller & Auditor General e.g. exampli gratia; for exampleCARE Co-operation for American Relief Everywhere EIL Engineers India LimitedCAT Centre for Advanced Technology E-MAIL Electronic MailingCBI Central Bureau of Investigation E & OE Errors and Omissions Excepted © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 69ERDA Energy Research and Development ICF International Court of Justice Administration ICCR Indian Council of Cultural RelationsESA European Space Agency ICCW Indian Council for Child WelfareESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and ICHR Indian Council for Historical Research the Pacific ICJ International Court of JusticeESI Employee State Insurance ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment CorporationESMA Essential Services Maintenance Act of IndiaEST Eastern Standard Time ICMR Indian Council of Medical Researchetc. ett cetera (and other things) ICRC International Committee of the Red CrossEU European Union IDA International Development AssociationEVM Electronic Voting Machine IDBI Industrial Development Bank of IndiaEWS Economically Weaker Section IDPL Indian Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd., i.e. id est; that is F IEA International Energy AgencyFACT Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore Ltd. IFAD International Fund for AgriculturalFAO Food and Agriculture Organisation DevelopmentFBI Federal Bureau of Investigation (of the U.S.A.) IFCI Industrial Finance Corporation of India Ltd.FCI Food Corporation of India IFFCO Indian Formers Fertilizers Co-operativesFDR Flight Data Recorder IFTU International Federations of Trade UnionsFERA Foreign Exchange Regulation Act IGMOP Integrated guided Missile DevelopmentFICCI Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce Programme and Industry IGNCA Indira Gandhi National Centre for ArtsFTII Film & Television Institute of India IGNOU Indira Gandhi National Open University G IIT ILO Indian Institute of Technology International Labour OrganisationGAIL Gas Authority of India Limited ILY International Literacy YearGATE Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering IMA Indian Military AcademyGATT General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade IMF International Monetary FundGDR German Democratic Republic IMO International Maritime OrganisationGIC General Insurance Corporation INCOSPAR Indian National Committee on SpaceGIST Graphics & Intelligence based Script Research Technology INMARSAT International Maritime SatelliteGMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System OrganisationGM Grand Master (Chess) INMAS Institute of Nuclear Medicines & AlliedGMT Greenwich Mean Time ScienceGNP Gross National Product INS Indian Naval Ship; Indian Newspaper SocietyGOC General Officer Commanding INSA Indian National Science AcademyGOP Grand Old Party INSAT Indian National SatelliteGSI Geological Survey of India INTELEX International Teleprinter ExchangeGSL V Geo Synchronous Launch Vehicle INTERPOL International Police OrganisationGTB Global Trust Bank Ltd., IOC International Olympic Committee H IORARC Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operationHAL Hindustan Aeronautics Limited IRBM Intermediate Range Ballistic MissileHBV Hepatitis - B - Virus ISE Inter-connected Stock ExchangeHFDC Housing Finance Development Corporation ISO International Standards OrganisationHIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ISRO Indian Space Research OrganisationHUDCO Housing and Urban Development Corporation ISP Internet Service Provider I ISS ISSP International Space Stations Indian Scientific Satellite ProjectIAAI International Airport Authority of India ITDC Indian Tourism Development CorporationIAC Indian Airlines Corporation ITO International Trade Organisation; Income-TaxIADF International Agricultural Development Fund OfficerIAEA International Atomic Energy AgencyIAMC Indian Army Medical Corps JIATA International Air Transport Association JCO Junior Commissioned OfficerIBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and JNU Jawaharlal Nehru University Development JP Janata Party; Justice of PeaceICAO International Civil Aviation OrganisationICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research KICBL International Campaign to Ban Landmines KG KindergartenICC International Cricket Conference Kg Kilogramme © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 70KPMF Kothari Pioneer Mutual Fund NPP National Population PolicyKRC Konkan Railway Corporation NPTC National Power Transmission CorporationKw Kilowatt NREP National Rural Employment Programme NRI Non-resident Indian L NRSA National Remote Sensing AgencyLASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of NSA National Securities Act Radiation NSC National Statistical CommissionLCA Light Combat Aircraft NSC National Security CouncilLED Light-Emitting Diode NSS National Savings SchemeLIC Life Insurance Corporations (of India) N.S.C. National Service Corps, National SecurityLPG Liquid Petroleum Gas CouncilLTC Leave Travel Concession NSG National Security GuardsLTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam NSO National Sports Organisation NTC National Textile Corporation M NTPC National Thermal Power CorporationMAPP Madras Atomic Power ProjectMISA Maintenance of InternalSecurity Act OMASER Micro-wave Amplification by Stimulated OAU Organisation of African Unity Emission of Radiation OCS Overseas Communication ServiceMAT Minimum Alternate Tax OECD Organisation Economic Co-operation andMODVAT Modified Value Added Tax DevelopmentMRTPC Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices OGL Open General Licence Commission OIL Oil India Limited OM Order of Merit N ONGC Oil and Natural Gas CommissionNAA National Airport Authority OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting CountriesNABARD National Bank for Agriculture & Rural OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Development EuropeNAEP National Adult Education Programme OTS Officers Training AcademyNAGNAM National Air Guard Non-aligned Movement PNASA National Aeronautics and Space PAC Political Affairs Committee; Public Accounts Administration (of the U.S.A.) CommitteeNASSCOM National Association of Software and PDA Preventive Detention Act Service Companies PERC Political & Economic Risk Consultancy Ltd., PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of AnimalsNATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation PIB Press Information BureauNCC National Cadet Corps PIL Public Interest LitigationNCEP National Committee on Environment Planning PIN Code Postal Index Number CodeNCERT National Council of Education Research and PIO Persons of Indian Origin Training PLO Palestine Liberations OrganisationNCM National Commission of Minorities PROM Programmable Read Only MemoryNCRPB National Capital Region Planning Board PSLV Polar Satellite Launch VehicleNCSC & ST National Commission for Scheduled Castes PTA Preferential Trade Area and Scheduled Tribes PTI Press Trust of IndiaNDA National Defence Academy PVC Param Vir ChakraNDC National Development Council PVSM Param Vishisht Sewa MedalNDPS Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic SubstancesNEP National Education Policy QNEPA National Environment Protection Authority QMC Quarter Master GeneralNFC Nuclear Fuel ComplexNFDC National Film Development Corporation RNIB National Internet Backbone RADAR Radio Detecting and RangingNIC National Integration Council RAM Random Access MemoryNICSAT National Informatics Centre Satellite RAW Research and Analysis WingNIFT National Institute of Fashion Technology RBI Reserve Bank of IndiaNIO National Institute of Oceanography RCI Rehabilitation Council of IndiaNIS National Institute of Sports REC Rural Electrification CorporationNLM National Literacy Mission RLO Returned Letter OfficeNLMA National Literacy Mission Authority RPF Railway Protection ForceNMDC National Mineral Development Corporation RPM Revolution Per MinuteNNPT Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty RRB Railway Recruitment BoardNPC National Productivity Council RSS Rashtriya Swyamsevak Sangh © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 71 S UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentSAARC South Asian Association for Regional Co- UNDCP United Nations International Drug Control operation ProgrammeSAI Sports Authority of India UNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeSAIDC South African Industrial Development UNEF United Nations Emergency Force Corporation UNFPA United Nations Population FundSAIL Steel Authority of India Limited UNEP United Nations Environment ProgrammeSALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (or Treaty) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific andSAPTA South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Cultural OrganisationSARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome UNFPA UN Fund for Population ActivitiesSARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite - Aided Tracking UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for System RefugeesSAVE SAARC Audio Visual Exchange UNI United News of IndiaSEATO South East Asia Treaty Organisation UNIC United Nations Information CentreSEBI Securities and Exchange Board of India UNICEF United Nations International Children’sSENSEX Sensitivity Index of Share Price (Emergency) FundSEMIBOMBLA Scheme of the Economists for UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Monetary Immobilisation through Bond Organisation Medallions and Blocked Accounts UNMOGIP United Nations Observer Group in IndiaSFC Strotegic Forces Command and PakistanSHCIL Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd UNSCOM United National Special CommissionSIDBI Small Industries Development Bank of India USAID United States Agency for InternationalSIEMA Southern India Engineering Manufacturers’ Development Association USIS United States Information ServiceSINP Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics UTI Unit Trust of IndiaSIT Special Investigation TeamSOS Save Our Souls - distress signal VSPCA Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to VAT Value Added Tax Animals VCR Video Cassette RecorderSPG Special Protection Group VHD Vishwa Hindu ParishadSPIC Southern Petro-Chemical Industrial VHRR Very High Resolution Radiometer Corporation VOA Voice of AmericaSROSS Stretched Rohini Satellite Series VPP Value Payable PostSSI Small Scale Industry VRDE Vehicle Research & DevelopmentSTARS Satellite Trecking and Ranging Station EstablishmentSTART Strategic Arms Reduction TreatySTC State Trading Corporation WSTD Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Subcriber’s WAY World Assembly of Youth Trunk Dialling WBF World Book FairSWAPO South-West African People’s Organisation WCD World Commission of Dams T WEF WFP World Economic Forum World Food ProgrammeTAAI Travel Agents Association of India WFTU World Federation of Trade UnionsTADA Terrorist and Disruptive Activities WHO World Health Organisation (of the U.N.) (Prevention) Act WMO World Meteorological OrganisationTANSI Tamil Nadu Small Industries Corporation WPI Wholesale Price IndexTAPS Tarapur Atomic Power Station WTO World Tourism OrganisationTCAS Tactical Collision Avoidance System WWF World Wildlife FundTDA Trade Development AuthorityTELEX Teleprinter Exchange XTIFAC Technology Information, Forecasting and X-mas Christmas Assessment CouncilTISCO Tata Iron and Steel Company YTNAU Tamil Nadu Agricultural University YMCA Young Men’s Christian AssociationTNCSC Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation YWCA Young Women’s Christian AssociationTNT Tri-nitro-toluene (high explosive)TNV Tripura National Volunteers ZTRYSEM Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment ZETA Zero Energy Thermo-nuclear Assembly or Apparatus U ZOPFAN Zone of Peace, Freedom and NeutralityUGC University Grants Commission ZS Zoological Society © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 72 THE FIRST AND THE LASTS First Visitors, Invaders, Heads of State, Expeditions, Sports, Etc.,First British Governor - : Lord Mountbatten First person to conquer : Serpa Tenzing and HillaryGeneral of the new Mount EverestDominion of India First man who climbed : Nawang GombuFirst and the Last Indian : C. Rajagopalachari Mount Everest (twice)Governor - General First woman who climbed : Mrs. Junko Tabei, Japanof Free India Mount EverestLast Governor-General of : Lord Canning First Indian to swim across : (Men) Mihir Sen,India who also became the English Channel (Women) Mrs.Arati Guptathe first Viceroyof India (Prodigy) Kutraleeswaran,Last Viceroy of India : Lord Mountbatten Chennai.First British : Warren Hastings First woman to sail : Kay CotteeGovernor-General in India non-stop around the world, aloneFirst Commander-in-Chief : General Cariappa First Woman to reach the : Ann Bancroffof free India North PoleTenth and the last Guru : Guru Gobind Singh First Indian woman to : Bachendri Palof the Sikhs scale Mount EverestFirst Chinese pilgrim to : Fa-Hein First person to reach the : Amundsenvisit India South PoleFirst European to : Marco Polo First woman to walk in : Svetlana Savitskaya spacevisit China space (Russia)First European invader : Alexander the Great First person in the world : Neil A. Armstrong andon Indian soil to land on the moon Edwin E. Aldrin Jr of USAFirst U.S.A. President : D. Eisenhover First woman cosmanaut of : Valentina Tereskhova, theto visit India world RussianFirst Russian : V.I.Bulganin First country to launch a : RussiaPrime Minister to visit India cosmic space rocket towards moonFirst British Prime Minister : Harold Macmillanto visit India First Chief Justice of a : Justice H.L.Kania (Men), High Court Ms. Leila Seth (Women)First President of the USA : George Washington First Judge, First Judge : Justice Syed MehmoodFirst President of the : Sun Yat-Sen (1912) of a High Court (Men), Anna ChandiChinese Republic First Judge of : Camelia SorabjiFirst Prime Minister : Robert Walpole Supreme Courtof Great Britain First Magistrate : Mrs. Omana KunjammaFirst Women : Mrs. S. Bandaranaike First Indian to become : Dr. Nagendra SinghPrime Minister (twice) (Sri Lanka) President of Internationalof a Country in the World Court of JusticeFirst India’s Spaceman : Sqn. Ldr. Rakesh Sharma First Bar-at-Law : J.M.TagoreFirst Indian to scale : Phu Dorjee First Woman : Chokila IyerMount Everest Foreign SecretaryFirst President of : Dr. Rajendra Prasad First Women Grandmaster : Ms. VijayalakshmiIndian Republic (India) SubburamanFirst Woman : Mrs. Indira Gandhi First Indian Woman to : Karnam MalleswariPrime Minister of India win an Olympic MedalFirst Indian to win : Dr. Rabindranath Tagore First Asian to claim : Viswanathan AnandNobel Prize Chess World TitleFirst President of Indian : W.C.Bonerjee First Indian Woman : Ms.P.BandhobathyaiNational Congress Air-Commodre © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 73First Indian girl to win the : Joshna Chinappa (17 yrs) First Tolkie Film : Alam Ara (1931)British Junior Squash title First Test Tube Baby : IndiraFirst Indian Muslim : Aneesha Mirza (Documented)Woman Mayor (Ahmedabad) First Woman Minister : Rajkumar Amrit KaurFirst Test Tube Baby : Louise Joy Brown of Indian UnionFirst Place where atom : Hiroshima First Woman : Sucheta Kriplanibomb was dropped Chief Minister of StateFirst man to reach : Robert Peary First Woman Governor : Sarojini NaiduNorth Pole First Woman President of : Dr. Annie BesantFirst man to climb : Sherpa Sungau (Nepal) Indian National CongressMount Everest First Woman Speaker of a : Shanno DeviFirst man to walk in space : Alexi Leonov (USSR) State AssemblyFirst Governor General : Mohammed Ali Jinnah First Prime Minister of : Pandit Jawaharlal Nehruof Pakistan IndiaFirst oldest man to scale : Mario Curris First Muslim President of : Dr. Zakir HussainMount Everest Indian UnionFirst Commander-in-Chief : General Roy Bucher First Speaker of : G.V. Mavlankarof Free India Lok SabhaFirst Emperor of : Babar First Woman Judge in : Fathima BeeviMoghul Dynasty Supreme CourtFirst Field Marshal : S.H.F.J.Manekshaw First Woman Chief Justice : Leela Sethof India of a High CourtFirst Indian ICS Officer : Satyendra nath Tagore First Indian Woman to go : Kalpana ChawlaFirst Indian Member : Sir S.P. Sinha in spaceof Viceroys Executive First Indian Woman : Sonali BanerjeeCouncil Merchant Navy OfficerFirst man to climb : Phu Dorjee First Dalit Speaker of the : G.M.C. BalayokiMount Everest without Oxygen Lok Sabha COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT POSTAL SERVICE IN INDIA TELECOMMUNICATIONFirst Postal Service was started in - 1837 First Telephone line was started - 1851First All-India Postal Stamp was issued - 1854 between Kolkata and Diamond HarbourFirst Postal Department was opened - 1854 First Telephone service was started - 1881First Money Order was started in - 1880 at KolkataFirst Air-Mail Service was first operated First Telephone exchange was opened - 1881at Allahabad & Nainital - 1911 at Kolkata with 50 linesTotal No.of Postal Zones - 8 First International Telephone line was - 1870PINCODE was started in the year - 1972 started between Mumbai and London PINCODE ZONES AND THEIR JURISDICTION First Automatic Telephone exchange in - 1913 Simla was opened atPincode Zone Jurisdiction Post and Telecommunication started - 1984Zone No.1 Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Chandigarh, Total Post Offices (2000) - 1,55,000 Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir Quick Mail Service was started in - 1975Zone No.2 Uttar Pradesh Speed Post was started in - 1986Zone No.3 Rajasthan, Gujarat, Daman & Diu, Dadra & E-Post was started in - 2002 Nagar HaveliZone No.4 Maharashtra, Goa & Madhya Pradesh INDIAN RAILWAYSZone No.5 Andra Pradesh and Karnataka The Indian Railways system is the largest in AsiaZone No.6 Tamil Nadu, Kerala & Lakshadweep and third in the world after U.S., and Canada, it is theZone No.7 West Bengal, Orissa, Arunachal Pradesh, biggest employer in the world and largest public sector Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, undertaking in India and it has the second biggest Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands electrified system in the world after Russia . On April 16,Zone No.8 Bihar 1853 first train in India was opened between Bombay and © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 74Thana covering a distance of 34 km. Shatabdi Express is ROADWAYSthe latest super-fast train introduced in the Indian Road Network : With a network of 2.7 million kilometresRailways. Deccan Queen is the first Electric train of road length, India has the Third largest roadintroduced in 1929. Life Line Express or Jeevan Rekha is network in the world. From a road length of about 4 lakhthe world’s first hospital on wheels opened in Mumbai kilometres in 1950-51. The road network has expandedon 16th July 1991 to cater the medical needs of people in nearly Seven-Fold.rural areas. For every financial year Railway Budget is National Highways : The National Highway System ispresented by the Union Railway Minister in the the primary road grid of the Country. The constructionParliament. and maintenance of National Highways is the directRail Tracks : responsibility of the Central Government. National Type Distance between rails Highways have a total length of 34,258 kilometres.(a) Metre Gauge 1.00 metre National Highways carry nearly 40% of the total(b) Broad Gauge 1.69 metre traffic.(c) Narrow Gauge 0.77 metres Highways Authority : The main task of the authority is toRailway Zones : takeover in a phased manner, the construction, maintenance and operation of the national highways. There are nine zones in Indian Railways : Before the constitution ofthe authority the maintenance Zones Opened on Headquarters of the roads was done by the State PWDs.1. Central Railway Nov. 05, 1958 Mumbai Twelve of the principal highways are :2. Eastern Railway Aug. 01, 1955 Kolkata 1. Delhi-Amritsar3. Northern Railway April 14, 1952 New Delhi 2. Delhi-Kolkanda4. North-Eastern Railway April 14, 1952 Gorakpur 3. Agra-Mumbai5. North-East Frontier Jan. 15, 1958 Maligaon, 4. Jalandhar-Srinagar-Uri Guwahati 5. Delhi-Ahmedabad-Mumbai6. Southern Railway April 14, 1951 Chennai7. South-Central Oct. 02, 1966 Secunderabad 6. Chandigarh-Manali8. South-Eastern Aug. 01, 1955 Kolkata 7. Ambala-Shimla-Tibet9. Western Railway Nov. 05, 1955 Mumbai 8. Jorhat-Shillong-Bangladesh (Church Gate) 9. Manali-Leh The following seven additional zonal offices were 10. Pathankot-Mandicreated out of existing zones. 11. Cochin-Madurai 12. Beawar-Sirohi-Kandla. New Zones Opened on Headquarters1. East-Coast Railway Aug. 08, 1996 Bhubaneshwar AIR TRANSPORT2. North-Central Railway Aug. 28, 1996 Allahabad The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI)3. East-Central Railway Sep. 08, 1996 Hajipur was set up in 1972 manages the international airports.4. North-Western Railway Oct. 10, 1996 Jaipur J.R.D. Tata was the first to make a solo flight from Mumbai5. South-Western Railway Nov. 01, 1996 Bangalore to Karachi, (Now in Pakistan) in 1931.6. West-Central Railway Dec. 12, 1996 Jabalpur Following are the important International Airports :7. South-East Central Rly. Sep. 09, 1998 Bilaspur 1. Anna International Airport, Chennai.Railway Manufacturing Units : 2. Jawaharlal Nehru Airport (Santa-Cruz), Mumbai.Estd in Name Location Items 3. Indira Gandhi International Airport at New Delhi. manufactured 4. Subash Chandra Bose Airport (Dum-Dum) at Kolkata.1950 Chittaranjan Chittaranjan Locomotives 5. Rajasansi Airport at Amritsar, Punjab. Locomotive Works1955 Integral Coach Perambur Coaches The National Airport Authority manages 88 Factory domestic aerodromes and nearly 28 civil enclaves in which1964 Diesel Locomotive Varanasi Locomotives 23 are classified as major airport, 43minor and 22 as Works intermediate airports.1983 Wheel & Axle Plant Yelahanka Wheels & axes Following are some of the Inland Aerodromes : Diesel Component Patiala Components of 1. Kamaraj Domestic-Chennai Works diesel engines 2. Safdarganj-New Delhi1988 Rail Coach Kapurthala Coaches, 3. Juhu-Mumbai Factory wagons & spl. 4. Begumpet-Hyderabad containers 5. Thiruvananthapuram-.Kerala © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 75 DEFENCE AND SECURITYSupreme Commander - President of India Agni-1 : was successfully test fired from the launchAdministrative control - Ministry of Defence complex at the Wheelers island located in the Bay ofARMY : is headed by the Chief of Army Staff and its Bengal of the Orissa coast.headquarters is at New Delhi. Trishul : is a low-level and quick reaction surface-to-India’s Battle Tanks: (1) Vijayanta battle tank; (2) Arjun : surface missile and has a range of 500 m to 9 km (shortIndigenously built Main Battle Tank (MBT) inducted in range). It is developed for all the three defence services namely army, navy and air force. It was first1993; (3) T-55 and T-72 purchased from Russia. launched in 1985.AIR FORCE : is headed by the Chief of Air Staff and itsheadquarters is at New Delhi. Nag : is a Anti-tank guided missile. Its range is 4 km. Its first test flight was made in 1988.Aircrafts : MIG-29 aircraft were acquired from Russiaand have been named Baaz. MIG-23, MIG-25 and MIG-27 Anti-Missile System : India has embarked upon theare the other types of MIG aircrafts. MIG-21 is being developmnt of an anti-missile system capable of detectingmanufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and destroying enemy’s long-range missiles similar to the US made ‘Patriot’ which was effectively used againstto serve as jet training aircraft. Iraqi scud missiles in the 1991 gulf war.The Defence Research & Development Organisation(DRDO) has developed a Pilotless Target Aircraft which Nag Fire and Target System : Indian defence Scientists,has been named Lakshya. in a technological breakthrough, have successfully tested the "fire and forget guidance system" using imagingIndia also acquired the Mirage-2000 from France, which infra-red seeker for mounting on Nag, making it the firsthas been named Vajra. third generation anti-tank missile in the world.NAVY : is headed by the Chief of Naval Staff and its Akash : Akash was successfully test fired fromheadquarters is at New Delhi. Chandipur-on-Sea, in Balasore district, Orissa onNo. of Fleets: (a) Western Fleet (b) Eastern Fleet September 19, 2000. It is a medium range surface-to airAircraft Carriers: missile. It has a range of 25 km. It was again successfully(a) INS Vikrant: India’s first aircraft carrier test fired on January 21, 2003.(b) INS Viraat : India’s largest aircraft carrier BrahMos : The supersonic anti-ship cruise missile BrahMos, jointly developed by India and Russia, was IMPORTANT SUBMARINES/MISSILE successfully test fired for the 2nd time in February 12, BOATS/WAR SHIPS 2003. For the first time missile was the test fired from the(a) INS Vibhuti: Country’s first indigenously built ship (INS-Rajput) stationed in the Bay of Bengal. missile boat. The Arjun Tank : The state of the art flagship of Indian(b) INS Chakra : India’s first nuclear powered armour and can move in a battlefield at 72 kmph. It has submarine. It has now been decommissioned and laser range finder, computer-based firing system, 12.7 mm returned to Russia. machine gun and thermal sighting equipment.(c) INS Vipul : Second indigenously built missile boat.(d) INS Savitri: India’s first warship. Pinaka : Pinaka is a multi-barrel rocket system characterised by the capability to deliver saturation fire(e) INS Shalki : India’s first indigenously built over targets not engagable by guns. It has a range of 40 submarine. km and can deliver a variety of warheads.