GATT,WTO
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  • 1. GATT and Intellectual Property Rights Presented by: Manohar Prasad, Specialization: IB+IT, Roll No.- 1999/ 01030003
  • 2. Introduction to GATT
    • The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
    • Signed in 1947
    • A multilateral agreement regulating trade among about 150 countries.
    • Aim—to reduce national trade barriers and to stop the competitive trade policies that had so hobbled the global economy prior to World War Ⅱ.
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 3. The purpose of GATT
    • Reduction of barriers to international trade:
      • Tariff barriers
      • Quantitative restrictions
      • Subsidies on trade through a series of agreements
    • on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis.
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 4. GATT->WTO
    • By the 1980s the system had a thorough overhaul. This led to the Uruguay Round and ultimately to the WTO.
    • In Marrakesh Agreement (1 January 1995), the GATT was displaced by the newly created World Trade Organization (WTO).
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 5. The development of GATT GATT International agreement international organizations GATT1997 WTO 12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 6. GATT’s function and purpose now
    • Three major areas of concern in international trade :
    • Goods
    • Services, and
    • Intellectual property rights
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 7. Why are intellectual property rights considered to be a trade issue?
    • Most of the value of new medicines and other high technology products lies in the amount of invention, innovation, research, design and testing involved.
    • Films, music recordings, books, computer software and on-line services are bought and sold because of the information and creativity they contain, not usually because of the plastic, metal or paper used to make them.
    • Many products that used to be traded as low-technology goods or commodities now contain a higher proportion of invention and design in their value.
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 8. The importance of IP
    • Ideas and knowledge
    • Invention, innovation, research, design and testing
    • Creators
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 9. Intellectual property rights
    • Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
    12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 10. Types of Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual Property Rights Copyright and rights related to copyright Industrial property The rights of authors of literary and artistic works rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations Trademarks, including service marks Geographical indications Industrial designs Patents Layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits Undisclosed information, including trade secrets 12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com
  • 11. 12/13/11 www.manoharprasad.wordpress.com