(f) INS Delhi : India’s largest, most sophistiated, indigenously built warship. LCA : LCA is an eight tonne state of the art multi-role(g) INS Nashak : Third indigenously built missile boat combat aircraft. It would be capable of engaging air battle joined the Navy in 1994. in a 600 km combat zone. It would carry laser-guided bombs, IR and radar guided missiles, anti-ship missiles, INDIA’S MISSILE PROGRAMME cluster bomb dispensers etc.Defence Research and Development Organisation INDIA’S ATOMIC RESEARCH(DRDO) has started India’s Integrated Missile First Nuclear Implosion was carried out on MayDevelopment Programme (IGMDP) in 1982-1983 under 18,1974 at Pokharan in Rajasthan (Thar) desert. The mainthe chairmanship of Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. viz. objective was the use of atomic energy for peacefulPrithvi : is a Surface-to-surface battlefield missile and purposes, i.e.digging canals, reservoirs, oil exploration,has a range of 150km-250km. It was first launched on as well as to study rock dynamics. This successfulFebruary 25, 1988 from Rocket Launching Centre, implosion made India the sixth nuclear nation in theSriharikota. It was successfully test fired from the Interiem world. In Pokhran (Rajasthan) three tests wereTest Range at Chandipur-on-sea, March 27, 2003. conducted on May 11, 1998 and two on May 13, 1998.Agni : is a Surface-to-surface ballistic missile. It has a Code named "Operation Shakti". India declared itself arange of 1200km-2000km. On May 22,1989 it was first nuclear weapon state capable of deterring a nuclearlaunched from Chandipur (Orissa). attack on its territory. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 76 ATOMIC POWER PLANTS SLV Mission (Satellite Launch Vehicle) : Indias first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 was successfully Name Location launched on July 18, 1980 from Sriharikota.1. Tarapur Atomic Power Station Tarapur Rohini satellite was put into orbit on April 17, 1983 using (TAPS) (Maharashtra) SLV-3 and this completed the planned developmental2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Starion Rawabhata flights of the SLV-3. (RAPS) 1984 : Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to3. Madras Atomic Power Station Kalpakkam travel in space. (MAPS) (Tamil Nadu) ASLV : First develomental launch of ASLV but4. Narora Atomic Power Station Narora unsuccessful. (NAPS) (Uttar Pradesh)5. Kakrapara Atomic Power Station Kakrapara Apple (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment) : Indias (KAPP) (Gujarat) first experimental, geostationary satellite weighing 673 kg was launched on June 19, 1981.6. Koodangulam Atomic Koodangulam Power Station (KNPP) (Tamil Nadu) Bhaskara-II : Indias second satellite for earth observation was launched on November 20, 1981.7. Kaiga Power Project (KPP) Kaiga (Karnataka) IRS Mission (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) : IRS-1A Indias first IRS was launched on March 17, 1988Atomic Energy Commission: was established in 1948, for monitoring and management of natural resources.with Dr H.J. Bhabha as its first Chairman, to look afterIndia’s atomic energy programmes. IRS-1B Indias second remote sensing satellite wasDepartment of Atomic Energy (DAE): was set up in launched on August 29, 1991 to replace IRS-1A whichAugust 1954 for implementation of atomic energy was nearing the end of its life.programmes and headed by the Prime Minister of India. 1992 : ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle)It has several centres/laboratories: successfully launched from Sriharikota on May 20. It is1. Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research: is located designed to augment indigenous satellite launching at Kalpakkam (Chennai) , it was established in 1971. capability and put 150 kg class satellite into near earth orbit. Insat-2A was hurled into space from Kourou on2. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC): was July 10. established in1957, it is located in Trombay (Maharashtra) and is India’s largest atomic research 1993 : Insat-2B second indigenously fabricated centre. multipurpose satellite placed in sapce, by Ariane rocket3. Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT):is located from Kourou on July 23. at Indore, it was established in 1984. IRSIC : The worlds most advanced remote sensing satellite, IRS-1C, built by Indian Scientists, was put NUCLEAR POWER PROJECTS into orbit successfully by a Russian rocket from the The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPC), Baikonur cosmodrome on December 28, 1995.set up in 1987, is responsible for the design, construction ASLV is the forerunner of the more powerful Polar Satelliteand operation of nuclear power plants in the country. It Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronousis envisaged that by 2000 AD, India’s atomic power Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The first development flightgeneration would be in the vicinity of 10,000 MW. of the PSLV, called PSLV-D1, on September 20, 1993, INDIAS SPACE PROGRAMME failed. However, according to ISRO it was a partial success which established Indias capabilities in liquid The Indian Space Programme began in 1962. In 1969, propulsion system.the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was setup with headquarters in Bangalore. The Space SROSS-III (Stretched Rohini Satellite Series) : AfterCommission was established in 1972. In 1975, India failure of two ASLV launches, SROSS-III, a 105 kg satellitelaunched its first satellite, Aryabhata, and thus entered was successfully placed in a 450 km high orbit via thethe space age. launching of ASLV-D3, on May 20, 1992 though th elifespan of the satellite was only 55 days. The fourthSPACE MISSIONS : development flight was made on May 4, 1994 and SROSS-Aryabhatta : India launched its first experimental satellite C4 was successfully placed into the near earth orbitson April 19, 1975 from a Soviet cosmodrome to perform from Sriharikota.scientific x-ray experiments in space and send back data PSLV-D3 was successfully launched in 1996 fromto earth. Sriharikota, placing the 922-kg. Indian remote sensingBhaskara-I : Indias second 436 kg satellite was launched satellite, IRS-P3, into orbit. With this, India has enteredon June 7, 1979 to collect information on Indias land, the US-dominated global market for satellite launchwater, forest and ocean resources. vehicles. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 77INSAT Mission (Indian National Satellite System) : For PSLV-D4 placed IRS-1D in orbit on October 7, 1997. Thedomestic telecommunication, earth observation and first developmental launch of the GSLV was scheduled innationwide radio and TV broadcasting, India launched 1997-98, using a Russian Cryogenic Engine.four satellites in the INSAT-1 series, viz. Insat-2E : Satellite was placed in space on April 3,INSAT-1A On April 10, 1982-it failed prematurely. 1999. PSLVC2 was launched on May 26 with 3 satellitesINSAT-1B On August 30, 1983-it was successful. on board.INSAT-1C On July 22, 1988-it became redundant in 1989. Insat-3B was launched on March 22, 2000.INSAT-1D On July 17, 1990-it was successful and completed the mission. ISRO Launched Cryogenic Engine : On February 16, 2000, the first cryogenic engine was ignited at theINSAT-2 Project : Liquid propulsino Systems Centre at Mahendragiri isINSAT-2A Indias first indigenously built second Tamil Nadu.generation satellite, it was launched on July 10, 1992. It is GSLV-D1 : This was successfully launched on April 18,equipped with 50 per cent more capacity than the INSAT- 2001 from Sriharikota.I series.INSAT-2B Indias second indigenously built satellite. It PSLV-C3 : This was launched from Sriharikota on Octoberwas launched by the European Space Agency from 22, 2001. Three satellites were put into the orbit of theKourou, French Guiena on July 23, 1993. INSAT-2B has earth namely (a) TES (India); (b) BIRD (Germany); (c)taken the place of INSAT-1B whose functioning ended PROBA (Belgium).following the completion of its ten-year life. The fourth INSAT-3C : ISRO built Satellite was launched bydevelopment flight of ASLV-4 was made on May 4, 1994 ARIANE-4 from Kourou, French Guyana on Januaryand the SROSS-C4 was successfully placed into the near 24, 2002.earth orbit from Sriharikota. KALPANA-1 : To honour the memory of Kalpana Chawla,Insat-2D launched Ariane Rocket from Kourou on June Prime Minister Mr.Vajpayee renamed METSAT, Indias4, 1997 only four months later failed - disrupted first metorological research satellite launched by ISROcommunication had been abandoned in October 97 after on September 22, 2002.efforts to solvage the satellite.IRS-1D satellite launched in 1997 incorporate advanced GSAT-2 : The Indian Space Research Organisationfeatures such as teh LISS-III camera, a Panchromatic (ISRO) successfully launched Indias second Geo-Camera (PAN) and a wide field (wifs) enabling better Stationary Satellite (GSAT-2) on May 8, 2003, from Satishspectrol resolutions - enhancing the application pottential Dhawan Space Centre - SHAR (SDSC - SHAR) atof the satellite. Sriharikota, 100 kms from Chennai. Kalpana Chawla FIRST MOON WALKERS The girl from Karnal in Haryana is the First Indian or Indian American woman to go on a space Astronaut/Spacecraft Total Eva.* Mission Dates launch (November 19, 1997) as Hr. Min Mission Specialist of 6 member crew on the fourth US 1. Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo-11 2:32 Jul. 16-24, 1969 microgravity payload flight on board Columbia on Mission "STS- 2. Edwin E. ("Buzz") Aldrin; 2:15 Jul. 16-24, 1969 87" to study the outer atmosphere Apollo-11 of Sun. 3. Charles Conrad, Jr., Apollo-12 7:45 Nov. 14-24, 1969 She took up on her second voyage on January 16, 2003, the 4. Allan L. Bean, Apollo-12 7:45 Nov. 14-24, 1969 US space shuttle, Columbia 5. Alan B. Shepard, Apollo-14 9:23 Jan. 31 - Feb. 9, 1971 blasted off from the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral 6. Egar D. Mitchell, Apollo-14 9:23 Jan. 31 - Feb. 9, 1971 (USA) on a 16 day scientific 7. David R. Scott, Apollo-15 19:08 July 26 - Aug. 7, 1971 research mission led by commander Rick Husband. All the 8. James B. Irwin, Apollo-15 18:35 July 26 - Aug. 7, 1971 seven members were killed when 9. John W. Young, Apollo-16 20:14 Apr. 16-27, 1972 the space shuttle exploded mid-air minutes before landing on 10. Charles M. Duke, Apollo-16 20:14 Apr. 16-27, 1972 1.2.2003. Their main intention was to * Extra Vehicular activity develop medicines to treat several diseases including cancer. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 78 FINE ARTS ART AND CULTURE ‡ Bhangra (Punjab) - folk dance of harvest season, coinciding with the festival of Baisakhi.‡ Lalit Kala Academy was set up in 1954 at New Delhi. ‡ Tamasha (Maharashtra) - Nautanki (U.P.), Garba‡ Sangeet natak Academy was established in 1953 at (Gujarat), Chhow (Orissa, Bihar). New Delhi. Its function is to conduct survey ‡ There are two forms of music in India - Carnatic and research of different art forms in India. Hindustani.‡ Sahitya Academy was established in 1954 at New ‡ Sama Veda deals with music. Delhi. Its aim is to encourage production of high ‡ Purandaradas gave shape and form to Carnatic class literature in several languages of India. music.‡ The National Book Trust of India was set up in ‡ The trinity of Carnatic music is Thyagaraja, Syama 1957. Shastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar.‡ ASI - Archaeological Survey of India - was established in 1861. Its headquarters is in New Names Associated with Indian Music: Delhi. ‡ Ustad Alla Rakha - A master of the Tabla.‡ Indian Council for Cultural Relations was established ‡ Bala Murali Krishna - A singer of Carnatic music. in 1950, and it strives to promote and to strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between ‡ Bhim Sen Joshi - A Hindustani singer. India and other countries. The Council administers ‡ Pt. Hari Prasad Chaurasya - Flute player. the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the promotion of ‡ Pt. Jasraj - Famous singer of Hindustani music. peace and international understanding. ‡ Parveen Sulthana - Hindustan style singer.‡ NSD - National School of Drama - was set up in 1959 in Delhi. ‡ Neralathu Ramapothuval - Sopanam.‡ Dances : There are two main branches of Indian ‡ M.S.Subha Lakshmi - Carnatic music. (1998 Bharat dance, namely classical and folk. Classical dances Ratna). are those which are based on ancient dance ‡ Swathi Thirunal - Maharaja of Travancore who disciplines and have rigid rules for presentation. composed many ‘varnas and kritis’.Classical dances of India : ‡ Ustad Zakir Hussain - Tabla.‡ Bharatnatyam (Tamilnadu) - follows the principal of ‡ Ustad Amjad Ali Khan - Sarod Natya Shastra. Rukminidevi Arundale revived it by ‡ Begum Akhtar - Gazal singer establishing ‘Kalakshetra’ at Adayar, Chennai. Famous dancers are Yamini Krishnamurthy, Sonal ‡ Bismillah Khan - Shennai player Mansingh, Padma Subramanyam, Mrinalini Sarabhai. ‡ Pt. Shiv Kumar Sharma - Santhoor‡ Kathakali & Mohiniyattam (Kerala) - the poet ‡ Lalgudi Jayaraman - Violin Vallathol revived Kathakali and Mohiniyattam by ‡ Pt. Ravi Shankar - Sitar player of world fame. establishing Kerala Kalamandalam at Cheruthuruthi, Thrissur, in 1930. Personalities Associated with Indian Dance‡ Kathak - North Indian classical dance form. Birji ‡ Rukmini Devi Arundale - Associated with Maharaj, Gopi Krishna and Shambu Maharaj are the Bharatnatyam; founded Kalakshetra. famous exponents of this dance form. ‡ T. Balasaraswathi - Bharatanatyam.‡ Odissi (Orissa) - Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra is at ‡ Yamini Krishnamurthy - Famous exponent of the forefront of the greatest of Odissi exponents. Bharatnatyam and Kuchipudi.‡ Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh) - a variation of ‡ Birju Maharaj - One of the best known Kathak Bharatnatyam. dancers and a choreographer.‡ Mohiniattom (Kerala) - Swathi Thirunal encouraged ‡ Sonal Mansingh - A notable Odissi and this dance form. Bharatnatyam dancer.‡ Manipuri (Manipur) - a delicate lyrical style of ‡ Rabindranath Tagore helped Manipuri dance gain dance. prominence in the early 20th century by introducing it in his Shantiniketan.Folk Dance of India : ‡ Prominent Indian artists associated with painting‡ Bihu (Assam) - a post - harvest folk dance. are Amrita Shergil, M.F.Hussain, Jamini Roy, Nandalal‡ Ottam Thullal (Kerala) - performed inside temples. Bose etc.‡ Chakiar Koothu (Kerala) - performed inside temples. INDIAN CINEMA‡ Yakshagana (Karnataka) - about 400 years old - ‡ Dadasaheb Phalke, the producer of India’s first revived by Dr. Shivaaram Karanth. indigenous feature film ‘Raja Harishchandra’ (1913) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 79 is considered to be the Father of Indian Cinema. NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS‡ The first talkie film ‘Alam Ara’ was produced in 1931 by Ardeshir Irani. ‡ The first newspaper in India was James A. Hickey’s‡ India tops in the world in respect of production of Bengal Gazette published in 1780 in Calcutta. feature films. ‡ The largest number of newspapers are published in‡ The film producing centre in Mumbai (Bombay) is the State of Uttar Pradesh and the language in known as Bollywood. which the maximum number of newspapers are‡ The most prestigious award in the Indian film world published is Hindi. is Dada Saheb Phalke Award instituted by the ‡ The oldest existing newspaper in India is Government of India. Bombay Samachar published in 1822 in Gujarati.‡ The name of the award given to male actors in India The oldest existing English daily is the Times of is the Bharat Award and the award given to India (1838). actresses is the Urvasi Award. ‡ Malayala Manorama enjoys the distinction of‡ Swarna Kamal (Golden Kamal) is the name of the being the newspaper with the highest circulation award given to the best film of the year by the and the Times of India is the largest selling English Government of India. daily.‡ Adi Shankara directed by G.V. Iyer is the first ‡ There are four main news agencies in India. They Sanskrit film in India. are (1) Press Trust of India (PTI) (2) United News‡ Satyajit Ray was the world renowned Indian director. of India (UNI) (3) Samachar Bharati and (4) His first film was Pathar Panjali. He won a special Hindustan Samachar. PTI and UNI supply news in Oscar Award. English and the other two are operating through the‡ The first Indian to win an Oscar was Bhanu Athiya. medium of Hindi and other Indian languages.‡ The first cinemascope film in India was Kagaz ki ‡ The Press Trust of India was the first news agency Phool. in India.‡ The National Film Archieves of India is located at Pune. Some Important Newspapers and places of‡ The first actress of the Indian cinema to win a publication : Padmashri Award was Nurgis Dutt (1958). The Statesman Calcutta; New Delhi‡ Sivaji Ganesan was the first Indian to win the Chevalier award instituted by the French The Times of India Mumbai’ New Delhi etc. Government. The Hindustan Times New Delhi‡ The first winner of the Dada Saheb Phalke Award The Pioneer Lucknow was Devika Rani Roerich (1969). She is known as The Bombay Samachar Mumbai the ‘Lady of Indian Film’. Dawn Karachi‡ M.G. Ramachandran was the first film star to become the Chief Minister of an Indian State. Izvestia Moscow‡ The first International Film Festival of India was Pravda Moscow held in 1952. Peoples Daily Beijing‡ The 2002 International Film Festival of India took The Hindu Chennai, Coimbatore, Etc., place in New Delhi. The Amrita bazar Patrika Calcutta The Indian Express Chennai-Madurai etc., RADIO AND TELEVISION Daily Thanthi Chennai-Madurai etc.,‡ Radio broadcasting started in India in 1927 with privately owned transmitters at Mumbai and The Patriot New Delhi Calcutta. It was named All India Radio (AIR) in The Tribune Chandigarh 1936 and later became to be known as Akashvani The Times London since 1957. Al Ahram Cairo‡ The experimental telecast of Doordarshan started in The Daily News New York Delhi in 1959. The national programme and other transmissions started in 1982. Doordarshan Merdeka Jakarta Commercial Service started in 1986. Le Monde ParisPIB - Press Information BureauABC - Audit Bureau of Circulation No newspapers are published from Arunachal Pradesh and Lakshadweep. Anand Bazar Patrika has the largest circulation among single edition dailies. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 80 BOOKS, AUTHORS & LITERARY WORKS A Beginning of the Beginning Bhagwan SriA Dangerous Place Daniel Patrick Rajneesh Moynihan Beauty and Revolution K.A.Abbas Ben Hur Lewis WallaceA Midsummer Night’s Dream Shakespeare Between the Lines Kuldip NayarA Million Mutinies Now V.S. Naipaul Bhagwat Gita Ved VyasA Pair of Blue Eyes Thomas Hardy Birth and Death of the Sun George GamowA Passage to India E.M.Forster Bisarjan R.N.TagoreA Passage to England Nirad C.Chowdhury Bitter Sweet Noel CowardA Study of History Arnold Toynbee Blind Beauty Boris PasternakA View from Delhi Chester Bowles Bliss was it in that Dawn Minoo MasaniA Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens Blue Bird Maurice MaeterlinkA Week with Gandhi Louis Fischer Broken Wing Sarojini NaiduAdventures of Arthur Conan Doyle Buddha Charitam AshvaghoshaSherlock Holmes Bunch of Old Letters Jawaharlal NehruAffluent Society J.K.GalbraithAfter the Dark Night S.M.Ali CAge of Reason Jean Paul Sartre Caesar and Cleopatra G.B.ShawAgni Pariksha Acharya Tulsi Canterbury Tales ChaucerAgni Veena Kazi Nazrul Islam Chandalika Rabindranath TagoreA Judge’s Miscellany M.Hidayathullah Changing Liv UllmaanAkbarnama Abul Fazal Chemmeen T.S.PillaiAin-i-Akbari Abul Fazal Chidambra Sumitranandan PantAlice in Wonderland Lewis Carol Chinese Betrayal, The B.N.MullickAll’s Well that Ends Well William Shakespeare Chitra R.N.TagoreAmar Kosha Amar Singh Chittrappavai P.V.AkilandamAmbassador’s Journal J.K.Galbraith Childe Harold Lord ByronAmbassador’s Report Chester Bowles Comedy of Erros ShakespeareAnand Math Bankim Chandra Confessions of a Lover Mulk Raj Anand Chatterji Confessions of a Thug TaylorAn Area of Darkness V.S. Naipaul Confidential Clerk T.S.EliotAncient Mariner Coleridge Coolie Mulk Raj AnandAndrocles and the Lion George Bernard Conquest of self Mahatma Gandhi Shaw Court Dancer, The Rabindranath Tagore Count of Monte Cristo Alexander DumasAnimal Farm George Orwell Crime and Punishment DostoevskyAnna Karenina Tolstoy Crisis of India, The Ronald SegalAntony and Cleopatra ShakespeareApe and Essence A.Huxley DA Prisoner’s Scrapbook L.K.Advani Das Kapital Karl MarxApple Cart G.B.Shaw Daughter of the East Mrs.Benazir BhuttoArabian Nights Sir Richard Burton David Copperfield Charles DickensArea of Darkness V.S.Naipal Day in Shadow, The Nayantara SehgalArms & The Man G.B.Shaw Days of His Grace Eyvind JohnsonAround the World Jules Verne Death of a President William Manchesterin Eighty Days Decline and Fall of the Edward GibbonArthashastra Kautilya Roman EmpireAscent of the Everest Sir John Hunt Decline of the West,The O.SpengierAshtadhyayi Panini Defence Without Drift P.V.R.RaoAsian Drama Gunnar Myrdal Democracy Redeemed V.K.NarasimhanAs You Like It Shakespeare Deserted Village Oliver GoldsmithAutobiography of an Nirad C.Chowdhury Descent of Man Charles DarwinUnknown Indian Devdas Sarat ChanderAutumn Leaves O.Pulla Reddi Discovery of India Jawaharlal NehruA Voice of Freedom Nayantara Sahgal Divine Life Sivananda Doctor’s Dilemma G.B.Shaw B Don Juan Lord ByronBabarnama Babar Don Quixote CervantesBang-e-dara Mohd. Iqbal Doll’s House IbsenBeast and Man Murry Midgley Dr.Zhivago Boris Pasternak © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 81 E Great Tragedy Z.A.BhuttoEast of Aden John Steinbeck Guide, The R.K.NarayanEconomic Planning of India Ashok Mehta Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan SwiftElimination of Child Labour; HWhose responsibility Pramilla H. Bhargava Half a Life V.S. NaipaulEnd of an Era C.S.Pandit Hamlet ShakespeareEnds and Means A.Huxley Harsha Charita Bana BhattEssays on Gita Aurobindo Ghosh Heat and Dust Ruth P. JhabwalaExpanding Universe Eddington Henry Esmond ThackerayExperiments with Untruth Michael Anderson Hero of Our Time Richard HoughEternal Himalayas H.P.S.Ahluwalia Himalayan Blunder Brig. J.P.DalviEye of the Storm,The Patrick White Hindu Civilization J.M.Barrie F Hindu View of Life RadhakrishnanFace to Face Lasse and Lisa Berg History of the Congress Party Dr.Shankar GhoseFacts and Facts Khan Abdul Wali Home and World Rabindranath Tagore Khan Hungry Stones Rabindranath TagoreFaces of Everest M a j o r I H.P.S.Ahluwalia Insider, The Narasimha RaoFatal Cart, Reconciliation C.Rajagopalachari I am not an Island Khwaja AhmedWhy and How AbbasFlames from the Ashes P.D.Tandon Ideas for Action N. WittalFreedom Song Amit Chaudhuri Idols Sunil GavaskarFriends and Foes Mujibur Rehman Idylls of the King TennysonFrench Revolution Thomas Carlyle I Follow the Mahatma K.M.MunshiFrom India to America S.Chandrasekar If I am assassinated Z.A.BhuttoFrench Mystic Romain Rolland Ignited Mind A.P.J. Abdul KalamFairie Queene Edmund Spenser Illiad HomerFar from the Madding Crowd Thomas Hardy India 2020 A.P.J. Abdul KalamFarewell The Trumpets James MorrisFasana-i-Azad Ratan Nath Sarshar India Discovered John KeayFather and Sons Ivan Turgenev India of our Dreams M.V. KamathFirst Among Equals Jeffrey Archer India Divided Rajendra PrasadFirst Circle A l e x a n d e r India Unbound Gurucharan Das Solzhenitsyn India We Left H u m p h r e yFor Whom the Bell Tolls Ernest Hemingway TrevelyanFreedom at Midnight Lapierre and Larry India Wins Freedom Maulana Abul Kalam Collins Azad Dominique Indian Home Rule M.K.GandhiFriends, Not Masters Ayub Khan Indian Philosophy Dr.S.RadhakrishnanFuture Shock Alan Toffler Indian Muslims Prof.Mohd.Mujeeb Indian Struggle Subash Chandra G BoseGanadevata Tara Shankar Indian War of Independence V.D.Savarkar Bandyopadhyaya Indo-Pakistani Conflict, The Russell BrinesGandhi and Stalin Louis Fisher In Memoriam TennysonGandhis Murder and After Gopal Godse In Search of Gandhi R i c h a r dGardener Rabindranath Tagore AttenboroughGathering Storm Winston Churchill Inside Asia John GuntherGeeta Govind Jaya Dev Inside Europe John GuntherGift of Wings Shanthi Gopala Inside the Third Reich Albert SpeerGitanjali Rabindranath Tagore Invisible Man H.G.WellsGita Rahasya Bal Gangadhar Tilak Invitation to the White House Hillary ClintonGlimpses of World History Jawaharlal Nehru Isabella John KeatsGolden Gate, The Vikram Seth Ivan Hoe Walter ScottGolden Threshold Sarojini NaiduGone with the Wind Margaret Mitchel JGood Earth Pearl S.Buck Jai Somnath K.M. MunshiGora Rabindranath Tagore Jane Eyre Charlotte BronteGrammar of Politics Harold Laski Jobs for Millions V .Giri .VGreat Expectations Charles Dickens Julius Caesar William ShakespeareGreat Illusion Normal Angell Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 82 K Modern Painters John RuskinKadambari Bana Bhatt Mother Maxim GorkyKali Andhi Kamleshwar Mother India Katherine MayoKamasutra Vatsyayana Mountbatten Philip ZieglerKamayani Jai Shankar Prasad Mrs.Warren’s Profession G.B.ShawKanthapura Raja Rao Much Ado About Nothing ShakespeareKargil - A Soldiers Diary Harvinder Baweja Mudra Rakshasa VishakhadattaKayar T.S.Pillai Murder in the Cathedral T.S.EliotKennilworth Sir Walter Scott Muslim Dilemma in India, The M.R.A.BaigKidnapped R.L.Stevenson My Childhood Days Taslima NasreenKing’s Clothes Anderson My Days R.K. NarayanKing of Dark Chamber Rabindranath Tagore My Experiments With Truth Mahatma GandhiKing Lear William Shakespeare My Life and Times V .Giri .VKubla Khan Coleridge My Presedential Years R. VenkatramanKipps H.G.Wells My Truth Indira GandhiKumarasambhava Kalidas My Music, My Life Ravi Shankar Mysterious Universe James Jeans LLady of the Lake Sir Walter Scott NL’Allegro John Milton Naganandan King Sri HarshaLajja Nasreen Taslima Nana Emile ZolaLast Days of Pompeii Bulwar Lytton National Anthem Rabindranath TagoreLast Face, The Pyare Lal Netaji Dead or Alive Samar GuhaLaws Versus Justice V.R.Krishna Iyer Nehru Family and Sikhs Harbans SinghLead Kindly Light Vincent Shean New Dimensions of IndiasLe Contrat Social Rousseau Foreign Policy A.B.Vajpayee(The Social Contract) Nilambari SachchidanandaLeaves of Grass Walt Whitman VatsyayanLes Miserables Victor Hugo Nine Days Wonder John MasefieldLife Divine Aurobindo Ghosh Nineteen Eightyfour George OrwellLife of Pi Yann Martel Non-violence of Peace and War M.K.GandhiLipika Rabindranath Tagore Nuclear Weapons B.S.GuptaLong Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela OLord of the Flies William Golding Odakkuzhal G.Shankar KurupLove Story Eric Segal Odyssey Homer M Oh,Calcutta Kenneth TynanMacbeth William Shakespeare Oliver Twist Charles DickensMagic Mountain Thomas Mann On Contradiction Mao Tse-tungMahabharata Veda Vyas One World Wendell WilkieMajor Barbara G.B.Shaw One Life Christian BernardMalgudi Days R.K. Narayan Only one Year SvetlanaMan of Destiny George Bernard Ordeal to Love Huge Tinker Shaw Origin of Species Charles DarwinMan, the Unknown Carrol Othello ShakespeareMan and Superman G.B.Shaw Our India Minoo MasaniMan Eaters of Kumaon Jim Corbett Our Films, Their Films Satyajit RayMan from Moscow, The Greville Wynne Our Presidents M.A.NaiduManvini Bhavai Pannalal PatelMany Worlds K.P.S.Menon PMarriage and Morals Bertrand Russell Painter Signs T.K.NarayanMartyr Kuldip Nayar Panchali Sapatham Subramania BharatiMati Mahal Gopinath Mohanty Panchatantra Vishnu SharmaMeghdoot Kalidas Paradise Lost John MiltonMein Kampf Hitler Philosophy of Right Hegel G.W.E.Memoirs of the Second Churchill Pickwick Papers Charles DickensWorld War Pilgrim’s Progress John BunyanMen Who Kept Secrets Thomas Powers Pompei of the Great John MasefieldMerchant of Venice Shakespeare Post Office, The (Dak Ghar) Rabindranath TagoreMidnight’s Children Salmon Rushdie Prathama Pratishruti Ashapurna DeviMiser, The Moliere Price of Power Seymour HershMidsummer Night’s Dream William Shakespeare Prince, The Machiavelli © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 83Prison Diary Jayaprakash Sunny Days Sunil Gavaskar Narayan Sursagar SurdasPrithvi Raj Raso Chand Bardai Sursatia Bimal MitraPride and Prejudice Jane Austen Surviving Doomsday Bruce SibleyProfessor, the Charlotte Bronte Swapnavasavdatta BhasaPrinciple of Mathematics Bertrand Russel Swami and Friends R.K.Narayan R Swords and the Sickle Mulk Raj AnandRabbit at Rest John Updike TRaghuvamsa Kalidas Tales from Shakespeare Charles LambRains Came Louis Bromfield Talisman Walter ScottRajpath Se Lokpath Par A.B.Vajpayee Tess of the D’Urbervilles Thomas HardyRajtarangini Kalhana Testament of Beauty Robert BridgesRamayana Valmiki (in Sanskrit) Thank You Jeeves P.G.WodehouseRamayana Darshanam K.V.Puttappa The Adventures of Angle March Saul BellowRam Charit Manas Tulsidas The Interpretors Whole SoyinkaRam Rahim Raja Radhika Prasad The God of Small Things Arundathi RoyRape of Bangladesh A n t h o n y The Great Depression of 1990 Ravi Batra Mascrenhas The Mousetrap Agatha ChristieRape of the Lock Alexander Pope The Old Devils Kingsley AmissRatnavali King Sri Harsha The struggle in My Life Nelson MandelaRediscovering Dharavi Kalpana Sharma The Tempest ShakespeareRed Star Over China Edger Snow The Third World in theRed Tap and White Cap P.V.R.Rao Age of Globalisation Ash Narain RoyReminiscences of Nehru Age M.O.Mathai Thirukkural ThiruvalluvarReprieve Jean Paul Sartre Tholkappiya Poonga M. KarunanidhiRepublic Plato Three Musketeers Alexander DumasRescue Democracy from C.Rajagopalachari Thieves in the Night Arthur KoestlerMoney Power Time of Hope C.P.SnowRobinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe Time Machine H.G.WellsRomeo and Juliet William Shakespeare To Light a Candle Welthy Fisher Tom Jones Henry Fielding S Tom Sawyer Mark TwainSad dans Bomb Shyam Bhatia and Towards Total Revolution Jayaprakash Daniel Mc Grony NarayanSakharam Binder Vijay Tendulkar Towards New Horizons Dinesh SinghSatanic Verses Salman Rushdie Travels with a Donkey R.L.StevensonSatyarath Prakash Swami Dayanand Treasure Island R.L.StevensonSavitri Aurobindo Ghosh Trial of Jesus John MasefieldSceptred Flute Sarojini Naidu Triumph, The J.K.GalbraithScope of Happiness, The Vijayalakshmi Pandit Tropic of Cancer Henry MillerSeven Pillars of Wisdom Lawrence T.E. The True History of Kelley Gang Peter CareySeven Lamps of Architecture John Ruskin To Live or not to Live Nirad C.ChowdhurySeven Summer Mulk Raj Anand The Fall of a Sparrow Salim AliShadow from Ladakh B h a b a n i The Power and The Glory Graham Greene Bhattacharya The Sound and the Fury Faulkner WilliamShakuntala Kalidas The Round Table Hazlitt WilliamShah Nama Firdausi Tamerlaine the Great M a r l o w sShame Salman Rushdie ChristopherShape of Things to Come H.G.Wells Trinity Leon UrisShe Stoops to Conquer Goldsmith Trumpet Major, The Thomas HardyShivaji, The Great Patriot Lala Lajpat Rai Tulsi Sat Sai TulsidasSilent Woman Ben Johnson Twelfth Night ShakespeareSocial Contract Rousseau Two Leaves and a Bud Mulk Raj AnandSongs of India,The Sarojini Naidu Two Women Alberto MoraviaSons and Lovers D.H.Lawrence Tryst with Destiny S.GopalanSorrow is Knowledge Arabinda Ray Tyagpatra JainendraSpirit of the Age William HazlittSpycatcher Peter Wright USt.John G.B.Shaw Ulysses James JoyceStrangers and Brothers C.P.Snow Unknown Man, The Lewis CarrolStory of My life, The Morarji Desai Unhappy India Lajpat Rai © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 84Utopia Thomas More War of Indian Independence Vir SavarkarUniverse Around Us James Jeans Waste Land T.S.ElliotUnto This Last John Ruskin Way of All Flesh Samuel ButlerUntold Story B.M.Kaul Wealth of Nations Adam SmithUpturned Soil, The Mikhail Sholokhov What Went Wrong? Kiran BediUttara-Rama Charita Bhava Bhuti ... and continuesUtopia Thomas Moore Wilhelm Meister Goethe V Wings of Fire A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Witness to an Era Frank MoraesVande Mataram Bankim Chandra Wreck, The Rabindranath TagoreVanity Fair William Thackeray Wuthering Heights Emily BronteVenisamhar Narayana BhattViceroy’s Journal Penderal Moon YVikar of Wakefield Oliver Goldsmith Yama Mahadevi VermaVinaypatrika Tulsidas Yashodara MaithalisharanViswambhara Dr.C.N.Reddy GuptaVanity of Human Wishes Samuel Johnson Yayati Vishnu SakharamVillage, The Mulk Raj Anand KhandekarVendor of Sweets R.K.Narayan Year of the Vulture Amita MalikVoice of Conscience V .Giri .V Yesterday and Today K.P.S.Menon W Yogi and the Bear S.Nihal SinghWaiting for Godot Thomas Becket ZWake Up India Annie Besant Zakir Hussain B.B.AhluwaliaWalls of Glass K.A.Abbas Zhivago, Dr. Boris PasternakWar and Peace Tolstoy Zulfi, My Friend Philoo Mody SPORTS PLACES ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTSAintree (U.K.) Grand National Horse Hurlingham (England) Polo Race Leeds (England) CricketBisley Shooting Lords(England) CricketBlackhealth London Rugby Football Mortlake (England) SwimmingChepauk Ground (Chennai) Cricket Nehru Stadium (Chennai) CricketDonchester (England) St.Ledger Horse Race Oval (England) CricketEden Gardens (Kolkata) Cricket Putney Boat-rowingEpsom (England) Derby Horse Races Trent Bridge (England) CricketFeroze Shah Kotla Ground (Delhi) Cricket Twinkenhem (England) RugbyFlorence Chadwik Skiing Wembley Stadium (England) Association FootballForest HIlls (New York) Tennis Wimbledon (England) Lawn TennisHenley (U.K.) Regatta (Boat Race) Yankee Stadium (New York) Boxing TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTS INTERNATIONALAmerican Cup Yatch Racing Merdeka Football (Asian)Ashes Cricket (Australia England) MRF World Cup Cricket & BoxingAsia Cup Cricket Prince of Wales Cup Golf (England)Asia Oceanic Tennis Schneider Cup Seaplane Race (U.K.)Canada Cup Golf(World Championship) Swaythling Cup World Table Tennis (Men)Colombo Cup Golf (World Championship) Thomas Cup World BadmintionColombo Cup Foot ball (India, Pakistan, Sri Tunku Abdul-Rahman Cup Badminton (Asian) Lanka and Myanmar) U Thant Cup TennisCorbillion Cup World Table Tennis (Women) Uber Cup World Badminton (Women)Davis Cup Tennis / Lawn Tennis Walker Cup Golf (England)Derby Horse Race (England) Westchester Cup Polo (England)Eisenhower Trophy Golf (Amateurs - World) Wightman Cup Lawn Tennis (Women ofGrand National Horse Steeple Chase Race U.S.A. and England). (England) Wimbledon Trophy Lawn TennisJules Rimet Trophy World Soccer Cup World Cup CricketKing’s Cup Air Races (England) World Cup Hockey © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 85 NATIONALAga Khan Cup Hockey Nagjee Trophy FootballAll-India Women’s Guru Hockey Nehru Trophy HockeyNanak Championship Nizam Gold Cup FootballBangalore Blues Basketball Obaidullah Gold Cup HockeyChallenge Cup Prithi Singh Cup PoloBarna-Bellack Cup Table Tennis (Men) Radha Mohan Cup PoloBeighton Cup Hockey (Calcutta) Raghbir Singh Memorial FootballBombay Gold Cup Hockey CupBurdwan Trophy Weightlifting Rajkumari Challenge Cup Table Tennis (Junior Girls)Chakola Gold Trophy Football Ramanujam Trophy Table Tennis (Junior Boys)Cock of the Fleet TrophyRegatta Ramnivas Ruia Challenge BridgeD.C.M. Trophy Football Gold TrophyDhyan Chand Trophy Hockey Rangaswamy Cup National HockeyDr. B.C. Roy Trophy National Football (Junior) ChampionshipDuleep Trophy Cricket Ranji Trophy National CricketDurand Cup Football ChampionshipEzra Cup Polo Rene Frank Trophy HockeyF.A. Cup Football Rohinton Baria Trophy Cricket (Inter-University)G.V. Raja Memorial Trophy Football Rovers Cup FootballGurmit Trophy Hockey Sahni Trophy HockeyI.F.A. Shield Football (Calcutta) Santosh Trophy National FootballIndira Gold Cup Hockey ChampionshipIrani Cup Cricket Scindia Gold Cup HockeyJaswant Singh Trophy Best Services Sportsman Sethu Cup AquaticsJayalakshmi Cup National Table Tennis Sheesh Mahal Trophy Cricket Championship (Women) Sivanthi AdithanKuppuswamy Naidu Trophy Hockey Gold Cup KabbadiLady Rattan Tata Trophy Hockey Sri Krishna Gold Cup FootballMaharaja Ranjit Singh Hockey Subroto Mukerji Cup Football (Inter-School)Gold Cup Todd Memorial Trophy FootballMaulana Azad Trophy Inter-University Sports & Tommy Emar Gold Cup Hockey (Women) Athletics Vijay Hazare Trophy CricketMCC Trophy Hockey Vittal Trophy FootballMoinuddowla Gold Cup Cricket Vizzy Trophy CricketMurugappa Gold Cup Hockey Wellington Trophy Rowing WORLD CUP FOOTBALL The most popular tournament the World Cup Foot Ball was started in 1930 and is held once in four years.In 1998 these games were held in France.Year Venue Country Winners Runners-up Year Venue Country Winners Runners-up1930 Uruguay Uruguay Argentina 1974 West Germany West Germany Poland1934 Italy Italy Czechoslovakia 1978 Argentina Argentina Holland1938 France Italy Hungary 1982 Spain Italy West Germany1950 Brazil Uruguay Brazil 1986 Mexico Argentina West Germany1954 Switzerland West Germany Hungary 1990 Italy West Germany Argentina1958 Sweden Brazil Sweden 1994 USA Brazil Italy1962 Chile Brazil Czechoslovakia 1998 France France Brazil1962 Chile Brazil Czechoslovakia 2002 Japan/Korea Brazil Germany1966 England England West Germany 2006 Germany (scheduled)1970 Mexico Brazil Italy 2010 South Africa (scheduled)Note: In 1942 & 1946 games were not played. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 86 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE INDIAN ECONOMY In recent years the Indian economy has been characterised as an underdeveloped but developing economy.Indian economy is the ideal model of a ‘mixed economy’. India’s economy is more than three times as large aspreviously measured, making it the sixth largest behind the U.S.,Japan,Germany and France according to the InternationalMonetary Fund’s latest calculation.Planning Commission National Development Council Economic planning is a conscious and judicially The National Development Council is presided bycarried out process for optimum utilisation of existing the Prime Minister of India. It is constituted with theresources in order to fulfil some well-defined objectives members of the Planning Commission together with thelaid down by the state. Perhaps the first attempt to initiate Chief Ministers of the states.economic planning in India was made by M.Visvesvarayain 1934. After Independence, the Planning Commission National Planning Councilwas setup in 1950 under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal The National Planning Council was established inNehru and India ushered in the era of economic planning 1965,it is an advisory board attached to the planningwith the beginning of the First Five Year Plan in 1951. commission. It includes experts representing a cross-Objectives of Planning section of the Indian Economy. The long-term objectives of planning in India have Five-Year Plansbeen more or less the same in almost all the Five-YearPlans. These objectives are interconnected with one The five-year plans are the developmental plansanother drawn by the Planning Commission to establish India’s economy on a socialistic pattern in regular phases of1. Economic Growth to raise the level of national per five-year periods. capita income in real term2. Self-Reliance implies reduction in the dependence The organisation set up to formulate basic on foreign aid and concessional foreign capitals economic policies,draft plans and watch its progress and the donors can have political influence on the implementation consist of: decison-making process of the country. 1. Planning Commission of India3. Promoting Social Justice has two sub objectives 2. National Development Council and State Planning namely (a) removal of poverty and (b) reduction in Commissions, and inequalities of income and wealth. 3. National Planning Council. FIVE-YEAR PLANSPlan Period RemarksFirst Five-Year Plan 1951-52 to 1955-56 Priority given to irrigation and agriculture.Second Five-Year Plan 1956-57 to 1960-61 Develoment of basic and heavy industries.Third Five-Year Plan 1961-62 to 1965-66 Long-term development of India’s economy.Annual Five-Year Plan 1967-68 to 1968-69 Plan holiday period.Pakistan and Chinese wars.Fourth Five-Year Plan 1969-70 to 1973-74 It brought in a scientific temper to Indian agriculture.Fifth Five-Year Plan 1974-75 to 1977-78 Janata Government terminated a year earlier and introduced the Rolling-Plan.Annual Five-Year Plan 1978-79 to 1979-80 Introduced by the Janata Government.Sixth Five-Year Plan 1980-81 to 1984-85 New Government revised plan for 1981-85 and approved subsequently.Seventh Five-Year Plan 1985-86 to 1989-90 Productivity,work and food were given basic priorities.Eighth Five-Year Plan 1992-93 to 1996-97 was designed to tackle the twin problems of unemployment and povertyNinth Five-Year Plan 1997-98 to 2001-2002 Ensuring the implementation of Common Minimum Programme and boosting agricultural investmentTenth Five-Year Plan 2002-2003 to 2006-2007 Funds will be allocated especially towards poverty alleviation programmes. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 87 TENTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN : 2002 TO 2007 - AT A GLANCETenth Five Year Plan : Planning Commission finalised 7. Literacy rate to be raised from 65 to 75 per cent;the Approach Paper to Tenth Five-Year Plan. It aims to 8. Potable drinking water in all villagesincrease annual growth target of 8 per cent and lowers 9. Infant mortality rate to be 45 out of 1000the annual Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) target to $ 10. Domestic savings to be 26.8 per cent of GDP; and7.5 billion against $ 8 billion set in the Approach Paper, 11. Investment rate pegged at 28.4 per cent of GDP.which would be less than 1 per cent of the GrossDomestic Product (GDP). It also lays emphasis on Reform Measures :social sector along with economic growth while giving The Tenth Five-Year Plan also includes the followingprojection to the planned development of the country reform measures :during 2002-07. 1. Agriculture reformsHighlights of the Tenth Five-Year Plan : 2. Go ahead with labour reforms1. Annual 8 per cent GDP growth during 2002-07 3. Abolish restrictions on road transport passenger2. Annual FDI flows of US $ 7.6 billion services3. Disinvestment target of Rs.78,000 crore in five 4. Involve private sector in road maintenance years 5. Early adoption of Civil Aviation Policy4. 50 million jobs in five years 6/ Remove Infrastructure constraints in energy,5. Reduction in poverty ratio to 21 from 26 per cent transport and water sectors by 2007 7. Undertake tax reform measures; and6. Children to complete at least 5 years of schooling 8. Funds to be mobilised through savings and by 2007 domestic sources.Poverty Line: at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Maintains The Planning Commission in 1980 defined poverty exchange value of rupee. Formulates and administersline in the sixth five-year plan document on the basis of the monetary policy. Undertakes distribution of allnutritional standards as : Per capita expenditure below currency notes and coins on behalf of the government.Rs.152/-per month(Rural Population) and Rs.133/= permonth(Urban Population). Percent of population living * No individual accounts are maintained.below the poverty line is 25.8%(75% of which is tribal State Bank of Indiapopulation). Therefore total number of people below the SBI is the largest public sector bank of India andpoverty line is estimated at 211 million. was created after nationalisation of Imperial Bank of IndiaCurrency System in India in 1955. It is the largest in the world with nearly 10,840 It was first introduced during the reign of the branches.Gupta’s in Gold coins (390 AD - 550 AD). During the Nationalisation of Banksperiod of Sher Shah Suri (1542 AD) introduce the Rupee,it The Government of India nationalised 14 banks onwas a silver coin weighing around 179 grams and it July 19, 1969 and six more on April 15, 1980.replaced the gold coins. In 1882 Paper Currency wasintroduced by the British government in India. Presently First 14 Nationalised banks are:-denominations of Re.5,10,20,100 and 500 are in circulation. 1. Bank of Baroda 8. Bank of IndiaThe currency note of Rs.500 bearing portrait of Mahatma 2. Union Bank of India 9. Canara BankGandhiji and the Ashoka Pillar emblem was issued on 3. Bank of Maharashtra 10. Dena BankOctober 3, 1987. All notes above one rupee denomination 4. Central Bank of India 11. United Bank of Indiaare issued by the Reserve Bank of India, bearing the 5. Indian Bank 12. Allahabad Banksignature of Governor,Reserve Bank of India. One Rupee 6. Indian Overseas Bank 13. United Commercial Banknote bears the signature of the Secretary, Ministry of 7. Punjab National Bank 14. Syndicate BankFinance. Reserve Bank of India manages distribution and Second Nationalisationadministration of all currency denominations. 1. Vijaya BankBanking System in India 2. Orient Bank of Commerce Reserve Bank of India (RBI) became state owned 3. Punjab & Sind Bankbank on 1st January 1949. Functions of Reserve Bank of 4. Corporation BankIndia are : The RBI regulates issue of bank notes above 5. Andhra Bankone rupee denomination. Acts as the banker to the 6. New Bank of IndiaGovernment of India and the state governments The New Bank of India was merged with the PunjabCommercial and Cooperative banks. Represents India National Bank,leaving only 19 Nationalised banks. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 88 UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATIONOrigin of U.N.O. : Principal Organs of the U.N: When the world war II was going on the Allied Headquarters: U.N Plaza, New York City, U.S.A.powers had felt the necessity for forming a United Nations General Assembly, Secretariat, Security Council,Organisation. The talks were held at Dumbarton Oaks, Trusteeship council, Economic and Social CouncilWashington D.C.from August 21 to October7, 1944, and International Court of Justice.which was finally put to concrete shape by the delegatesof 50 Allied Nations assembled at San Francisco from The General Assembly:April 26 to June 26, 1945. At this place the representatives The General Assembly is the largest of all theof 50 nations signed the United Nations Charter and organs of the United Nations. The Assembly consiststhe United Nations officially came into existence on of the representatives of all the member States. EachOctober 26, 1945, after the Charter has been ratified by a State has one vote. The General Assembly meets atnumber of countries. This meant the end of the League least once in a year. Special sessions may be convenedof Nations. by the secretary-General, on a request by the SecurityNon-members : The nations that are non-members of the Council. The General Assembly determines theUNO are (a) Switzerland (b) Taiwan. Switzerland and contribution payable by each member. It receives andVatican are permanent observers. consider the reports of the special committees including the Security Council. It passess the annual budget ofOfficial languages : They are Arabic, Chinese, English, the U.N. The General Assembly elects the non-French, Russian and Spanish. permanent members of the Security Council, the membersFlag of the UN : On the flag is the UN emblem in white of the Economic and Social Council and elected memberssuperimposed on a light blue ground. The emblem of the Trusteeship Council.consists of the global map projected from the North Pole The Secretariat:and embraced in twin olive branches. (Symbol of Peace). It is composed of the Secretary-General who is theObjectives: The U.N as an organisation of nations Chief Administrative Officer of the organization and anwho have voluntarily joined together to work for world International Staff appointed by him under regulationspeace, the objectives and purposes of the U.N. established by the General Assembly. The Secretary-1. To maintain peace and security in the world. General is appointed by the General Assembly on the2. To develop friendly relations among nations. recommendation of the Security Council.3. To work together to remove poverty, disease and Secretary - General of the U.N.O: illiteracy in the world and to encourage respect 1. Mr. Trgve Lie (of Norway) the First Secretary for each others rights and freedom. General of the UNO (1946-52)4. To be a centre for helping the nations to achieve 2. Mr. Dag Hammarkjoeld (of Sweden) (1953-61) these goals 3. Mr. U.Thant (Myanmar) (1962-71)Charter of the U.N.: 4. Mr. Kurt Waldeim (of Austria) (1972-81) The Charter of the U.N contains aims and purposes 5. Mr. Javier Perez de Cuellar, (Peru) (1982-91)of organisation. It gives direction to achieve these aims 6. Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, (Egypt) (1992-96)within the rules and regulations, set by U.N. U.N. General 7. Mr. Kofi Annan (of Ghana) appointed on Jan 1,Assembly proclaimed the historic declaration of Universal 1997-2001Human Rights on December 10, 1948. 8. Mr. Kofi Annan (of Ghana) appointed on Jan 1,Admission into U.N.O.: 2001 till date1. A country must get the support of the two-third Security Council: members of the General Assembly. The member states of the United Nations have2. Country must be peace-loving delegated the Primary reponsibilities for maintaining3. Country must accept the rules and regulations, world peace, Security to the Security Council. It consists aims and objectives of the U.N.O. of 15 members, each of which has one vote. There are4. It is necessary for a new member to get the 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members elected fo recommendation of Security Council. a 2 year term by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. The permanent members have the power toPower of veto: veto any move. Retiring members are not eligible for If any one of the five permanent members casts a immediate re-election. Permanent Members: China,negative vote on the resolution, it falls. This is known France, Russia, U.K., and USA. Non-permanentas ‘Veto’. Every member has got one vote. To pass a Members : Bangladesh, Mali, Tunisia, Jamaica andresolution, all the five Big Powers Plus two others must Ukraine (until Dec. 31, 2001), Malaysia, Namibia, Canada,cast their votes in favour of the resolution. Netherlands and Argentina (until Dec. 31, 2000) © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 89Non-permanent Members: Universal Declaration of Human Rights Cape Verde, Hungary, Japan, Morocco, It was adopted by the U.N. Assembly on DecemberVenezuela (until Dec.31,1993) Brazil, Djiboute, New 10, 1948. It is a statement of normal standards to beZealand, Pakistan and Spain (until Dec.31, 1994). The followed by all nations.Presidency of the Security Council is held for one It guarantees international peace and prosperity.month in rotation by the member states in the English It stresses the fact that everyone has the rights to life,alphabetical order of their names. The expansion of the liberty and security, equality before law, freedom ofSecurity Council to include ‘new powers’ such as movement etc. Irrespective of race, religion, sex orIndia, Germany and Japan as permanent members has language.been suggested. India has formally stakes its claim to apermanent seat on the council as and when it is expanded. International Maritime Organisation (IMO)Trusteeship Council: Headquarters : London. The Charter Provides for an international It was established as a specialised agency of thetrusteeship system to safeguard the interests of the UN by the UN Maritime Conference at Geneva in 1948.inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may be placed there under by International Labour Organisation (ILO)individual trusteeship agreements. These are called trust Headquarters : Geneva.territories. All of the original 11 trust territories except It was established in 1919 as an autonomous partone, the republic of Belau (palau) administrated by the of the League of Nations. It is an intergovermental agencyUSA, have become independent or joined independent with a tripartite structure, in which representatives ofcountries. Members : China, France, Russia, UK, USA. governments, employers and workers participate. In 1969Economic and Social Council: it won the Nobel Peace Prize. Economic and Social Council is responsible underthe General Assembly for carrying out the functions to Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)achieve cooperation of the United Nations with regard Headquarters : Rome.to international economic, social cultural, educational The UN Conference on Food and Agriculture heldand health to promote and encourage respect for human in May 1943, at Hot springs, Virginia, set up an Interimrights and fundamental freedom without distinction of Commission in Washington in July 1943 to plan the Foodrace or sex, language or religions. It consists of 54 member and Agricultural Organisation, which came into being onstates elected by a two-thirds majority of the General 16th October 1945. FAO sponsers the World FoodAssembly. Programme.The Council has the following regional EconomicCommissions : United Nations, Educational, Scientific1. ECE (Economic Commission of Europe) with its and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) H.Q. at Geneva. Headquarters : Paris.2. ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for A Conference for the establishment of an Asia) with its H.Q. at Bangkok. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the3. ECIA (Economic Commission for Latin America) United Nations was convened by the Goverment of with its H.Q. at Santiago (Chile). France, and met in London, 1 to 16 Nov. 1945. UNESCO came into being on 4th November 1946.4. ECA (Economic Commission for Africa) with its H.Q. at Addis Ababa. The main purpose of UNESCO is to promote peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration5. ECWA (Economic Commission for Western Asia) among the nations through education, science and with its H.Q. at Baghdad. culture in order that people may have respect for justice,International Court of Justice: for the rule of law, for human rights and fundamental It was Created by an International Treaty, the Statue freedoms irrespective of race, sex, language and religion.of the Court, which forms an integral part of the UnitedNations Charter. There are 15 Judges. President is United Nations International Children’sGulbert Guillaume (France). The Court has its seat at The Emergency Fund (UNICEF)Hague. The expenses of the Court are borne by the U.N. Headquarters : USA.The Purpose of the Inter-national Court of Justice is to It was founded in 1946 by the General Assembly. Itadjust and settle international disputes in confirmity with was established to deliver post-war relief to children andjustice and international law. There is no appeal against it aims at improving the quality of life for children andthe decision of the Couurt. The Judges of the Court are mother in developing countries. UNICEF is not financedelected for nine years and may be re-elected. by the U.N. budget but by voluntary contributions fromLanguages : French, English. governments and individuals. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 90International Civil Aviation Organisation foreign private capital and experienced management. The(ICAO) membership of the Corporation will be open to those countries which are members of the World Bank. It was formed in the International Civil Aviation Headquarters : Washington.Conference held in Chicago from 1 Nov. to 7 Dec. 1994.Its aims and objectives are to develop international air International Atomic Energy Agencynavigation and foster the planning and development of (IAEA)international transport. Headquarters: Lebanon. It was set up under the U.N. to makeInternational Bank of Reconstruction and recommendations for the use of atomic energy forDevelopment (IBRD) peaceful purposes. All the nations are to pay a part of fissionable material and also Uranium at the disposal of It was established at Bretton Woods Conference in the Agency. The Agency was established at meeting ofJuly 1994. Its object is to assist the member nations in the 82 nations held in New York in September, 1956.economic reconstruction and development of the Headquarters : Vienna.territories. The bank advances loans to the membernations for development purposes and encourages The General Agreement on Tariffs andprivate foreign investment and also arranges loans to Trade (GATT):its own security. It guarantees loans by Private Investors.Headquarters : Washington. It was negotiated in 1947 and came into force on January 1, 1948. It is the only treaty setting rules forInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) world trade. Its functions are to ease trade barriers and It was established on 27th December 1945 and it establish rules of fair trade. In recent years, GATT madeoperates from 1st March 1947. It works for the promotion special efforts to develop international trade and has alsoof International Trade. It helps those countries with given particular emphasis on increasing the export tradeforeign exchange whose balance of trade is in of developing countries. GATT was replaced by theunfavourable position. Headquarters: Washington. World Trade Organisation (WTO) on January 1, 1995. Headquarters : Geneva.World Health Organisation (WHO) World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) WHO came into existence on April 7, 1948. It aimsto assist the Governments to raise the standard of public Conference of Directors of the Internationalhealth and impart information of health research. It also Meteorological Organisation meeting in Washington inpromotes in improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation 1947, adopted a convention creating the W.M.O. It aims atand recreation. Headquarters : Geneva. improving weather observations and to adopt common measures for weather reporting in order to prevent-disasterUniversal Postal Union (UPU) caused by natural calamities like cyclones, typhoons etc. It was formally established on 1st July 1875. It has Headquarter : Geneva, Switzerland.been established to alleviate uncertainty. Confusion and World Intellectual Property Organisationexcessive cost of international postal communications (WIPO)by writing its member countries in a single postal territoryfor the reciprocal exchange of mail. The postal convention The convention establishing WIPO was signedhas been extended and improved by the various Postal at Stockholm in 1967 by 51 countries and came intoCongress. Headquarters : Switzerland. force in April 1970. In Dec. 1974 WIPO became a specialized agency of the U.N. Headquarters : Geneva,International Telecommunications Union Switzerland.(I.T.U.) The International Telegraph Union founded in Paris International Fund for Agriculturalin 1865 and the International Radio Telegraph Union, Development (IFAD)founded in Berlin in 1906 by the Madrid Convention The establishment of IFAD was one of the majorof 1932 to form the ITU. Its main purpose is to bring actions proposed by 1974 World Food Conference. Thethe improvement and rational use of telecommunications agreement for IFAD came into force on 30 Nov. 1977and increase the efficiency of the telecommunication following attainment of initial pledges of $ 1,000 and theservices by maintaining and extending international co- agency began its operations. Headquarters : Rome, Italy.operation. Headquarters : Geneva, Switzerland. United Nations Industrial DevelopmentInternational Finance Corporation (IFC) Organisation (UNIDO): It was established in July 1956. It is affiliated to It provides developing and underdevelopedWorld Bank. The basic object of the Corporation is to countries with advice on all aspects of industrial policysupplement the activities of the World Bank. It will seek converted into a specialized agency by U.N. in 1985.to bring together investment opportunities, domestic and Headquarters : Vienna. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 91 UN MEMBERS1. Argentina 1945 50. Yugoslavia ”” 99. Mauritania 1961 146. Solomon Islands2. Australia ”” 51. Afghanistan 1946 100. Mongolia ”” 147. St. Lucia 19793. Belarus ”” 52. Iceland ”” 101. Sierra Leone ”” 148. St. Vincent &4. Belgium ”” 53. Sweden ”” 102. Tanzania ”” Grenadines 19805. Bolivia ”” 54. Thailand ”” 103. Algeria 1962 149. Zimbabwe ””6. Brazil ”” 55. Pakistan 1947 104. Burundi 1962 150. Antigua and7. Canada ”” 56. Myanmar 1948 105. Jamaica ”” Barbuda 19818. Chile ”” 57. Israel 1949 106. Rwanda ”” 151. Belize ””9. China ”” 58. Indonesia 1950 107. Trinidad & Tobago 152. Vanuatu ””10. Colombia ”” 59. Albania 1955 108. Uganda ”” 153. St.Kitts and11. Costa Rica ”” 60. Austria ”” 109. Kenya 1963 Nevis 198312. Cuba ”” 61. Bulgaria ”” 110. Kuwait ”” 154. Brunei 198413. Denmark ”” 62. Cambodia ”” 111. Malawi 1964 155. * Germany 199014. Dominican 63. Finland ”” 112. Malta ”” 156. Liechtenstein ” ” Republic ”” 64. Hungary ”” 113. Zambia ”” 157. Namibia ””15. Ecuador ”” 65. Ireland ”” 114. Gambia 1965 158. Yemen ””16. Egypt ”” 66. Italy ”” 115. Maldives ”” 159. Estonia 199117. El Salvador ”” 67. Jordan ”” 116. Singapore ”” 160. Korea (North) ” ”18. Ethiopia ”” 68. Laos ”” 117. Barbados 1966 161. Korea (South) ” ”19. France ”” 69. Libya ”” 118. Botswana ”” 162. Latvia 199120. Greece ”” 70. Nepal 1955 119. Guyana ”” 163. Lithuania ””21. Guatemala ”” 71. Portugal ”” 120. Lesotho ”” 164. Marshall Islands22. Haiti ”” 72. Romania ”” 121. Equatorial 165. Micronesia ””23. Honduras ”” 73. Spain ”” Guinea 1968 166. Armenia 199224. India ”” 74. Sri Lanka ”” 122. Mauritius ”” 167. Azerbaijan ””25. Iran ”” 75. Japan 1956 123. Swaziland ”” 168. Bosnia-26. Iraq ”” 76. Morocco ”” 124. Fiji 1970 Herzegovina ” ”27. Lebanon ”” 77. Sudan ”” 125. Bahrain 1971 169. Croatia ””28. Liberia ”” 78. Tunisia ”” 126. Bhutan ”” 170. Georgia ””29. Luxembourg ”” 79. Ghana 1957 127. Oman ”” 171. Kazakhstan ””30. Mexico ”” 80. Malaysia ”” 128. Qatar ”” 172. Kyrgyzstan ””31. Netherlands ”” 81. Guinea 1958 129. United Arab 173. Moldova ””32. New Zealand ” ” 82. Benin 1960 Emirates ”” 174. San Marino ””33. Nicaragua ”” 83. Burkina Faso ” ” 130. Bahamas 1973 175. Slovenia ””34. Norway ”” 84. Cameroon ”” 131. Bangladesh 1974 176. Tajikistan ””35. Panama 1945 85. Central African 132. Grenada ”” 177. Turkmenistan ” ”36. Paraguay ”” Republic ”” 133. Guinea-Bissau ” ” 178. Uzbekistan ””37. Peru ”” 86. Chad 1960 134. Cape Verde 1975 179. Andorra 199338. Philippines ”” 87. Congo ”” 135. Comoros ”” 180. * Czech Republic39. Poland ”” 88. Congo, Dem. ” ” 136. Mozambique ” ” 181. Eritrea ””40. Russia ”” 89. Cote d-Ivoire ” ” 137. Papua New Guinea 182. Macedonia ””41. Saudi Arabia ” ” 90. Cyprus ”” 138. Sao Tome & 183. Monaco ””42. South Africa ” ” 91. Gabon ”” Principe ”” 184. Slovakia ””43. Syria ”” 92. Madagascar ” ” 139. Suriname ”” 185. Palau 199444. Turkey ”” 93. Mali ”” 140. Angola 1976 186. Kiribati 199945. Ukraine ”” 94. Niger ”” 141. Samoa ”” 187. Nauru ””46. UK ”” 95. Nigeria ”” 142. Seychelles ”” 188. Tonga ””47. USA ”” 96. Senegal ”” 143. Djibouti 1977 189. Tuvalu 200048. Uruguay ”” 97. Somalia ”” 144. Vietnam ”” 190. Switzerland 200249. Venezuela ”” 98. Togo ”” 145. Dominica 1978 191. East Timor 2002 In 1973 East and West Germany became the members of UN Germany as such became the member in 1990. Czech Republic (previously Czechoslovakia became the member of UN as early as 1945). © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 92 IMPORTANT PERSONALITIESA Abul Fazal : Abul Fazal was the oldest of Ala-ud-dinKhilji : Ala-ud-dinKhilji was the founder of Akbar’s Nine Jewels. He as the brother of Faizi. Khilji dynasty. Brought almost the whole of India He was a profound scholar of his time and under his rule. He was a great administrator. He strictlyrose to Akbar’s Prime Minister. He wrote Ain-i-Akbari. forbade drinking. He introduced a system of price control and rationing.Abraham Lincoln : He was the son of a woodcutter,rose to be the 16th President of the United States who Albert Einstein : A world famous scientist of Germanwanted to abolish slavery and on account of this there Swiss origin who settled down in the U.S.A. after hewas a civil war between the southern and northern was driven out by the Nazis from Germany in 1933. HeStates of America. He won the civil war and abolished is the author of the Theory of Relativity.slavery. Alexander Cunningham : (1814-1893 A.D.) He was theAbdul Kalam A.P.J. : Dr. Aavul Pakkiri Jainulabidin father of Indian Archaeology and first Director-GeneralAbdul Kalam was born in 1931 at Rameswaram in of the Indian Archaeology Survey 1879-1885. ThroughRamanathapuram, Tamilnadu. He was familiarly known his efforts a beginning was made in translating andas the "Missile Man of India". He became the eleventh dating ancient inscriptions and in describingPresident of India on July 25, 2002. He was awarded archaeological sites.Bharat Ratna in 1998. He wrote books like "Wings of Alexander Fleming : He is the discoverer of penicillin.Fire" "India 2020", and "Ignited Mind". He received in 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine.Adolf Hitler : Adolf Hitler is a German Dictator who Alexander, the Great : Alexander, son of Philip, Kingwas born in Austria. He led the Nazi party and became of Macedonia, North of Greece. He was one of theGerman Chancellor in the year 1933. He ordered the greatest conquerors of the world. He was borninvasion of Austria and Czechoslovakia. His invasion in 356 B. C. The famous philosopher, Aristotle wasof Poland in 1939 started the Second World War. He his tutor, Alexander made his object to conquercommitted suicide in Berlin in 1945. He was the author the world. In 326 B. C. he invaded India.of Mein Kampf. He is also called “Fuehrer”. He was the first European invader on the IndianAhalyabai : Born in 1735 and daughter of Manakoji soil. In the Battle with Porus, Alexander wasShinde of Chante, Ahalyabai did her elementary victorious. Alexander lost his famous horse,education and married Khanduji, the son of Malharrao Bucephalecus in the Battle. His army felt homesick andHolkar in 1744. Her husband was killed in siege of insisted to return. Alexander died in 323 B.C. inKhanduji in 1754. Malharrao appointed her for the Babylonia. The result of Alexander invasion promotedadministration of his territories. Her son Maleraosucceeded after the death of Holkar but actual reigns the political unification of India.of office were in the hands of Ahalyabai. She Almeida : Almeida was the first Portuguese Governor.administered the territory astutely and renovated many He strengthened the Portuguese sea power.temples. She died on August 13, 1795. Alfonso Albuquerque : Alfonso AlbuquerqueAkbar : Akbar succeeded his father Humayun at the considered to be the ablest Portuguese Viceroy inage of 14. Bairam Khan, a distinguished General, India. His policy was to destroy the Muslim tradersbecame his regent. Bairam Khan defeated Hemu at the and to establish a Portuguese Empire in the East. HeSecond Battle of Panipat (1556) and secured the throne conquered Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur and made itof Akbar. He followed a policy of conciliation with the his Capital.Rajputs and the Hindus. He founded many Portuguese settlements all He constructed “Ibadat Khana”, or the House of along the West Coast of India e.g. Diu, Daman,Worship at Fatehpur Sikri. With the help of Abul Fazal, Bassein, Bombay, etc. He was the founder of theAkbar founded a religion called the Din-i-Ilahi or the Portuguese Empire in the East. The Portuguese powerDivine Faith. He built the beautiful city of Fatehpur lasted a century and a half and then it began to decline.Sikri in red sandstone near Agra. He abolished the Goa, Daman and Diu have been taken over by thehated Jazia and pilgrim tax and allowed full religious Indian Government.freedom to all his subjects. He is therefore called aNational Monarch. The Mansabdari System was the Alan Octavian Hume (A.O.Hume) : A retired Englishmain essence of his Government. Akbar’s tomb is at civilian founded the Indian National Congress in 1885Sikandra near Agra. Historians say that it was Akbar with the help of educated Indians and a few Englishmen.the real founder of the Mughal Empire in India. In the beginning, it was an association to discuss matters concerning the welfare of the Indians.Akbar Nama : In which the chief events of Akbar’s Gradually it became a political body in opposition toreign are recorded. the British Government. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 93Ambedkar B.R. : Dr.Ambedkar is a well known Indian Atal Behari Vajpayee : The first Indian Prime MinisterJurist Statesman, soical reformer and scheduled castes to reach Wagah border by bus in a bold initiative ofleader. He was the Chairman of the Constitution peace with Pakistan. The bus ride to Wagah and hisDrafting Body and played a significant role in drafting historic visit to Lahore was hailed all over the world asthe Indian Constitution after India attained a new chapter in the relations between India andindependence. He was posthumously awarded 1990 Pakistan.Bharat Ratna. Attlee, Clement Richard : He was the Labour PrimeAmir Khusro : Amir Khusro called the “Parrot of Minister of England between 1945-51. His worksIndia” patronised by Alaudin Khilji. His literary works include an autobiography. During his period, heare Laila Majnu, Tuglaq Nama etc. Amir Khusro deputed Lord Louis Mountbatten to India for theflourished during the reign of Alaudin Khilji. settlement of Indian Independence.Amitabh Bachchan : The film star, who is making Aurangzeb : Aurangzeb was the last of the greatwaves with Star Plus "Kaun Banega Crorepati" Mughal emperors. He ascended the throne with theunveiled his life like wax figure in Madame title of Alamgir, conqueror of the world. The FrenchTussauds wax Museum in London on December 20, Physician Bernier visited the court of Aurangzeb.2000. During his reign, the Marathas became strong in theAnnadurai C.N. : Born in Kancheepuram, founded Deccan. Shivaji the Maratha Chief defeated ShaistaDMK party. He was the first Chief Minister of DMK Khan sent by Aurangzeb. Jats proved a menace to theparty in Tamil Nadu. A great writer and orator in Tamil Mughal Empire. The Sikhs under the Guru Teghand English, he is affectionately called “Anna”. Bahadur, the ninth Guru protested against the anti- Hindu policy of Aurangzeb, so Guru Tegh Bahadur hadAntony : He was supporter of Julius Caesar and to suffer martyrdom. Aurangzeb imposed Jaziya tax onfought Brutus after the death of Caesar. He also fell in Hindus. The Rajputs also became enemies to Aurangzeb.love with Cleopatra. Aurangzeb’s private life was ideally simple. He thoughtArundhati Roy : This Indian writer has bagged the it a sin to use a pie for his own use out of theprestigious Booker Prize (1997) for her very first novel Government Treasury, and earned his living by making"The God of Small Things". Arundhati Roy is the first caps and copies of the Quaran. He simply hated musicresident Indian recipient of the literary honour. and banished it from his court. Aurangzeb could not crush the supremacy of the Marathas, Tarabai, a veryAryabhatta : Aryabhatta is a celebrated Indian intelligent and gallant lady took the leadership andastronomer and mathematician who adorned the court continued the struggle successfully. Aurangzebof Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya. India’s first satellite completely reversed the religious policy of Akbar andwas christened after him. He laid the foundation of incurred the downfall of Mughal Rule.Algebra and was responsible for pointing out theimportance of “zero”. Aurobindo Ghosh : He was a brilliant scholar and a revolutionary member of the Congress. He spread theAsvagosha : He was a great Buddhist scholar. He spirit of Nationalism through his forceful writings andadorned the court of Kanishka. A great council was speeches. He was the editor of “Vande Mataram”. Heconvened about 102 A.D. by Kanishka for codifying took active part in the agitations held against thethe new doctrines of Mahayanism. Asvagosha was the partition of Bengal in 1905 introduced by LordPresident of the Council. The commentary known as Curzon. The British Government involved him in the“Mahavibasha” was inscribed in copper plates and famous Alipore Conspiracy Case. Later, he gave upenclosed in stone boxes. Politics and came away to Pondicherry to lead aAsoka the Great : Asoka, the most famous king of the spiritual life. He established Ashram in Pondicherry. HeMaurya Dynasty, was one of the greatest kings of the wrote essays on Gita and Savitiri, Life Divine, etc.world. He was generally known as “Devanampriya” B Babar: He was the first of the great Mughalwhich means Beloved of the Gods and “Priyadasi” Emperors of Hindustan. His full name waswhich means of pleasing appearance. The most Zahir-ud-din Muhammed Babar. Babar wasimportant event of his reign was the war with Kalinga. descended from Timur on his father’s side and fromThe horrors of Kalinga War moved him deeply. He gave Changhis Khan on his mother’s side. The first Battle ofup military conquests. Thereafter, he evolved a policy Panipat 1526 fought between Babar and Ibrahim Lodiof Dharmavijaya, conquest by pity. Asoka was a made Babar the master of the Empire of Delhi. TheBuddhist by faith and wanted to make Buddhism a Battle of Kanwaha (1527), the Battle of Gogra (1529)world religion. He got the principles of Buddhism made the master of nearly the whole of North India.inscribed on rocks and pillars, these pillars, one at Babar wrote his own autobiography entitled “Tuzk-i-Sarnath was the most magnificient. The National Babri”. He laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire.Emblem of our Government is taken from this design.The late historian, H.G.Wells regards Asoka as the Baba Amte : Indian social worker known for his workgreatest Monarch in history. among leprosy patients. Established Anand Van, a © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 94colony for leprosy patients, near Nagpur. Founder of Bhaskara : Bhaskara was the astronomer of the 7thKnit India Movement. Receipient of first G.D. Birla Century and was a contemporary of Brahmagupta,International Award for outstanding contributions to another famous astronomer. India’s second satellite forhumanity. Also winner of Templeton, Ramon Magsaysay earth observation, Bhaskara is associated with his name.and UN Right Livelihood Awards. Awarded 1999 Bhaskaracharya : Bhaskaracharya, is a great IndianGandhi Peace Prize for his exemplary work for treatment Mathematician and astronomer of the 12th century AD.and rehabilitation of leprosy patients and his concept His famous Sidhanta Shironmani consists of twoof the "Shramik Vidyapeeth". mathematical and two astronomical volumes. His nameBairam Khan : He was Akbar’s uncle, also served as is associated with India’s second satellite.his tutor and guardian. He also won the Delhi throne Bhave, Acharya Vinoba : The Sarvodaya andfor Akbar. Bhoodan Movements leader. He was awarded BharatBalasaraswathi T. : The noted exponent of Ratna for 1983.Bharatanatyam and Choreographer, she was the first Bill Gates : Worlds richest private individual for therecipient of the Sangeet Natak Akademy Award for sixth consecutive year with a $90b, fortune. PresidentBharatanatyam in 1955. and CEO of Microsoft Corp., He revolutionised theBal Gangadhar Tilak : Bal Gangadhar Tilak called computer industry. Philanthropist who has made record‘Lokmanya’ was one of the great leaders of India’s donations.struggle for freedom. He was born in Maharashtra. He Bipin Chandra Pal : He is called “Bengal Danton”. Hefounded the Deccan Education Society to spread started the Journals “New India”, “Swarajya”, “Indianeducation and national spirit among the people. He Student” and assistant editor of Bengal Public Opinionstarted the “Maratha” a Marathi daily. Through this and Tribune.news paper, he spread patriotism and nationalism.He strongly protested against the partition of Birla, G.D. : The doyen of Indian Industry died onBengal in 1905. He was the leader of the extremists in July 11, 1983 at the age of 86.the Indian National Congress. He was sentenced to Buddha : Gautam Buddha was a Kshatriya prince andsix years imprisonment and kept at Mandalay. It was was the son of Shudhodana. He was born in 623 B.C.Tilak who uttered “Swarajya is my birthright, I and I at Lumbini a few miles from Kapilavastu on the Nepalwill have it”. Border. At the age of 28 he left his home and retired toBenito Mussolini : He was a dictator and leader of the the forests. This event is known as the GreatItalian Fascists. He seized Abyssinia and helped the Renunciation. He sat down in meditation under a pipalSpanish Fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He fought tree near Gaya. He gave his first Sermon in the Deerwith Germany in the Second World War from June 1940. Park at Sarnath, near Banaras. This event is knownItaly was invaded by an Anglo-American army and he as Dharma Chakra Pravartan. He founded a powerfulsurrendered in 1943. Mussolini was shot by his own Sangha or order of Bhikshus. His chief teachings werecountrymen. four Noble truths. The Eightfold Path of Middle Path, Karma, Ahimsa, Good Morals, No caste system andBenjamin Franklin : He was an American Politician silence about God. Buddha died at Dushinaar (U.P.) Hewho helped to write the American Declaration of was indeed the “Light of Asia”.Independence. As a scientist he made discoveries of Celectricity and invented the lightning conductor. Chaitanya : Chaitanya was born in Nadia (Bengal). His original name was Bishaber. HeBertrand Russell : A distinguished English Philosopher was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna andand mathematician,who won the Nobel Prize for preached the doctrine of love and devotion to Krishna.Literature in 1950. He advocated world peace and He sang songs in praise of God and held Kirtana. Hehuman approach to international problems. His books laid the foundation of Vaishnavism in Bengal.cover diverse subjects and some among them are“Marriage of Mathematics and Problems of Chanakya or Kautilya : Chanakya was Chandragupta’sPhilosophy”. minister and wrote a book “Arthashastra” in Sanskrit which tells us about the reign of ChandraguptaBesant, Annie : An Irish woman by birth, she became Maurya. Chanakya was also known as Vishnu Gupta.a staunch supporter of India’s freedom movement. She Kautilya has fully discussed the duties andfounded the Theosophical Society of India. She is responsibilities of an ideal King. He says: “Whateverassociated with the Home Rule League. She is the first pleases himself, he (king) shall not consider as goodwoman President of the Indian National Congress. but whatever pleases his subjects he shall consider asBhagat Singh : Bhagat Singh is known as Shabid-e- good”. Arthashastra is regarded to be the greatestAzam. His name is synonymous with patriotism and treatise in politics. Some writers compare Arthashastrarevolution. He along with two other revolutionaries with Machiavelli’s Prince, because Kautilya likeSukh Dev and Raj Guru was hanged on March 23, 1931 Machiavelli tried to separate ethics from politics. He isfor participation in the Lahore Conspiracy. also called “Aristotle of the East”. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 95Chandragupta-I : Chandragupta-I was the founder of temple built by him is at Thanjavur. Here Surya isthe Gupta Dynasty. The Gupta era is called the Golden shown on a par with Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.age of Hinduism. Chandragupta assumed the title of Columbus, Christopher : Famous Italian NavigatorMaharajadhiraja. who discovered America in 1498.Chandragupta Maurya : He was the founder of the D Dadabhai Naoroji : Was the First President ofMaurya dynasty. He was the first historical emperor of the Indian National Congress. He served asIndia. Magasthenes, the Greek ambassador sent by President for three times. He presided overSeleucus, visited the court of Chandragupta and wrote the Indian National Congress of 1906 at Surat. He wasa very interesting book “Indica” giving a most the first Indian to be elected as a member of the Britishvaluable account of the reign of Chandragupta. House of Commons from London. He is known as theChandragupta Vikramaditya : Chandragupta “Grand Old Man of India”. Dadabhai Naoroji presentedVikramaditya was the son of Samudragupta was as his Drain of Wealth Theory in his book Poverty and Unbrave and powerful as his father. In some of his coins British Rule in India.he was shown a live lion which shows that he Dalai Lama : (Tenzing Gyatso) Spiritual Leader ofpossessed great physical strength. Vikramaditya means Tibet. Fled to India after Tibetan uprising and“Sun of Valour”. His court was adorned by `Nine established Govt. in-exile at Dharamsala in Himachalgems’. Kalidas, the Shakespeare of India flourished Pradesh, India (1959). Nobel Laureate (1989).during his reign. The famous iron pillar standing nearQutab Minar was erected in his reign as a kind of Dr.David Livingstone : A Scottish missionary who isvictory Pillar. His reign was the Golden age of art and remembered for spreading Christianity and carrying outliterature. Fahien was the first Chinese Pilgrim to visit exploration in the contingent of Africa. He explored theIndia during his reign. Zambesi river and discovered Lake Nyasa (now Lake Malawi) and the Victoria Falls.Chaplin, Charlie : The British born comedian, whose Dayanand Saraswathi : A great Hindu social reformersilent films gave delight to millions. and founder of the Arya Samaj School. He fought forCharlemagne : Also known as Charles the great removal of untouchability, widow remarriage and forRoman emperor and Frankish King. He founded the the abolition of other evils of the Hindu society. HisHoly Roman Empire in the year 800 and was the rest of motto was “Go back to the Vedas”.his life the champion of the Christian faith and the most Dhanvantari : Dhanvantari is a famous Indian Physicianpowerful figure in Europe. who adorned the Court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya.Chavan Y.B. : The former Deputy Prime Minister died Diana : Britains Princess Diana, who had beenon Nov. 25, 1985. struggling to build a new life after her turbulent divorceChidambaram Pillai : (VOC) Chidambaram Pillai, with Prince Charles, died on August 31, 1997 in a carimmortalised under the famous initials VOC (Va Oo Si) crash in Paris after being pursued at high speed bywas a lawyer in Tuticorin. He was the first to float a paparazzi on motorcycles. Her companion, Dodi Fayed,corporate enterprise “The Swadeshi Steam Navigation and their chauffer also died when thier MercedesCompany Limited”. The native company attracted a crashed in a tunnel along the Seine river at Pond degood deal of the sea traffic between Tuticorin and LAlma bridge in Paris.Colombo, which was dominated by the British Indian Diya Mirza : The 18 year old Femina Miss India AsiaSteam Navigation Company and naturally VOC came to Pacific created history on December 2, 2000 becomingbe seen as an opponent of English business interests the first ever Indian to be crowned as Miss Asia Pacificin India in general. at the beauty Pageant in Manila (Philippines).Chittaranjan Dass : A famous Indian Patriot and Dorjee Phu : The first Indian to climb Mount Everestfreedom fighter who founded the Swarajist party in 1923. without oxygen, a seasoned mountaineer and instructorChittaranjan Singh Ranawat : The World renowned at the Sonamgyastso Mountaineiring institute ofOrthopaedic Surgeon who flew into Mumbai from New Gangtok was, along with two of his team mates,York, successfully operated upon Mr. Atal Behari overtaken by a fierce blizzard in May 1987. He scaledVajpayee replacing his left knee-joint by an artificial Kanchenjunga, world’s third highest peak. He scaledone at the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai on Mount Everest twice. He is a Padma Shri and ArjunaOctober 10, 2000. The surgery lasted for 65 minutes. Dr. award winner.Ranawat has performed close to 3000 such operations. Dupleix : French statesman; appointed Governor ofHe also replaced the right knee-joint of Mr. French East Indian possessions in 1742.Soli.J.Sorabjee, Indias Attorney General at the same E Eisenhower:He became the President ofHospital the same day. theUnited States. Commander of Allied ForcesChola, Rajaraja : The great Siva temple of Thanjavur in Europe. The first President of the U.S.A. to(Tanjore) was built by him. Suryankoil or Surya’s visit India. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 96Elizabeth I, Queen : Daughter of Henry VIII, she was reason the day of Baisakhi is very important in Sikhqueen of England, under whose rule England became history.a great power. Shakespeare lived during her time. Guru Nanak : Guru Nanak was born in 1469 atEpicurus : (342-270 BC) A Greek Philosopher who Talwandi now called Nankana Sahib in the Westfounded the Epicurus philosophy. He advised self Pakistan. He was opposed to caste system, idolnegation, subdued life and the practice of virtues. worship and untouchability. He founded the SikhEva Morris : The Worlds oldest woman died in religion.London on November 3, 2000 six days short of her Guru Tegh Bahadur : The nineth Guru of the Sikhs,115th birthday. She was officially recognised in March lived in Anandpur Sahib. He protested against the2000 as the oldest woman in the world by the Guinness anti-Hindi policy of Aurangzeb. He was summoned toBook of World Records. Ms. Morris took the title Delhi and asked to embrace Islam, which he refused. Sobecause her date of birth could be fully authenticated. he had to suffer martyrdom in 1675. His son Guru Gobind Singh therefore organised Sikhs into a militaryF Ferdinand Magellan: A Portuguese Sailor who commanded the first expedition to sail organisation and fought against Mughals all through round the world. He discovered the Magellan his life. HStrait and gave the Pacific Ocean his name. He died Harsha Vardhana:Harsha Vardhana was thebefore the completion of the first voyage round the last great Hindu King of Northern India. Oneworld.Florence of the noblest and most accomplished kings known to history. He combined in himself the qualitiesG Gallileo : He was an Italian Scientist and professor of Mathematics. He invented the of both Ashoka and Samudragupta. Harsha was a telescope and devoted his life to the study of great poet and dramatist. He wrote three drama’s inastronomy. Sanskrit namely Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadershika. Banabhatta wrote HarshacharitaGeorge Washington : An American General who led which is a valuable source of information about histhe revolt against the British and declared American’s reign. Hieun Tsang has given vivid description aboutIndependence. He became the first President of the Harsha’s reign. Nalanda University founded by KumaraUnited States. Gupta I was at the height of its fame.Giri, V.V. : The fourth President of India died in Hillary Rodham Clinton : The wife of former USMadras on June 23, 1980. He was Vice-President from President, Mr. Bill Clinton, scored a historic victory in1967 to 1969. A recipient of the Bharat Ratna, he had the American history by winning the US Senate seatdistinguished himself as a pioneer in the field of from New York on November 7, 2000 becoming the firstorganised labour, legislator, parliamentarian, diplomat wife of a President ever elected as a Senator. Sheand statesman. He is the author of “Job for Our defeated Republican Congressman, Mr. Rick Lazio.Millions”. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna for theyear 1975. Humayun : He was the ill-fated king among the Mughal rulers of India. In the battle of Kanauj he was defeatedGopal Krishna Gokhale : An able Indian statesman by Sher Shah Suri. While he was coming down thewhom Gandhi regarded as his politician Guru. He stairs of his storey at Delhi, he fell down and diedserved as the President of the Indian National Congress shortly. The word `Humayun’ means `fortunate’ but itin 1907. Servants of India Society was founded by him. is an irony of fate that Humayun proved a mostGuglielmo Marconi : Italian Electrical Engineer who unfortunate king. “He tumbled through life andinvented wireless telegraphy and radio. He received tumbled out of it”.Nobel Prize for physics for 1909 jointly with Ferdinand I Indira Gandhi : The daughter of JawarharlalBraun of Germany for development wireless. Nehru was the Prime Minister for 15 years. SheGunnar Myrdal : The renowned economist who used was shot dead by her own security man on Oct.his background in Sweden’s welfare state to unite 31, 1984. She was the recipient of Bharat Ratna in 1971.classic works about the poor in America and in Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar : A great social anddeveloping countries. The author of “An American religious reformer, a great Sanskrit scholar with aDilemma” he shared in 1974 Nobel Prize in Economics. heartful of sympathy for the poor, fought for theHe was a widower of Alvar Myrdal, a Nobel Peace Prize upliftment of Indian women and helped in the passinglaureate. Author of “Asian Drama”. of Widow Remarriage Act,1856.Guru Gobind Singh : He was the real founder of the JSikh power. He is the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs. Jagjivan Ram:The former Deputy Prime MinisterHe was a great warrior and writer. He re-organised the of Janata regime and Congress President. One ofsect at Anandpur Sahib and called as “the Khaslas”. the country’s ablest political administrators.This Guru Gobind Singh transformed the religious sect Jai Dev : The first great reformer and advocate ofof the Sikhs into an army of warrior-saints. For this Bhakti movement in northern India was Jai Dev. He © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 97belonged to Bengal. His great work is “Git Govind”. Kalpana Chawla : Dr. Kalpana Chawla was the firstKrishna and Radha are subject of his Sanskrit work. (Indo-American) woman to go into space. Her firstJawaharlal Nehru : The great Indian leader and mission was on 19.11.97. Her second mission 0n 16.1.03maker of modern India. He was the first Prime ended with a tragic explosion minutes before landingMinister of free India from 1947 and remained in the on 1.2.03. In a way to honour her, Indias firstoffice till his death. He pronounced the doctrine of meterological research statellite has been named asPancha sheel which advocated peaceful co-existence, Kalpana-I.non-alignment and non-interference in international Kamaraj Nadar, K : One of the leading freedomrelations. The Discovery of India, Autobiography and fighters and Congress Party leaders. He was ChiefGlimpses of World History are some among his famous Minister of Tamil Nadu and introduced several measuresliterary works. for the welfare of downtrodden in Tamil Nadu. He wasJayaprakash Narayan : The Sarvodaya leader was awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1976.instrumental in the formation of Janata Party which Kamban : A great Tamil poet and author of greatdefeated the Congress Party in 1977 general elections Kambaramayanam lived in the 9th Century A.D. Heto Lok Sabha. Popularly known as Loknayak, he was was a native of Tiruvalandur in Tamil Nadu. He wasconferred the Rashtra Bhushan Award in April 1977. hailed as “Kavi Chakravarthi”. Kamban has givenJean Jacques Rousseau : A great political philosopher full- fledged artistic expression to the grandeur andand thinker of France, who became famous for his vigour of this cultural upsurge in the greatest literarysocial contract theory. His teachings and writings led epic of India.to the French Revolution and the establishment of Kanishka : He was the third and greatest King of therepublics in different parts of the world. He uttered Kushan dynasty. He was a great conqueror. He was a“Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains”. Buddhist, and his reign witnessed the division ofJehangir (Salim) : He came into power after the death Buddhism into two sects namely Hinayana andof Akbar. He took keen interest in art and painting and Mahayana. Kanishka was a follower of the Mahayanalaying out gardens and was a lover of nature. The sect. Kanishka was a great patron of art and literature.great painter Goverdhana was in his court. He laid out The well known Ayurvedic physician Charaka was histhe Shalimar and Nishat gardens near Srinagar. Akbar’s court physician. He was the author of CharakaTomb at Sikandar was built by him. He was an Shastra, Nagarjuna, Ashvagosha, and Vasumitra.accomplished scholar too and wrote his autobiography Buddhist scholar flourished in his reign. Ashvagoshacalled Tuzh- i-Jehagiri. But he was addicted to drink wrote “Buddha Charita”. The Gandhara school ofand opium. He is therefore called a “talented architecture flourished during his reign. He foundeddrunkard”. During his reign Captain William Hawkins a town Kanishkapura.was sent to India to obtain some trade concession forthe English East India Company. Sir Thomas Roe came Karnam Malleswari : Indian weightlifter fromto the court of Jehangir and obtained permission to Andhra Pradesh, became First Indian woman everconstruct a factory at Surat. to win an Olympic medal.Joan of Arc : The girl whose heroism inspired the Kennedy, John : He was the youngest and the firstFrench to drive the English out of Orleans. She was Catholic President of United States. He wasburnt as a heretic at Rouen. She is called “Maid of assassinated in Dallas on 22.11.1963. KhanOrleans”. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan : A stalwart of India’sJohn Milton : A well known epic poet of English. His freedom struggle who personified Gandhiji’s ideals andpoetical works are Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. ideas, died in Peshawar on January 20, 1988 at the age of 98 after battling for life for more than 6 months. HeJoseph Stalin : He was a leader of the 1917 Russian was buried as per his will in Jalalabad in Afghanistan,Revolution. He became head of the government in 1924 86 k.m. from the Pakistan border on January 22, 1988.after the death of Lenin. He helped to make Russia agreat power. A recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1967, he was honouredJyoti Basu : The 87 year old longest serving Chief with India’s highest civilian award, Bharat Ratna in theMinister of a state (24 years) since the first Left Front year 1987. He was also associated with Red ShirtGovernment swept to power in 1977 in West Bengal Movement. He is also called “Frontier Gandhi”.announced his retirement from active politics andresigned as Chief Minister on October 27, 2000 on Kishore Kumar : The King of melody, who held swayhealth grounds. He has been in the Communist party over the music world for the past three decades diedsince 1940. on 13.10.1987 at the age of 58.K Kabir : Indian saint and poet of Nirguna Kofi Annan : The seventh UN Secretary General who Bhakti Movement. He believed in the unity of is credited with the achievement of averting a possible God and equality of all religions. military strike by Anglo-American forces on Iraq over © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 98weapons inspection issue. Recipient of the Seoul Peace weapon of Satyagraha, but he was imprisoned onPrize 1998 for his contribution to world peace. April 6, 1919. The Jalianwala Bagh tragedy took placeKrishna Deva Raya : The Vijayanagar Kingdom founded on April 13, 1919. The Khilafat Movement, Non co-by Harihara and Bukka rose to prominence by Krishna operation Movement and the Third Afghan War tookDeva Raya, the last great Hindu ruler of Southern India place.belonging to Tuluva dynasty. His reign was remarkable Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856) : He introduced Doctrinefor the encouragement and development of art and of Lapse and Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Jaipur wereculture. Tradition mentions that “Ashtadiggajas” annexed. Cudh was taken on grounds of mis-flourished in his court. The Telugu poet “Allasali government. He opened the first Indian Railway inPeddanna” was a famous poet. His reign constitutes 1853 between Bombay and Thane. Telegraph offices,a golden age in South Indian History. He opined “A post offices were opened.crowned king should always rule with an eye towards Lord Mayo (1869-1872) : A college was set up atDharma”. Ajmer to impart suitable education to the sons of theKrishnamurthy, Jiddu : A renowned philosopher of Indian princes. Subsequently, this college was calledIndia. His patrons, Annie Besant and C.W.Leadbeather as the “Mayo College”. Lord Mayo went to Andamanwanted to make him the world teacher after Christ and islands to inspect the conditions of the convicts, SherKrishna and created the order of the star in the East in Ali stabbed him to death at Port Blair.1911. In 1929, he dissolved the order of the Star of the Lord Mountbatten : On February 20, 1947 Mr.Attlee,East as he felt that spiritual organisations were a British Prime Minister declared that the Britishhindrance to the discovery of the truth. Government had decided to withdraw from India byL Lal Bahadur Shastri : The Prime Minister of June 1948. To prepare plans for the transfer of power, India who succeeded Jawaharlal Nehru in Lord Louis Mountbatten was sent to India in the place 1964. His courageous decision to meet of Lord Wavell.Pakistani invasion to Kashmir by Indian Armed forces Lord Mountbatten was able to persuade the Congressput an end to Pakistani aggression and taught them a to agree to the partition of India into two parts - Indialesson. He concluded the Tashkent Agreement and and Pakistan. The Indian Independence Act of 1947after signing the declaration, he died in Tashkent itself was passed in British Parliament. India attainedon January 10, 1966. He is associated with the slogan independence on 15th August 1947. Lord Mountbatten“Jai Jawan Jai Kisan”. He is called “Man of Peace”. was the first British Governor General of free IndiaHe was awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1966. and last Viceroy of India. C.Rajagopalachari was theLala Lajpatrai : He was the Congress leader of the first and last Indian Governor-General of free India.United Punjab. He is well known for his contribution to Mountbatten was Britain’s supreme Allied Commanderfreedom movement and social reforms. He died of in South-East Asia in World War II. He was killed in aninjuries caused by lathi-charge by the police while he explosion on a boat while holidaying in the Irishwas leading a demonstration against the Simon Republic.Commission in the year 1928. He was called “Lion of Lord Ripon : The only British Viceroy who becamePunjap” (Punjap Kesari). He is the author of “Unhappy immensely popular with the Indian people. TheIndia”. Vernacular Press Act was repealed in 1882. The mostLara Dutta : The 21 year old Miss. India Universe was important measure of Lord Ripon was to encourage thecrowned Miss. Universe 2000 beating 78 other institution of Local Self Government in India. He iscontestants at the Beauty Pageant in Nicosia (Cyprus) therefore called the Father of Local Self Government.on May 13, 2000. The Hunter Commission recommended that the primary and secondary education be transferred in the hands ofLeonardo da Vinci : He was a great Italian painter, local bodies subject to the supervision of Educationalarchitect, sculptor, scientist, engineer and musician Officer of the government. The government acceptedrolled into one. Last Supper and Mona Lisa are two of most of the recommendations. The Punjab Universityhis most important paintings. was established in 1882. The first Factory Act wasLeo Tolstoy : The great novelist and dramatist of passed. The first census of the Indian people in 1881Russia. His famous novels are War and Peace, Anna was taken and it was resolved that it would beKarenina, Resurrection. Mahatma Gandhi had great repeated after every 10 years. The Ilbert Bill Indianadmiration for him and drew inspiration from his Judges to hear cases against Europeans could notwritings. be passed.Lord Chelmsford : The Rowlatt Act was passed in Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835) : He is known for1919. Under this Act of Government armed itself with many reforms viz., suppression of thuggee (Plunderersunlimited rights, even to detain a person and arrest him of North India), prohibition of “Sati, the evil systemwithout producing him before a court. To oppose the followed by Rajputs, female infanticide and humanRowlatt Act, Mahatma Gandhi introduced the unique sacrifices. Lord William Bentinck received the hearty © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 99support of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He introduced has written some 10 novels and various critical worksEnglish Education in India. The first Indian Medical and poetry collections.College was opened at Calcutta and the Elphinstone Maria Montessori : Founder of the MontessoryCollege was founded at Bombay. He was the first Governor system of child education, who hailed from Italy. HerGeneral to act on the principle that the first duty of system enables the child to learn naturally and easily.British Government was to govern India for the benefitof Indians and not simply to extend the territory. Martin Luther : A celebrated German reformer who fought against the dogmas of the Catholic Church andLouis Braille : He was the inventor of embossed dot got himself excommunicated on that account. Hissystem of reading and writing for the blind. movement of reformation eventually led to the emergence of Protestantism.M Mahatma Gandhi : Indian leader who fought against the British rule. He believed in non- Masti Venkatesh Iyengar : The grand old man of violence and led India to achieve Kannada literature, popularly known as `Masti’ andindependence. He is called the `Father of Indian also `Srinivasa’, he won the Jnanpith Award in 1983 forNation’. Gandhiji founded the Sabarmati Ashram at his novel `Chikkaveera Rajendra’.Ahmedabad. Gandhiji made his first experiment ofSatyagraha in Champaran. In 1919 Gandhiji led an Megasthanese : Megasthanese was a Greek scholaragitation against the Rowlatt Act and made Satyagraha who was sent by Seleucus as an ambassador to thehis instrument of struggle. Gandhiji gave to the court of Chandra Gupta Maurya. He lived in Pataliputra, the capital of Chandragupta for about a period of 5country the slogan, “Do or Die”. On January 30, 1948he was assassinated at the prayer meeting. Jawaharlal years. During his stay whatever he heard and saw withNehru declared “The light has gone out of our lives”. his own eyes he jotted down in a book called "Indica".The world dignitaries visit his Samadhi at Rajghat Indica throws a flood of light on the personality of thewhenever they visit India. king, his capital and also his system of administration. Michael Faraday : He was an English Scientist whoMahavira : Vardhaman Mahavira is considered to be made important discoveries in electricity and magnetismthe founder of Jainism. He was born as Kundagram which laid the foundation of the modern electricalnear Vaisali. He was called Mahavira or the Great industry. At first, he was assistant to Sri HumphreyHero and Jina or the Conqueror. He first preached in Davy at the Royal Institution.Maghada. His teachings were Karma andTransmigration and Nirvana. The object of life is to Mother Teresa : The angel of mercy who conqueredattain Nirvana, which can be achieved by following the the world by serving the poorest of the poor. Romanthree fold path namely (1) Right Faith, (2) Right Catholic nun born to Albanian parents in Yugoslavia,Knowledge and (3) Right Conduct. These three and baptized Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhin. Came to Indiaprinciples are called “Three Jewels” or “Tri Ratna”. and was a teacher at Kolkata. Founded "MissionariesThe Jains worship Tirthankaras. Mahavira died at the of Charity", devoted to working for destitutes. Becameage of 72 at Pawa. (Patna district). a citizen of India in 1962. Set up about 570 homes forMahmud of Ghazani : A brilliant General and a mighty the poor, spread in about 125 countries. Nobel Peaceconqueror. He led as many as 17 expeditions into Prize 1979, Magsaysay Award 1962, Bharat Ratna 1980,India. He attacked the most celebrated temple of and many other awards. Mother Teresa died onSomnath. He entered the temple, broke the idol and September 5, 1997 due to cardiac arrest. She wastook vast booty. He would rather like to be known as conferred with Saint hood on October 19, 2003 atMahmud the idol-breaker than Mahmud the idol- St.Peters Square in Vatican by Pope John Paul II.seller. The frequent invasions and conquest of India. Motilal Nehru : A great patriot, famous lawyer andHe was a patron of art and letters. Alberuni, Firdausi leader of Swaraj Party, was father of Jawaharlal Nehru.and Ansari adorned his court. He also erectedmosques and one of the mosques was called the Muhammad Tughlak : The real name of Muhammad“Celestial bride”. Tughlak was Jauna Khan. He made Devagiri his capital and named it Daulatabad. This hasty project of theMajor Yuri Gagarin : This Russian cosmonaut was the Sultan has caused immense suffering to the people. Hefirst spaceman of the world at the age of 27. Helaunched into space on April 12, 1961 in Vostok I and issued copper coins and ordered that they should bereturned to earth safely. He died in an aircrash. considered equal in value to the gold and silver coins. But the people began to make counterfeit coins. TheManu : Famous Hindu Law giver and author of Manu result was that the government suffered heavily andSmiriti. the trade and industry came to a standstill. The SultanMargaret Atwood : One of Canadas most prolific and was a man of able ideals which were far in advance bywell known authors bagged the prestigious Booker the age in which he lived. Ibn Batuta, the celebratedPrize for 2000 in London on November 7, 2000 for her Arabian traveller visited his court and wrote a verynovel "The Blind Assassin". The 60 year old author interesting account of his experiences. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 100 PMunshi, K.M. : A great writer, educationalist and Pandita Ramabai: She started the Saradaexpert on constitutional law. He played an active role Sadan, a school for widows. She alsofor India’s freedom. He is associated with started Krupa Sadan. It was a rescue home`Vanamahotsava’. for girls who were forced into prostitute homes underMuthulakshmi : Dr. Muthulakshmi was a pearl among dire circumstances. She also founded Mukti Missionwomen and a champion among social reformers. She which bacame a shelter for the downtrodden womenwas the first Indian woman to take MB & C.M. and girls. In the complex of Mukti Mission at PoonaDegree in Medicine. She campaigned against the evil there are schools for the blind and for the mentallycustom of the Devadasi system. By this, young girls retarded.were dedicated to the temple and subjected to Pottekkatt S.K. : The renowned writer was the secondmoral indignities in the name of God. She is the Malayalam writer to get the 1981 Jnanapith Award, thefounder of Adyar Cancer Institute. first being the late Mahakavi G.Sankara Kurup.N Nagarjuna : He was the famous scholar Prithvi Raj Chauhan : Prithvi Raj Chauhan also known during the period of Kanishka. His works as Rai Pithora was the last Hindu ruler of Delhi and have been found in China and Tibet. Ajmer. He waged many wars. It is said that he carriedNand Lal Bose : A famous Indian Artist, was the off Samyukta, the beautiful daughter of Jai Chand, rulerDirector of Kala Bhavan, Shantiniketan. He died in the of Kanauj from her Swayamvar. This caused bad bloodyear 1966. between Prithvi Raj and Jai Chand. In 1191, he defeated Muhammed Ghori, but in 1192, he wasNapolean Bonaparte : French military leader nicknamed defeated by the latter and put to death. This court“Little corporal” became emperor of France from 1804 poet Chand Bardai, wrote an account of Prithvi Rajto 1815. He was victorious in various battles against in Prithvi Raj Rasau.England, Russia and Austria but was finally defeatedat Waterloo in 1815 and was exiled to St.Helena where Priyanka Chopra : The Femina Miss. India (World)he died. from Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh) was crowned Miss. WorldNarayana Guru, Sri : He was a great social reformer, 2000 at the 50th Miss World beauty Pageant in Londonsaint and philosopher of Kerala who had a place next on November 30, 2000. The 18 year old Priyankato Adi Sankara. He flourished in the first half of the Chopra is the Fifth Indian to win the Miss. World titletwentieth century and worked for eradication of after Rita Faria (1966), Aishwarya Rai (1994), Dianauntouchability and social equality based on caste. He Hayden (1997) and Yukta Mookhey (1999).was the first to propagate “One caste, one religion Pythagoras : He was a Greek philosopher andand one God” for man. astronomer. Took keen interest in geometry.Nelson Mandela : The Former South African President Q Quab-ud-din Aibak : Qutab-ud-din was veryand Nobel Prize Laureate (1993) was on November 29, brave, best and generous and proved a good2000, selected to share the Gandhi Peace Prize with the ruler of Slave dynasty . On account of hisGrameen Bank of Bangladesh for his "exemplary work generosity he was called Lakh Bakhsh or Lakhresulting in social economic and political transformation Data. He was a great builder. He began the constructionthrough non-violence and Gandhian means". The of Qutub Minar and Qutub-Mosque after the name ofaward which carries an amount of Rs.1 crore and a Khwaja Qutab-ud-din, a Muslim saint. Both of thesecitation has for the first time been jointly awarded to buildings were completed by Altamash. Qutab-ud-dintwo persons or institutions. Dr. Nelson Mandela, who while playing Chaugan (polo) at Lahore, he fell off hisdedicated his life to fight against apartheid in South horse and died of injuries.Africa and spent 27 years in prison to bring down an Runjust political order, is also the second foreign Rabindranath Tagore : The famous Indianrecipient of Bharat Ratna (1990). poet, patriot, novelist and philosopher, in Bengal. He was awarded Nobel Prize for hisNiccolo Machiavelli : An Italian statesman, diplomat work Gitanjali in 1913. He is the first Asian to receiveand historian who advocated that the ends justified the this honour. He founded Vishwabharati which is ameans. The Prince and Discourses are two of his world university Shantiniketan in Bengal. He ispolitical treatises. also called “Gurudev”. The National Anthem “JanaNicolas Copernicus : He was a Polish priest and Gana Mana” was composed by him. Rabindranathastronomer. He made the great discovery that the earth renounced his knighthood in protest against Jallianwalais a planet moving round the Sun, with other planets Bagh Massacre.and that the earth was not the centre of the Universe. Radhakrishnan, Dr.S. : A great Indian Scholar, thinkerNightingale : A famous English Nurse who organised and second President of the Indian Republic. He wasthe nursing service in aid of soldiers who were also the first Vice- President of India. His great workswounded in the Crimean War. She came to be called include Bhagwat Gita., The Hindu View of Life, Indian“The Lady with the Lamp”. Philosophy. He was awarded Templeton Award for © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 1011975 for special contribution to Hinduism. He was Ramanuja : Ramanuja preached Vaishnavism in theawarded Bharat Ratna posthumously. south and declared Bhakti to be the sole of Salvation.Rajagopalachari, C. : Popularly known as “Rajaji” and His doctrine is called Visishtadvaita. He is considered“CR” was the first and last Governor General of free to be the first great exponent of Bhakti movement.India. C. Rajagopalachari is one of the ablest Ramaswami, E. V. : E. V. Ramaswami popularlystatesmen of India. In July 1948, the Kashmir known as “Periyar” was born in Erode. He foughtCommission arrived in India and at once set about its against irrational beliefs, outmoded customs andbusiness in right earnest. The Razakars in Hyderabad superstitious practices of all kinds. He also foughtwere committing inhuman atrocities and the Nizam was for the progress of the backward classes. Heasked to disband the Razakars. But he refused. So the participated in the struggle for securing for thepolice action was taken against him. Major General Harijans the right to go into the temple and earned forJ.N.Chaudhuri was appointed Military Governor who himself the title of “the hero of Vaikam Satyagraha”.restored law and order in the State. Rajagopalachari (Vaikam is a temple at Kerala).was the founder of Swatantra Party. As a Chief Rana Pratap : The most illustrious figure in the historyMinister of Tamil Nadu he introduced prohibition. He of Rajasthan. He was a great patriot. He refused towas also responsible for the Nuclear Test Ban. He also submit to Akbar, the greatest monarch of his time, andled the historical salt march from Tiruchi to Vedaranyam, make marriage alliance with him. He also made a vowa distance of 241 km. He was awarded the first Bharat that as long as he did not recover Chitor he wouldRatna Award in 1954. sleep on the ground, would eat out leaves instead ofRaja Rammohan Roy : A well known social reformer of dishes, and would not twist his moustaches. AkbarIndia who dedicated his life for eradication of evils like sent Raja Mansingh against him. Rana Pratap wasSati, Child marriage and Purdah. Founder of Brahmo defeated. He was in fact, a true son of the motherlandSamaj. He is called “Father of Modern India”. and a noble patriot.Rajendra Prasad, Dr. : He is the first unanimously Ranjit Singh : His title Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of Punjab).elected President of the Republic of India. He was the He united all the Sikhs to form into a powerful SikhChairman of the Constituent Assembly while Dr. B.R. State in 1783 AD. He was a successful administratorAmbedkar was the Chairman of the Indian Constitution and organised the central and provincial administration.Drafting Committee. He was the true apostle of He reformed the revenue and provincial systems.Gandhism and a symbol of “Simple living and high Robert Clive (1725-1774) : He came to India as a clerkthinking. He was the author of “India Divided”. in the East India Company. He showed such remarkableRajiv Gandhi : son of Late Prime Minister Indira military genius that he became Commander-in-Chief.Gandhi and former Prime Minister of India was He defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah supported by the Frenchassassinated on May 21, 1991. He is also a recipient of in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Returned to EnglandBharat Ratna award for the year 1991 posthumous. in 1760; his later years were marked by mentalRamabai Ranade : Born in Satara district of Maharashtra. disturbance and ultimately he committed suicide.She wrote several books of which Reminiscences and Robert Walpole : He was opposed to war and hisRecollections written in Marathi, are considered classics. policy of peace gave England a much needed rest fromShe established Poona Seva Sadan for education of war and led the country to economic prosperity duringwomen to make them economically independent. She his 21 years of office as first Prime Minister of England.also established Seva Sadan Nursing and Medical Roosevelt, F.D. : The only American to be elected fourAssociations. times to the highest office in the United States. DuringRamachandran, Dr. M.G. : The late Tamil Nadu Chief his presidentship, America entered World War II andMinister was on Jan.25,1988 posthumously awarded title the scales in favour of the allies. His name is alsoBharat Ratna the highest civilian honour by the nation. remembered for his New Deala Reform in America.He was the founder leader of the All India Anna President Roosevelt defined the “four essential humanDravida Munnetra Kazhagam. freedoms”as (1) Freedom of speech and expression, (2)Ramakrishna Paramahamsa : A great Saint of India Freedom to worship God in one’s own way, (3) Freedomand guru of Swami Vivekananda. He hailed from from want, (4) Freedom from fear. SBengal and the Ramakrishna Mission has been founded Salim Ali : The eminent Ornithologist knownafter his name. as “the Birdman of India” watched birds forRamanand : Ramanand was born at Allahabad. It was most of his life, is a winner of severalthrough him that the Bhakti movement became popular international and national honours including Padmain North India. He was the first Hindu reformer who Vibhushan in 1976.preached in the language of the people in Hindi. He Samudragupta : Samudragupta one of the oldest andpreached the worship of Rama and Sita. He also most powerful of Hindu Kings. He was a great generalstrongly condemned caste system. and had passion for war. He is called the Indian © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 102Napolean by historians. He conquered a very large Independence” in 1906 at London about the greatpart of India. He was also an accomplished scholar, uprising of 1857 helped both to put the record straightpoet and musician. He got that title of “Kaviraja”. In and infuse a spirit of nationalism and rebellion amongcommomeration of his brilliant conquests, Samudragupta the youth of the country.celebrated the Ashwamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice) and Sawai Jai Singh II : Founder of Jaipur City (calledassumed the title of Maharajadhiraj. He was a skilled Rose Pink City) was a astronomer King. The king hadmusician and an expert player of Veena. He also got constructed huge stone observatories (Janterpatronised poets and chief among them was Harisena, Mantars) for astronomical observations in varioushis court poet. Harisena’s poem in Sanskrit inscribed parts of Northern India including Delhi and Jaipur. Hison a pillar of Asoka which stands at Allahabad is the 500th Birth Anniversary was celebrated onchief source of information of his reign. November 3, 1989.Sankaracharya : Sankara was born at Kaladi in Kerala Shah Jahan : He was the most magnificent of thein 1788. He learnt the four Vedas. He preached the Mughal emperors. His reign was the golden age ofbasic ideas of the Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagvat Mughal architecture. He built Taj Mahal, a magnificentGita. He preached the philosophy of Advaita. He calls marble tomb in memory of his wife Mumtaz. TajGod “The Paramathma”. The soul in our body is Mahal is at Agra. The pearl mosque, Red Fort, Jama-called “Jeevathma”. The body is the temple where Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Jehangir’s Tomb etc., arejeevathma lives. Hence the body should be kept beautiful work constructed by him. He is thereforepure. He taught `Mukti’, a stage when Jeevathma called the “Engineer King”. The Peacock Throne(man) realises the Paramathma (God) within himself. He built by him was taken away by Nadir Shah to Iran.founded mutts to propagate the philosophy of Advaita. Shakespeare : The greatest English poet and dramatist.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel : Sardar Patel was the first He was born at Stratford-on-Avon. He first appearedDeputy Prime Minister of India. He is called the “Iron before the public as a poet in 1593 with his Venus andman of India”, “Bismarc of India” who played a Adonis. His famous plays are Macbeth, Merchant ofunique part in the unification of India. He was Venice, Julious Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra etc. Heresponsible for the annexation of Princely States to died at the age of 52.Indian Union. The two enclaves Dadra and NagarHaveli which were under the Portuguese domination Sher Shah Suri : Sher Shah’s original name was Faridwere merged in the Indian Union on 17, August 1961.In Khan. He defeated Humayun at Kanauj. During theGujarat a conflict developed between the peasantry brief period of his rule he attempted to set up a nationaland the British Government when the latter attempted state and initiated those reforms which brought him theto increase Revenue. Vallabhbhai Patel took up the title of the “Forenunner of Akbar”. He introducedcause of the peasants and the struggle was known postal system and constructed the Grand Trunkas the Bardoli Satyagraha. The struggle met with a Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. Sher Shah killed aconsiderable success. It was because of this successful tiger and came to be called “Sher Khan”. His famousagitation that Vallabhbhai Patel came to be called tomb at Sasaram (Bihar) is one of the finest“Sardar”. monuments in India.Mrs. Sarojini Naidu : Gifted Indian poetess of English Shivaji : Shivaji organised the Marathas into a nation.language who came to be known as “Nightingale of His contact with Guru Ramdas, a renowned religiousIndia” and also “Indian Torudatt”. She took part in preacher inspired Shivaji with boundless zeal for HinduIndia’s freedom struggle and was the second woman religion and love for motherland. He levied MughlaiPresident of Indian National Congress (Mrs.Annie the surrounding territory from which he collectedBesant was the First woman President of Indian Chauth and Sardeshmukhi taxes. The guerilla warfareNational Congress). In free India she became the first was introduced by him. He assumed the title ofwoman Governor of an Indian State (Uttar Pradesh). “Chatrapathi” at Raigarh coronation.Her outstanding works are “The Golden Threshold”, Sigmund Freud : He is considered to be father of“The Broken Wing”, “The Bird of Time”, “The modern psychological school. The interpretation ofSceptered Flute”, “The Song of India” etc. Dreams, Psychopathology of Everyday Life, The EgoSatyamurti : He was an eminent freedom fighter and an and the Id are some of his famous works.important leader of the Indian National Congress. He Sister Subbalakshmi : Sister Subbalakshmi oftook a leading part in the Civil Disobedience Movement Chennai was one of the social reformers of the(1930) and in the Quit India Movement (1942). He was present century. She worked for the progress ofarrested and imprisoned four times and died on March woman. She advocated equality of sex, widow28, 1943 in captivity. remarriage, higher education for women and employmentSavarkar, V.D. : He was the founder of Abinava opportunities for women. She started a Widow’s HomeBharatha, secret society of revolutionaries. It preached and gave craft training to the widows so that theythe gospel of freedom. His book “India’n War of could earn their livelihood. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 103Sirimavo Bandaranaike : Former Sri Lankan Prime Swami Vivekananda : A great Hindu saint and religiousMinister (three times) and mother of President Ms. leader, born in Calcutta on January 12, 1863 and hisChandrika Kumaratunga died of heart attack in Colombo original name was Narendranath Datta. A disciple ofon October 10, 2000, soon after casting her vote in Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, he championed theOctober Parliamentary elections. Earlier, Mrs. Sirimavo greatness of Vedantic philosophy. He founded theBandaranaike resigned from the Prime Ministership in Ramakrishna Mission to carry on his humanitarian andAugust 2000 on health grounds. She entered politics social work. He represented Hinduism in the Parliamentafter her husband, S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike was of Religions in Chicago (U.S.A.).assassinated by a Buddhist monk in 1959. In July 1960 T Tata, Jamshedji: The Indian industrialistParliamentary elections, she led the Sri Lanka Freedom founded the Tata Iron & Steel Co. in Bihar andParty (SLFP) to a landslide victory to become the worlds thus started the industrial progress of India.first elected woman Prime Minister on 22-7-1960. Tenzing Norgay : Nicknamed the “Tiger of Snows”, theStalin Joseph : He was a leader of 1917 Russian ace mountaineer, who with Edmund Hillary was the firstRevolution. He helped to make Russia a great power. to climb Mount Everest (8,848 metre-high) was awardedSubash Chandra Bose : Called “Nethaji”, was a true Padma Bushan.patriot of India. The British Government interned him in Thomas Alva Edison : A great American inventor. Hehis own house at Calcutta.On 26th January, 1941, it was began life as a newsboy and then served as a telegraphfound that he had mysteriously disappeared. During operator. He has more than 1,000 inventions to histhe World War II, he organised a regular army and credit including motion pictures, gramophone, electriccalled in the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind bulb, etc.Fauz in Singapore. They gave good fight to the Britishforces in Assam Hill. Their war song was - “Advance Thyagaraja : He was saint of South India and a greatstep by step, sing the song of joy, your life belongs to composer of South Indian Music and devotionalthe nation, sacrifice it for the sake of the nation”. songs.After the surrender of Japanese, he is said to have Tipu Sultan : He was an able ruler of Mysore. He wasbeen killed in an air crash accident. He was the founder not only a valiant soldier but also a General. He got theof Forward Bloc Party. His slogans “Jai Hind” and title “Tiger of Mysore”. He waged three wars against“Dilli Chalo” are inspirations of our nationalism. the rulers of East India Company.Subramania Bharati : Subramania Bharati born in Todar Mal : He was Akbar’s Revenue Minister and oneEttayapuram is a poet, journalist, patriot and of the nine gems of Akbar’s courts. He was famous forphilosopher. His birth centenary year was observed in his land revenue reforms.1981. He had a dramatic impact in Tamil literature. He Tulsidas : He was a great Hindu religious preacher andhad spotlighted the unbroken evolution of Indian wrote famous Ramacharitamanas in which he hasculture from the ancient times to the 20th century. described life story of Lord Rama.Subramaniam. C : The father of Indias Green Revolution U Uday Shankar : He was the famous artist andand elder statesman died in Chennai on November 7, exponent of Indian dance. He was the elder2000 at the age of 90. A recipient of Bharat Ratna, C. brother of the famed sitarist Ravi Shankar.Subramaniam was one of the members of ConstitutentAssembly. He played a significant role as Minister Usha P.T. : The Sprint Queen and Golden Girl, who isin the erstwhile cabinets of C.Rajagopalachari and K. also known as Payyoli Express of Indian athletics withKamaraj in Tamil Nadu. He later served as Union a long span of 23 years as a sports career, was namedMinister handling various portpolios under four Prime as female sports person of the Century by IndianMinisters, Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Olympic Association (IOA) on December 28, 1999.Indira Gandhi and Charan Singh, besides being a She was conferred Arjuna Award in 1983 and PadmaDeputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. He was Shri in 1985.appointed Governor of Maharashtra in 1992. V Valmiki : A celebrated Sanskrit poetSun Yat-sen : The founder and first President of of Ancient India. He wrote the FamousChinese Republic played a prominent part in the 1911 “Ramayana”.Revolution of China. Varahmihira : A distinguished astronomer,Surendranath Banerjee : A great Indian Patriot of mathematician and philosopher of early India. He wasBengal who held the Presidentship of the Indian one of the nine gems who adorned the Court of KingNational Congress twice. The pioneer of the Nationalist Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II).agitation in India. He founded the “Indian Association” Veerasalingam Pantulu : Kandekeeri Veerasalingamaiming to make it the centre of the Indian National Pantulu was a great social reformer of Andhra Pradesh.Congress. Eminent leader in the agitation against the He started a monthy journal in Telugu, Vivekavardhanipartition of Bengal. and expressed his enlightened views on widow re- © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 104marriage. The Widow’s Home in Rajamundry was world chess title winning the FIDE World Chessfounded by him. Championship in Teheran on December 24, 2000 byMrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit : She was born on August defeating Alexei Shirov of Spain (3.5-0.5). He was18, 1900. She was younger to Jawaharlal Nehru. Mrs. formally crowned 15th World Chess Champion.Pandit had several firsts to her credit. She was the first Vladimir Lenin : Founder of modern CommunistIndian woman to become a Cabinet Minister, when Russia who was responsible for the successful Sovietappointed as the Minister of Local Government & revolution of October- November 1917. He wrote “NotHealth in the Congress Ministry of U.P. from 1937-1939. a single problem of a class struggle has ever beenShe was the first woman Ambassador, the first woman solved in history except by violence”. Lenin’sto lead a delegation to the U.N. General Assembly mausoleum is in Red Square, Moscow.(1946-51) as well as first President (1953-54). Also led Wthe first Indian delegation to China after the Communist Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee : (W. C.regime was established. Also the first woman to head Bonnerjee) He was the first President ofa London diplomatic mission in 1954 when she became the Indian National Congress, and a notablethe High Commissioner for India in London.She served part in the setting up of the League of Nations.as the Governor of Maharashtra for two years from Y Yukta Mookhey : The 20 year old Miss India1962. The first woman to be accorded the unique was crowned Miss. World at the last Misshonour in international diplomacy, she treated her World Beauty Pageant of the Millinneumelection as President of the U.N. General Assembly (1999) held in London. She is the third Indian beautymore as an honour to India.Her autobiography “The to bag the title in a decade, after Aishwarya Raj (1994)Scope of Happiness” and “Selection of Speeches” are and Diana Hayden (1997).two of her well-known books. [She was awarded the Z“Padma Vibushan” by the Government of India and the Zakir Hussain.Dr: Dr. Zakir Hussain was“One world award” and medal for services to humanity India’s second Vice President. He was electedin the U.S.]Her death on December 1, 1990 symbolises as President after a hot contest with formerthe fading of an era, a powerful voice that had led Chief Justice K. Subba Rao. Dr. Zakir Hussain wasIndia’s prestige soaring in international diplomacy. a great educationist. He was the founder of Jamia Millia, an institution which has done a lot in theVisvesvarayya, M. : A great engineer of Mysore who promotion of education in India. As President, Dr.distinguished himself by building the dam across Zakir Hussain pledged to serve the peopleCauvery in Mysore. He was also a recipient of the wholeheartedly and impartially. He said “The whole ofBharat Ratna Award. Bharat is my home and its people my family”. He diedViswanathan Anand : The Grandmaster became the in office on 3-5-1969. He was awarded “Bharat Ratna”First Indian as also Asian Chess Player to clinch the for the year 1963. GENERAL TERMINOLOGYAd Hoe Committee : is a committee constituted for a transportation, industries, nuclear explosions, etc. Thespecial purpose. problem has recently assumed alarming proportionsAdult Franchise : The right of voting in election and nuclear explosions, etc., The problem has recentlygranted to every adult male or female having completed assumed alarming proportions and is presently engaging18 years, without distinctin of caste, creed or colour. the attention of scientists all over the world.Also called Adult Suffrage. Ambassador : a diplomatic envoy of the highest orderAggression : The act of attacking. It occurs when sent by one State to another.forces of one country enter the territory of another High Commissioner : is the designation given to thecountry. This can happen after declaration of war by or highest diplomatic representative of one Commonwealthboth or them, or even without any such decalration. country to another.Agricultural Revolution : The transition from feudal to Apartheid : The language is spoken in South Africa.modern farming practices is referred to as agricultural Its literal meaning is “apart-hood”. The word is used torevolution. It does not mean some suden or rapid describe the policy of keeping the white and the blackchanges. It may be revolutionary in character. Like the people separate from each other. It also means favouringwell-known industrial revolution, some countries have one race at the cost of another. South Africa andexperienced “agricultural revolution”. Recently, the Rhodesia follow this policy.“Green Revolution” witnessed in India. Asylum : means a place of refuge or protection.Air Pollution : means fouling up of the atmosphere asa result of discharge into it of noxious and even Automation : Automation means use of such machinespoisonous fumes, produced by automotive in industry as can run automatically, replacing the work © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 105of human beings. With automation, machines are used means one who sells stock for delivery at a future dateto control other machines and the process is virtually anticipating fall in prices.endless. Cabinet : a committee of ministers holding the mostAutonomy : power or right of self-governing. important portfolios. They are responsible for theBalance of Power : Some believe that rival States legislature and they also work under a system of jointshould build up equal military strength. According to responsibility.them, it is necessary for keeping the peace. It is called CD-ROM - It is a computer peripheral device thatthe theory of “balance of power”. employs compact disk technology to store largeBalance of Trade : The difference between the visible amounts of digitized data for later retrieval.exports and visible imports of two countries in trade Census : an official enumeration of inhabitants withwith each other is called balance of trade. If the statistics relating to them. The last census operationsdifference is positive, the balance of trade (or of in India were held in 1991.payment) is called favourable balance of trade and Cellular Phone : This phone allows you to make aif negative, it is called unfavourable balance of trade telephone while on the move. It can be installed(or payment). in vehicles or can be carried along.Bank Nationalisation : Some major Indian Banks have Coalition : combination of political parties. When abeen nationalised with the object (i) to remove control single political party has not won an overall majority ofby the few over the commanding heights of economy, seats in a legislature, two or more political parties(ii) to provide for adequate credit for agriculture and combine together form a government. Such a govt. issmall industry, (iii) to widen ownership base in order to called a coalition government.end concentration of economic and industrial power inselected few hands. Communism : is a political system. It believes in aBank Rate : It is the rate of interest charged by the classless society in which there will be no privateReserve Bank of India for lending money to property. Pure communism has not been achieved anywhere in the world so far.commercial banks.Black Market : Selling goods at a higher price with a Computer : (1) An electronic device that can storeprofiteering motive by creating artificial scarcity by recall, or process information. A computer performsmeans of hoarding, etc. these tasks according to instructions which can easily be changed so it is able to do many different kinds ofBlack Money : means unaccounted money, concealed work. Computers keep files, solve mathematicalincome and undisclosed wealth. In order to evade problems, play games, and control the operations oftaxes, some people falsify their accounts and do not other machines. (2) Person skilled or trained inrecord all transactions in their account books. computing. This was invented by Charles Babbage.Blood Bank : It is a storing place of reserve blood kept Consumer Durable : Consumer Durable means anyfor emergency transfusion. Persons donating blood are commodity for personal use that has a long life, suchgenerally between 21 and 50 years of age, with as furniture and electrical goods, as opposed to foodnegative history of syphilis, chronic alcoholism and and drink, which are perishable and have to berecent illness. replenished frequently.Blue Chip : This is the common stock of a large, Customs Duty : is a tax levied on foreign goodsreputed corporation which has a stable and least risky imported into the home country or home-made goodsgrowth path. The stocks of such a corporation, typical exported to foreign countries. (Excise Duty is a taxblue-chip, stocks, are high-priced. levied on certain commodities produced and consumedBlue revolution : Refers to fish-farming. within the country).Brain Drain : When the best talents of one country Direct Taxes : refer to income-tax levied directlyare attracted to another because of salary, living and onindividuals on their total world income. (Taxesworking conditions etc., in the latter are more collected in the shape of excise duties levied on goodsattractive, and a one way traffic in talent starts, it is of daily use or consumption are called “indirect taxes”).called brain drain. E-Mail : E-mail or Electronic mail is more cheaper, fasterBudget : It is the statement of the receipts and and flexible than most other means of communication.expenditures of a country during a year. It is presented It involves transporting a computer file that containsto the Assembly for voting. It is a sort of balance sheet the e-mail message from one computer to another.of a country requiring the sanction of the legislature. E-Commerce : This refers to the application of theBulls and Bears : are terms used on the Stock Internet in conducting commerce of any kind. ItExchange. Bull refers to one who seeks to raise the includes buying and selling of goods, services orprice of stock and speculate on a rise, whereas Bears information, between individuals and between © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 106corporations. E-commerce has been categorised into Mid-term Poll : A mid-term poll is an election held outthree. Business-to-Business (B2B), Business-to- of schedule as a result of the dissoluton of a StateConsumer (B2C) and Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C). legislature before it has been in existence for its normalEstate Duty : is a duty levied on the estate or property span of life.which changes hands on the death of a person, and Mixed Economy : Signifies the middle path betweenhas to be paid by his or her inheritors or successors. capitalism and socialism. India has a mixed economy -Excise Duty and Customs Duty : Excise Duty is a tax economic activity being mainly divided into twolevied on certain commodities produced and consumed sectors - public sector and the private sector. India hadat home. Customs duty is levied on imports & exports. accepted the ideal of a mixed economy as its national polity.Fax : Short for Facsimile, it is a device that transmitspictures, drawings, text to a similar device at the Modvat : Modified Value Added Tax-the new scheme ofreceiving end, using telephone lines. indirect taxes - was introduced in India from March 1, 1986. It allows a manufacturer to obtain instant andFloor Crossing : When a member of the legislature complete reimbursement of the excise duty paid on theleaves the opposition to join the party inpower or vice components and raw materials.versa, he or she is said to have crossed the floor. Thisis also called “defection” of legislators from their National Income : The World “net” is of specialparent parties. significance, because from the total gross produce a certain amount is to be deducted as charges forFree Port : a port where no duties are levied on articles depreciation and wearing out of the plant and otherof commerce. capital equipments, while the net income from foreignGherao : These are tactics of coercion and intimidation investments must be added.by wrongful confinement adopted by agitating workmen.“Gheraos” have been termed illegal and banned. Octroi : It is a form of tax levied on goods entering a municipal town. The tax thus collected is generallyGift Tax : In order to plug th eleakage of taxes through used for the maintenance of the town.the offerings made by way of gifts by a relative toanother of his kin, the Central Government introduced Open University : is an University wherein studentsthe Gift Tax. are free to join, leave and rejoin at any stage in their educaiton which is organized as a continuing process.Gold Bonds : These were introduced on October 27, One such University has been functioning in the U.K.1965. The main feature of these bonds was that gold for some time now.will be returned for gold after a period of 15 years andno enquiries would be made as to how the gold had Panchayati Raj : While capitalism entails exploitation,been acquired. Investment in gold bonds is exempted concentration of wealth in a few hands and denial offrom wealth tax and any gift of the bonds up to the requisite resources to the masses, Panchayati Raj5 kgs is exempt from levy of gift tax. means the exercise of power by the villagers themselves and local self-government at the grass-roots.Green Revolution : refers to alleged elements ofchange brought about in Indian agriculture by the use Per Capita Income : The term defines national incomeof better seeds, improved implements and modern farm per head or coefficient resulting from the division ofpractices in order to quicken th eprogress in agriculture. the national income by the size of the population.Hartal : voluntary closure of all business or work to Planned Economy : An economic system in whichexpress protest for redress of grievances. some or all of the decisions on allocation, production, investment and distribution are made by government orIncome-tax : Direct tax levied on total world income of an agency delegated to such an authority.a person in a year. It was levied for the first time in theworld in Britain in 1799 by William Pitt to help finance Poverty Line : is to be found at the level of income ata war against France. which a person or a family can barely subsist. AnyoneInternet : Internet is a network of computers that offer having an income below that level is said to be belowaccess to people and informations. the poverty line.Laser - Light Amplicatoin by Stimulated Emission of Prohibition : a measure barring the sale andRadiation. It is a device which is capable of producing consumption of alcoholic drinks.a powerful, monochromatic and coherent beam of light. Quorum : minimum essential of members to be presentLaser beams are used to cut or melt hard materials, in order to constitute a house to transact proceedings.remove diseased body tissues, transmit television Snap Polls : A snap poll means a sudden election tosignals etc., a legislature held at short notice before the expiry of itsMay Day : the day of workers of the world celebrated full term. A mid-term poll also means the same thing,throughout the world on the 1st May every year with even if an election is ordered many months after thethe slogan “Workers of the World, Unite”. middle of a legislature’s usual five-year span. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 107Socialistic Pattern of Society : even-distribution of theory that the Hindus and the Muslims living in Indiaeconomic power or reduction of inequalities in income constituted two separate nations with different religious,and wealth in a country. The Resolution for a “Socialistic cultural and linguistic patterns, and that India should,Pattern of Society” was adopted at the Avadi Session therefore, be divided in two parts, one of which shouldof the Indian National Congress. be a separate Muslim state to be named Pakistan. ThisTax : A tax is a compulsory payment made by a person thesis came to be described as the ‘two-nation’ theory.or a body or persons to a public authority for which Value-Added Tax (VAT) : A tax on the value added isthere is no quid pro quo. It is an important source of termed VAT. The principle governing this tax is that therevenue for the modern governments. Sales tax, in person paying for goods or services pays a tax thereonIndia is a case in point. and also collects tax on his sales. The net effect of thisTerritorial Waters : Although attempts have been tax is that the tax paid is credited against tax collectedmade to c odify international law on territorial and only the balance is payable to the taxing authority.waters, it has not been found possible to enforce Veto : right of executive head to refuse to approve anya universally acceptable limit. legislation.Third World : The world is divided into (i) the Western Wealth-tax : It is a tax levied on wealth possessed bybloc led by the U.S.A., the U.K., West Germany, Japan an individual or by a Hindu Undivided Family in excessetc., (ii) the Communist bloc led by the Soviet Union of certain prescribed limits. The object is to keep even-including the East Euripean countries, and (iii) the distribution of wealth in society.Third World which generally means the developingcountries. White revolution refer to vast production of milk achieved in India. Operation Flood-II programme hasTime Capsule : The term is used to describe metallic been set up for the expansion of the existing plants.cylinders filled with memorabilia and buried deep in the A vast network of Milk producers Co-operativeearth so that after a few thousand years, if somebody Societies is operating under a three-tier system, milkdiscovers such a capsule, he should be reminded of unions at district level and primary milk societies at thewhat life and times were like when the ‘time capsule’ village level.had been initially buries. Zero-base Budgeting : It is improvement over theTrade Mark : a distinctive mark or sign, or a name traditional budgeting and not a substitute of it. Itgiven to a product which is registered in order to examines critically, regularly and systematically thesafeguard the manufacturer’s rights. Trade mark canot assumptions of the traditional budget. The budgetedbe copied by anyone under the law. items are treated each year at the Zero-base level as ifTwo - nation Theory : Before India had won freedom, it was non-existent in the past. Its input is related toleaders of the Muslim League (which was one of the the output to decide upon its inclusion in or exclusionimportant political parties in India) put forward the from the annual budget. LEGAL TERMSAccord : an informal agreement as between nations or Affidavit : a statement on oath for use as evidence inmutual agreement. Judicial process.Accused : a person formally charged with committing Alibi : elsewhere a legal plea that the accused was nota crime. presented at the time and place of occurrence.Adjournment Motion : a motion moved by a member in All Rights Reserved : Printed intimation in any booka legislature when it is desired to draw the attention of or literacy work notifying that the owner of the copythe executive to a matter of urgent public importance or right was legally protected his rights againstinterest. infringement.Administrative Law : The rules and regulations framed Amnesty : a general pardon that is granted to theby the executive. prisoners generally during a major national celebration. Anticipatory bail : it is a bail granted by a court to aAdult Suffrage : is the right of voting in political person who apprehends that he might be arrested forelections granted to every adult persons male or female non-bailable offences.without distinction of caste, creed, colour or holding ofany property or qualification etc. Approval : an accomplice giving evidence against his companions.Advalorem : means according to the value. It iscalculated according to value. A duty the amount of Arbitration : settlement of a dispute by someonewhich depends upon the value of the property taxed is chosen to hear both sides and come to a decision.called an advalorem duty. Award : the decision of a law court or arbitrartor. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 108Amicus Curiae : He is a member of the Bar or other Dejure : by right of aw, lawful, rightful.stand-by who informs the court when it is doubtful or Detenue : a person who has been detained bymistaken of any fact or decided case. the State.Bail : the security given to effect the release of one Division Bench : refes to a Bench of two judges.arrested or imprisoned, on the understanding that heshall appear for trail at a fixed time and place. Double jeopardy : means prosecuting a person moreBicameral : having or consisting of two legislative than once for the same offence.chambers. Estoppel : a bar to prevent a person from admitting orBigamy : an offence a husband or wife marrying again denying because of statements made by him previously.during the life of the spouse. Exhibit : a legal document presented as proof ofBonafide : in good faith the facts.Bye Laws : are special rules and regulations made by Extradition : delivering a national of another countryany company or corporation for carrying on its affairs, for trial or offences.but they must neither contrivance the powers conferred Ex.gratia : by way of grace : it is used to denoteby the parliament nor the laws of the land. payment or grant made on humanitarian consideration.Censure Motion : means a motion of no-confidence in Ex officio : by virtue of holding any office.a government or a gruop in power. Exparte : something done or said by one person in theCertiorari : a writ to transfer a law suit from a lower absence of his opponent.court to a higher one. Facsimile : an exact copy of a document.Circumstantial evidence : evidence based on thecircumstances of a case and sufficiently strong to F.I.R.: first information report refers to informationestablish the guilt. relating to the commission of congnizable offence.Coalition : combinations of political parties. When two Forgery : the act of counterfeiting handwriting ofor more parties combine and form a government, it is another with the intention of defrauding him.called a coalition government. Free Legal aid : legal aid provided to the poor at theCognizable offence : Offence which can be dealt with expense of the government.by the court. Full Bench : refers to a bench of three or more judges.Contempt of Court : disobedience or disregrad of the Genocide : the willful extermination of a minority or ajudgement or orders of the court. religious community or race by mass killing or byConvict : one found guilty of a crime and sentenced by passing repressive measures.a court. Habeas Corpus : a writ refers to the right of an arrestedCode : a body of classified laws or regulations, e.g. person to be produced before the court of law for trial.Criminal Procedure Code. Indemnity : security against damage or loss.Coup d’etat : is a violent and sudden change ofGovernment usually by the force of arms. Indictment : document containing charges against a prisoner.Copy right : the exclusive right of an author in hisliterary or artistic work. It is vested in the author for INTERPOL : International Police Headquarters.a period of fifty years. Lyons (Paris).Court martial : a court of military or naval officers to Inquest : legal or judicial enquiry to find out factstry persons for breach of military discipline according usually concerning the death of a person.to military law. In camera : in secret.C.P.C. : Civil Procedure Code. I.P.C.: Indian Penal Code.Cr.P.C.: Criminal Procedure Code. Lease : contract by which a lessor, usually inCurfew : an order under which people have to be consideration or rent, conveys land or tenement to aindoors within certain hours. lessee for a specified time.Decree : The award or decision of a court or arbitrator. Legacy : money or property left to a person by will.Defendant : a person required to answer in a court. Letters Patent : A document under seal of theDefacto : actually : which actually functions though it government authorising an individual or body to domay not have any legal sanction. some act or enjoy some privilege.Defamation : to attack the reputation of-slander Levirate : means marriage of a woman with heror libel. younger brother in law after her husband’s death. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 109Libel : any publication or statement calculated to injure Postmortam examination : refers to meical examinationone’s reputation or character. of a corpse (dead body) in order to discover the causeLife imprisonment : means imprisonment for of death.fourteen years. Power of Attorney : a document under seal authorisingLimited Company : is one in which the the person to whom it is given to act in all respects asshareholdes’ responsibility is limited to the extent of the agent of the granter of the power in relation totheir shares in it. matters specified in the documents.Limited liability : liability of the shareholders of a Preventive Detention : imprisonment without trialcompany is limited to the extent of the value of before the actual commission of a specified crime.their shares. Promissory Note : an undertaking in writing to repayLocus stand : right to interfere. the sum on demand.Mandamus : writ issue by a superior court diecting the Prohibition : is a measure banning the sale orState or lower court, to whom it is issued, to perform consumption of alcoholic drinks and narcotics.specified act pertaining to its office. Prohibitory Order : It is an order issued by acompetentMalafide : with bad faith. authority prohibiting meetings, processions, demonstrations etc., without prior permission.Minor : every person domiciled in India and below theage of eighteen years is a minor. Proxy : One who acts for another or the writtenModus operandi : mode of working. authorisation for such action.Monogamy : the practice or state of being married to Prima facie : at the first sight.only one person at a time. Probono Publico : for the public good.Mortgage : a deed transferring property to creditor as Quo Warranto : is the writ issued to person holding ansecurity for the payment of a debt. important office of the State to establish his claim toMoratorium : an order authorising postponement of hold that post.payment of dues without imposition of punishment. Quorum : the minimum number to form meeting atNatural Justice : means justice founded on fairness, which any official business can be transacted.equity and good conscience. Rule of Law : means that all persons are equal in theNaturalisation : is the grant of nationality or citizenship eye of law without any distinction of status, colour,to an alien. caste and sex, and that the government cannot exercise any arbitary powers.Negotiable Instruments : are documents (such as banknotes, cheque, promissory note etc.) which on transfer Sedition : conduct or speech tending to rebellion orfrom one person to another convey the legal right to breach of public order.the property they represent. Sine die : without date, indefinitely.Notry Public : an official, usually a lawyer, appointed Status quo ante : the previous positon.to attest or certify documents and deeds. Summons : a writ of a court commanding theOfficial Receiver : a person properly authorised to attendance of a witness at a specified time andcarry out duties in connection with the winding up of place.an insolvent’s estate. Sub judice : under judicial consideration.Ordinance : is an act promulgated by the Head of aState in case of emergency without undergoing the Ultravires : beyond one’s power etc.,formalities of the regular procedure of the legislature of Unicameral : having only one house in a lawthe country. It cannot remain in force beyond a making body.specified period. Vakalat : a written authority by a litigant to hisParole : the release of a prisoner before the sentence lawyer.has expired, on condition of future good behaviour. Vox populi : the voice of the people.Perjury : making false statement on oath. Warrant : a legal document, issued by a competentPlaintiff : one who brings a suit in a court of law. authority given power of arrest and detention beforePenology : is that branch of riminology which deals trial, seizure of property or search of houses adwith the study of punishments for crimes and reform or buildings.reclamation of criminals. Writ : a written command by the High Court or thePolygamy : practice or condition of being married to Supreme Court directing the State or the court to act ormore than one husband at the same time. abstain from acting in some way. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 110 CONSTITUTIONAL TERMSAppellate Jurisdiction : The authority to hear the Impeachment : It means accusing a high official likeappeal against the law courts. President of India, Supreme Court Judge, etc. ofBill (Law) : Bill means proposed law introduced in the disloyally to the country and corruption and trying himlegislature for discussion. When passed, it becomes a in the Parliament according to a procedure set by law.law. A Bill may be introduced in either house of Judiciary : A branch of government which decideslegislature by a minister. It is then called an ‘Official disputes among individuals, between individuals andBill’. A Bill may be introduced by a member in either the government or between parts of governments; forhouse of legislature after giving due notice. Such a bill example, Supreme Court, High Court and Subordinateis called a ‘Non-Official Bill’. Courts.Budget : A Statement of annual income and expenditure Magna Carta : The great Charter of England, grantedis submitted to the legislature for its approval. by King John is called Magna Carta. “It providesCabinet : First rank members of the Council of that”no man shall be taken or imprisoned nor will heMinisters appointed by the President on the pass upon him or condemn him but by lawful judgement.recommendations of the Prime Minister. President’s Rule : A situation may rise when theCollective Responsibility : It means that the Council of Governor feels that no party in the State Vidhan SabhaMinisters take decisions collectively and all ministers has a clear majority or that the state ministry has lostactively support that decision. The whole Council of the confidence of the Legislature and it is not possibleMinisters resigns if a vote of no-confidence is passed to form an alternative ministry. There may be aagainst a minister. situation when he feels it is not possible to carry onConstitution : A body of Fundamental laws and the administration of the state in a constitutionalprinciples according to which a country is governmed. manner. In such a case, the President, on the report ofIt is a frame wok within which a governmen works. the Governor, may dissolve the Assembly and dismiss the Council of Ministers. The State then comes underConstitutency : A body of voters that elect its what is popularly known as the Governor’s Rule orrepresentative to a legislative body like the Lok Sabha, President’s Rule.or the Vidhan Sabha. Preamble : A Statement of the spirit and meaning ofCivil Cases : Cases oncerning property, contracts and the Constitution. It is the introduction in which thedamage to goods in transit, etc. purpose of the Constitution is given.Crimnal cases : Cases dealing with left, robbery, Prorogue : An act of ending of a session. It is thephysical injury or murder. discretion of the President and the Governor.Citizen : A citizen is one who lives in a country and Laissez faire : A general principle of non-interference.participates in the working of the government. Anindividual cannot be a citizen of more than one country. Legislature : A law-making body of electedConstitutional Remedy : Our Constitution provides representatives who make law for a country or a state;that, in case an individual feels that he has been denied for example. Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Vidhan Sabha.his fundamental rights, he can demand justice from the Question Hour : The list of the business before theCourt according to a procedure set by law. House of Legislature is given to the members inDemocratic Republic : A government through elected advance. Generally, the first hour of each sitting isrepresentatives where the Head of the government is “Question Hour”. The Government give replies to theelected for a fixed term. question aleady sent by the members. The members are entitled to get more information throughDirective Principles : These principles are “supplementary Question”. The main purpose of theconstitutional guidelines and directives to the “Question Hour” is to seek information and draw thegovernment for the achievement of national goals. attention of the Government to issues of publicExecutive : A branch of government which implements importance. After the “Question Hour, the agenda isand executes or administers law. The Cabinet, the taken up".Council of Ministers and the Public Services are a part Recess : The term is used for the period between theof the Executive. prerogation of parliament and its reassembly in a newExploitation : To make use of the services of others for session.selfish purposes. Secular State : A state which gives every individual aEconomic Justice : It implies removal of economic right to practise his religion and worship in his owninequalities. All citizens are guaranteed a decent way. It treats all religions alike. It neither favours anystandard of living. religion nor discriminates against any religion. India isFraternity : Spirit or brotherhood among the citizens. a Secular State.Fundamental Rights : Rights fundamental or essential Snap General Election : Means a general electionto good living; six fundamental rights are guaranteed which is called for suddenly. This happens in aby our constitution. democratic regime when a duly installed majority © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 111government finds it difficult to deal with an extraordinary Ultimatum : Final terms before a certain course ofsituation and wants the electorate to give a fresh action vis-a- vis another party is adopted.verdict on its programmes and policies. Untouchability : Due to caste distinctions prevailing inSnap Poll : A snap poll means a sudden election to a Indian society, certain castes were considered low andlegislature held at short notice before the expiry of its suffered from many social and economic injustices.full term. A midterm poll also means the same thing, Universal Adult Franchise : It means that every adulteven if an election is ordered many months after the citizens enjoys the right to vote. In India a citizen whomiddle of a legislature’s usual five-year span. But it is not less than 18 years of age enjoys this right.was the surprise dissolution of the Lok Sabha in 1971and the election ordered soon afterwards that has Ultravires : An invalid act done in excess of thegiven wide currency to the expression “snap poll”. authority conferred by law, acts beyond the scope of the powers of a corporation as defined by itsSocialistic Pattern of Society : Means distribution of memorandum and articles of association. In fact, it iseconomic power or reduction of inequalities in income an act done beyond powers or lack of power.and wealth in a country. The Resolution for a“Socialistic Pattern of Society” was adopted at the Veto : Right of executive head to refuse to approveAvadi Session of the Indian National Congress. any legislation.Splinter Group : Quite often parties have within them Vote : Right of executive head to refuse to approvecertain groups which can be reffered to as splinter any legislation.groups. They are groups of people who differ from the Vote on account : Usually, Vote on account is taken formain body in their approach views or strategy. a sum equivalent to one-sixth of the expenditure for theStarred and Unstarred Questions : When asking entire year in respect of demands for grants. As aquestions members of Parliament may ask for either convention, it is passed by the Lok Sabha without anyoral or written answers. Questions to which oral discussion.answers are required are marked with an asterisk, and Vote of Credit : During a national emergency, theare known as Starred Question. Questions requiring house might grant a lump sum through a vote of credit.written replies are Unstarred Questions. Likewise, exceptional grants are given for specialSocialist State : A state which tries to bring about purposes.economic and social equality in the country. India aims Vote of no-Confidence : It implies that the legislatureat establishing such a socialist state. feels that the Council of Ministers is not workingSovereign Government : A government that is supreme properly and deserves to be removed from office. Itand free and does not take directions from any outside has lost the confidence of the legislature. If such aauthority. proposal is passed, the Council of Ministers resigns.Social Justice : It implies that all citizens are treated Waiver : The act of abandoning or refraining fromequal and none can be discriminated against on basis asserting a legal right is called waiver. It is a defenceof caste, creed, religion or status. against subsequent enforcement.State of Emergency : The President can declare a state Weaker Sections : Classes of people who are sociallyof emergency in the country in an emergency caused and economically backward.by way, of foreign attack or internal disturbances andthe armed rebellion in the country on an express Weightage : Allowing a community (or group) morerequest of the cabinet. representation that it can claim on the basis of its population.Simple Majority Vote : Usually a candidate whosecures the highest percentage of votes is declared Whip : An important party official, entrusted with theelected by a simple majority vote. He may actually not responsibility of organising disciplined voting accordingget even fifty percentage of votes. to the party directions and ensuring attendance of the party members on a specific occasion.Sine die : It is an adjournment of a meeting to a datewhich is not fixed specifically at that time. White Paper : A detailed policy statement issued bySingle Transferable Vote : Under the system, the a government with regard to a matter of considerablevoters cast their votes for candidates in order of public importance.preference. If a candidate does not secure more than Zero-based Budgeting : It is an improvement over thefifty percent votes, the second preference votes are traditional budgeting and not a substitute of it. Italso counted and a candidate is elected on the basis of examines critically regularly and systematically thetotal votes polled, first preference and second assumptions of the traditional budget. The budgetedpreference. item is treated at each year at the Zero- base level asSingle Citizenship : India has single citizenship. It if it was non-existent in the past.means that all the citizens of India. They are not the Zero Hour : The period following the question hour. Ifcitizens of state i.e. Punjab, Rajasthan, West Bengal. In generally begins at 12.00 noon and lasts till 1.00 p.m.U.S.A., the citizens have double citizenship. They are Officially, it is used to raise various issues of publicthe cities of U.S.A. and also of a particular state. importance without priorly notifying the minister. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 112 CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTSBC 1930 “Civil Disobedience Movement” started by3000 Indus Valley Civilization, Mohen-jo-Daro & Gandhiji. “Dandi March” by Gandhiji on 6.4.1930. Harappa Burma separated from India.563 Birth of Buddha, founder of Buddhism 1939 Death of Rabindranath Tagore (The first Indian to win the Nobel Prize for his work326-327 AD Alexander’s invasion of India “Gitanjali”).1191 First Battle of Tarain (Thaneshwar) 1942 “Quit India Resolution”.1192 Second Battle of Tarain (Thaneshwar) 1947 15.8.1947 India attained Independence.1498 Discovery of sea-route to India by Vasco-da- 1948 30.1.1948 Assassination of Gandhiji. Gama 1949 26.11.1949 Indian Constitution passed.1526 First Battle of Panipat 1950 26.1.1950 India became a Sovereign Democratic1556 Second Battle of Panipat Republic.1561 Battle of Talikota between Delhi Sultanate and 1952 Free India holds her First General Elections. Vijayanagar ruler Ramaraja. Ramaraja was killed. 1956 State Reorganisation Act came into force on1600 East India Company established 1.11.1956.1757 Battle of Plassey 1957 Decimal system of coinage introduced.1760 Battle of Wandiwash. French power ended. 1966 January 4th Indo-Pak Summit, Tashkent1761 Third Battle of Panipat. Declaration signed on January 10. Death of Lal1764 Battle of Buxar. Bahadur Shastri.1853 First Railway line opened in India between 1972 Simla Agreement between India and Pakistan Thana and Bombay (July 3)1857 First War of Independence (Sepoy Mutiny) 1974 India’s first Satellite "Äryabhatta" launched1869 2.10.1869, Birth of Mahatma Gandhi at Porbander from Cosmodrome in Soviet Union on April 19.1881 First Census taken 1975 “Aryabhatta”. Sikkim becomes 22nd State of the Indian Union. State of Emergency declared.1885 Indian National Congress was founded by A.O. Hume. 1976 India - China re-establishes diplomatic relations.1900 Australian Commonwealth proclaimed. 1977 Sixth General Elections, Morarji Desai sworn in as the first non-Congress Prime Minister. Neelam1901 Russian and Britain, agrees of the partition of Sanjiva Reddy elected Sixth President of India. China. 1979 “Bhaskara”, India’s second Satellite launched1902 First partition of Bengal under Lord Curzon. into space. India’s first coalition Government1906 Foundation of Muslim League. between Janata (S) and the Congress sworn in1909 Minto-Morley Reforms. with Mr. Charan Singh as P.M.1910 Mother Teresa born in Albania. 1980 Seventh General Elections held, Indira Gandhi1911 Delhi becomes the capital - Partition of Bengal sworn in as Prime Minister. revoked - King George V crowned King of the 1982 Giani Zail Singh elected as Seventh President of United Kingdom and Emperor or India - First India. IX Asian Games opened in New Delhi. British King and Queen land in Bombay. 1984 Bachendri Pal, first Indian woman to scale the1912 Titanic, Worlds biggest ship, sinks in North Mount Everest. Mrs. Indira Gandhi assassinated. Atlantic, Killing 1513 people - The 5th Olympic Rajiv Gandhi becomes the Prime Minister. Games held in Stockholm. 1985 Congress completes 100 years.1913 The first Asian, Rabindranath Tagore is awarded 1987 Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh becomes 23rd the Nobel Prize for Literature. and 24th States. Goa becomes 25th State. Mr. R.1914 World War I declared. Venkataraman sworn in as Eleventh President.1918 World War I ends. 1988 M.G.Ramachandran (MGR.) was given Bharat1919 “Satyagraha Movement” started by Gandhiji. Ratna Award posthumously. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on 13th April 1919 at 1989 Ninth Lok Sabha constituted. National Front Amritsar. Leader V.P.Singh sworn in as 10th Prime Minister. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 1131990 Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Bharat Ratna conferred on Dr.A.P.J. Abdul Congress was set free after 27 years of Kalam, Mar 19 : Mr.A.B. Vajpayee becomes imprisonment by the South African Government.- 16th Prime Minister of India. May 11 : India Iraq captured Kuwait. conducts three Nuclear tests at Pokhran. May1991 Tenth Lok Sabha constituted. P.V.Narasimha 13 : India conducts two more tests at Pokhran. Rao becomes the Twelfth Prime Minister of May 28 : Pakistan conducts nuclear atom bomb India. Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, test. July 12 : France won World Cup-1998. assassinated at Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. 1999 May 26-July 17 India - Pakistan Kargil War.;1992 India’s First indigenous multi-purpose Satellite Oct.10 : 13th Lok Sabha Elections - Mr.Vajpayee “INSAT 2A” was launched successfully from sworn in as Prime Minister.; Dec.5 : Mumbai girl Kourou in French Guyana. - Festival of India Yukta Mookhey becomes Miss World. - Dec.24- was held in China. The disputed Babri Masjid in 31 : Indian Airlines(IC-814) hijacked by terrorists Ayodhya (UP) was demolished by Kar-sevaks. and hostages released at Khandhar.1993 The world’s biggest ever trade deal General 2000 Mar.22 : Indias INSAT-3B launched - Aug.28 : Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was President gives his assent to the Bills relating to signed on 15th December at Geneva, nearly 117 the creation of the new states of Uttaranchal, nations participated. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Sep.30 : Gen.S.Padmanabhan takes over as the new1994 Sushmita Sen (18) first Indian selected for Miss. Chief of Army Staff from Gen.V.P. Malik. Dec.24 Universe held at Manila, Philippines. Brazil won : Vishwanathan Anand becomes World Chess the World Cup Football held at United States, Champion. Shoemaker-Levy Comet collided with the Gaseous Planet Jupiter on July 17, 19, 20 & 31. 2001 Jan.12 : First genetically engineered monkey created (Andy) by scientists in US. March.1:1995 Jan.26 : Nelson Mandela, was the Chief Guest The nation’s population touches 1.02 billion on the Republic Day celebrations at New Delhi. comprising 531,277,078 men and 495,738,1691996 Jan. 10-21 : 27th International Film Festival women. Sep.11: Terrorists attack the World held at New Delhi. July 19 - Aug. 4 : Atlanta Trade Centre in New York-the 110-storey twin Olympics held - India won 1 bronze medal. towers.1997 Jan 10 : The 28th International Film Festival of 2002 Jan.6 : Indias 21st Antartica expedition leaves India held at Thiruvananthapuram. July 25 : Mr. - team headed by Dr. Prem Chand Pandey. K. R. Narayan sworn in as 13th President of Feb.27-28 Attack on Sabarmati Express by India. Aug 15 : India celebrates Golden Jubilee militants - Ram Sevaks from Ayodhya torched at of Indian Independence. Gadhra railway station.; April.2 : POTO1998 Jan 10-20 : The 29th International Film Festival (Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance) gets assent of India held at New Delhi. Jan 26 : India from the President after a joint sitting of the Lok celebrates its 49th Republic Day, Chief Guest : Sabha and Rajya Sabha. May.10 : Mr. Joshi, is French President Mr. Jacques Chirac. Mar 01 : the new speaker of Lok Sabha 2003 TO 2008 REFER G.K . POWER © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 114 All about Father of the Nation... Gandhiji came back to active politics and attended the Calcutta session of the Congress in DecemberMohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma, 1928.is the Father of the Nation. The Civil Disobedience Movement was startedHe was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in by Gandhiji on 12th March 1930.Gujarat as, the son of Karamchand and Putilibai. Gandhiji along with 78 companions which includedGandhiji proceeded to England in 1888 and Sarojini Naidu, marched nearly 375 km fromreturned to India as a Barrister-at-law in 1891. Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and broke the law byGandhiji went to Natal in South Africa in 1893 to making salt from sea water.practise law. There he was subjected to colour The Congress boycotted the First Round Tablediscrimination and he organized Natal Indian Conference which was held in London onCongress. He started the journal ‘Indian November 12, 1930.Opinion’ and built Phoenix Colony and TolstoyFarm here. He experimented the weapon Gandhiji attended the Second Round TableSatyagraha for the first time in South Africa in Conference held in London on September 7, 19311906. So South Aftica is often called his political as the sole representative of Congress.laboratory. The period between 1893 and 1914, "A half naked fakir from India" - Winstonhe engaged in a struggle against the racist Churchill’s comment about Gandhiji when heauthorities of South Africa. It was then that he went to attend the Second Round Tableevolved the teaching of Satyagraha based on Conference in London in 1931.truth and non-violence. Gandhiji was the editor of the English weeklyHe returned to India in 1915, leaving South Africa "Young India" and the Gujarati weeklyfor ever. "Navajivan". Later he started the weeklyGandhiji built his ashram on the banks of "Harijan" on January 8th, 1933 and this wasSabarmati in Gujarat on January 29, 1916. observed as "Temple Entry Day".Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was for the Gandhiji retired from Congress in October 1934.rights of indigo workers in Champaran (Bihar) in One of the great dreams of Gandhiji was the1917. establishment of "Grama Swaraj". He said, "IndiaGandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection lives in villages". He started Sewagram Ashramwith the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad. on 30 April 1936.Gandhiji had organised in February 1919 a The Congress started "Individual CivilSatyagraha Committee, the members of which Disobedience" in October 1940 and the Mahatmawere to take a pledge to refuse to obey the laws Gandhi.of Rowlatt Act. Meanwhile Gandhiji was again arrested and onThe Bills were enacted on March 18, 1919. The May 6, 1944, Mahatma Gandhi made earnestRowlatt Satyagraha was a failure but this projected efforts for communal harmony with Jinnah. ButGandhiji as "an all India leader of immense the talks failed.potential". In 1945, a Conference was held at Simla, underThe Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy on April 13, 1919 Lord Wavell, the then Viceroy. Jinnah argued thathad a great impact on Mahatma Gandhi. He only the League should nominate Muslims to thereturned the "Kaiser-i-Hind" medal given to him. Council. The Congress refused to accept andOn November 23, 1919, Gandhiji was elected Simla Conference broke down.president of the All India Khilafat Conference, In the elections to the Central and provincialwhich met at Delhi. Legislatures held in 1945-46, Congress won theFirst Non-Co-operation Movement was launched General seats. New Constituent Assembly startedon 1st August 1920. The Non-Co-operation to function from December 9, 1946. Dr. BabuMovement spread to rural areas between 1921 Rajendra Prasad was elected the chairman of theand 1922. Assembly on January 1947.Non-Co-operation Movement came to an end on The British parliament passed the IndianFebruary 12, 1922 in response to the violence at Independence Act based on the MountbattenChauri Chaura. plan in July 18, 1947. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
    • 115On January 30, 1948 while he was holding aprayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi, he wasshot dead by a Hindu fanatic, NathuramVinatak Godse. His last words were ‘Hai Ram,Ram, Ram’.Gandhijis slogans were "Quit India", "Do orDie", "Bharat Charo".Gandhiji spent altogether 2338 days in prison inhis lifetime, Most of the time spent in YervadaJail In Poona.Gandhi also worked for eliminating untouchabilityand bring harmony between Hindus and Muslims.He set up a Harijan Sevak Sangh to uplift theHarijan.Gandhiji said, "Non violence is not one form, itis the only form of direct action".Rajghat is the name of the Gandhi Samadhi atDelhi.Kenneth Kaunda is known African Gandhi.Gandhiji Birthday (October 2) is observed asNational Day in USA.His political guru was Gopalakrishna Gokhale.His autobiography ‘The Story of My ExperimentsWith Truth’ was first published in Gujarati.Leo Tolstoy was his favourite novelist. But thebook which greatly influenced Gandhiji was‘Unto the Last’ by John Ruskin. The essay ‘CivilDisobedience’ by Henry Thoreau also influencedhim.The title Father of the Nation was given toGandhiji by Subhash Chandra Bose and in returnGandhiji called him Netaji.The title ‘Mahatma’ was given to Gandhiji byTagore.Gandhiji once sarcastically (humorously) calledjail as "His Majesty’s hostel"."Generations to come, it may scarce believe,that such a one as this ever in flesh andblood walked upon this earth" - Einstein aboutGandhiji."Truth and non-violence are my God" - Gandhiji."Untouchability is a crime against God andmankind" - Gandhiji."Swaraj for me means freedom for the meanest ofour countrymen" - Gandhiji."The light has gone out of our lives and there isdarkness everywhere", Nehru about the death ofGandhiji. © THE RAMAN’S BOOKS