Data collection
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Data collection






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    Data collection Data collection Presentation Transcript

    • Data Collection11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 1
    • Data Collection  It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.‟ -Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 2
    • We Start with Goals… • To know the basics and details of Data Collection. • Identify data collection techniques and application • To Outline the process in developing a data collection plan………. •.11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 3
    • …and move to questions…  How can Researcher go for data collection ?  What are things that has to be taken care of ?  What is data collection plan that should be followed while undergoing any research ?............11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 4
    • …and then move to the answers…..  ………………………………11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 5
    • Where do data come from?  We‟ve seen our data for this lab, all nice and collected in a database – from:  Insurance companies (claims, medications, procedures, diagnoses, etc.)  Firms (demographic data, productivity data, etc.)  Take a step back – if we‟re starting from scratch, how do we collect / find data? Then there are two types of data :  Secondary data  Primary data11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 6
    • Where do data come from?  We‟ve seen our data for this lab, all nice and collected in a database – from:  Insurance companies (claims, medications, procedures, diagnoses, etc.)  Firms (demographic data, productivity11/21/2011 data, etc.) Author: Manohar Prasad 7
    •  Take a step back – if we‟re starting from scratch, how do we collect / find data? Then there are two types of data :  Secondary data  Primary data11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 8
    • Secondary Data  Secondary data – data someone else has collected  This is what you generally look for in when given assignment.  Secondary Data – Limitations When was it collected? For how long?  May be out of date for what you want to analyze. Ex : 3 idiots and Dabbang11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 9
    •  May not have been collected long enough for detecting trends.E.g. Have new anticorruption laws impacted Russia‟s government accountability ratings?  Is the information exactly what you need?  In some cases, may have to use “proxy variables” – variables that may approximate something you really wanted to measure. Are they reliable? Is there correlation to what you actually want to measure?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 10
    • Secondary Data (contd )  E.g. Finding 1st year student‟s interest in suryadatta in the subject of Research methodology and Finding Food likings of 1st year student‟s of symbiosis11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 11
    • Secondary Data  Secondary Data – Advantages It may be very accurate.  When especially a government agency has collected the data, incredible amounts of time and money went into it. It‟s probably highly accurate.  It has great exploratory value  Exploring research questions and formulating hypothesis to test.11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 12
    • Primary Data  Primary data – data you collect  Primary Data – Examples  1) Surveys ex : suppose you want to purchase laptop……..  2) Focus groups……….only to particular friends11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 13
    •  3) Questionnaires ……… will prepare a written format………  4) Personal interviews…..u will go to ask personally…….  5) Experiments and observational study11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 14
    • Primary Data - Limitations  Do you have the time and money for:  Designing your collection instrument?  Selecting your population or sample?  Pretesting/piloting the instrument to work out sources of bias?  Administration of the instrument?  Entry/collation of data?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 15
    • Primary Data – Limitations(contd)  Uniqueness  May not be able to compare to other populations  Researcher error  Sample bias  Other confounding factors11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 16
    • Data collection choice What you must ask yourself: Will the data answer my research question?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 17
    • Data collection choice  To answer that  You much first decide what your research question is  Then you need to decide what data/variables are needed to scientifically answer the question11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 18
    • Data collection choice  If that data exist in secondary form, then use them to the extent you can, keeping in mind limitations.  But if it does not, and you are able to fund primary collection, then it is the method of choice.11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 19
    • Data Collection Options  Data collection possibilities are wide and varied with any one method of collection not inherently better than any other  Each has pros and cons that must be weighed up in view of a rich and complex context11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 20
    • The Data Collection Process  All methods of collection require rigorous and systematic design and execution that includes  thorough planning  well considered development  effective piloting  weighed modification  deliberate implementation and execution  appropriate management and analysis11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 21
    • Surveys  Surveying involves gathering information from individuals using a questionnaire.  Surveys can  reach a large number of respondents  generate standardized, quantifiable, empirical data - as well as some qualitative data  and offer confidentiality / anonymity  Designing survey instruments capable of generating credible data, however, can be difficult11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 22
    • Survey Types  Surveys can be  descriptive or explanatory  involve entire populations or samples of populations  capture a moment or map trends  can be administered in a number of ways11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 23
    • Survey Construction  Survey construction involves  formulating questions and response categories  writing up background information and instruction  working through organization and length  determining layout and design11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 24
    • Interviews11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 25
    • Interviewing  Interviewing involves asking respondents a series of open- ended questions  Interviews can generate both standardized quantifiable data, and more in-depth qualitative data  However, the complexities of people and the complexities of communication can create many opportunities for miscommunication and misinterpretation11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 26
    • Interview Types  Interviews can range from  formal to informal  structured to unstructured  can be one on one or involve groups11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 27
    • Conducting Interviews  When conducting your interviews you will need to  question, prompt, and probe in ways that help you gather rich data  actively listen and make sense of what is being said  manage the overall process11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 28
    • Observation11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 29
    • Observation  Observation relies on the researchers‟ ability to gather data though their senses - and allows researchers to document actual behaviour rather than responses related to behaviour  However, the person in observation can act differently when asked and observations can be tainted by a researcher‟s worldview11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 30
    • Observation Types  Observation can range from  non-participant to participant  candid to covert  from structured to unstructured11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 31
    • The Observation Process  The observation process is sometimes treated casually, but is a method that needs to be treated as rigorously as any other  The process should include planning, observing, recording, reflecting, and authenticating11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 32
    • Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods involve researchers and research processes that are removed from the researched  Unobtrusive methods are „non-reactive‟ and capitalize on existing data  But researchers need to work through data not expressly generated for their proposes that may contain biases11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 33
    • Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods include  the exploration of official data and records  corporate data  personal records  the media  the arts  social artefacts11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 34
    • The ‘Unobtrusive’ Process  In order to gather data by unobtrusive means you need to  know what you are looking for  where you can find it  whether it can be trusted  what you can do with it11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 35
    • Experimentation  Experimentation explores cause and effect relationships by manipulating independent variables in order to see if there is a corresponding effect on a dependent variable11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 36
    • Experimentation  Pure experimentation requires both a controlled environment and the use of a randomly assigned control group  This can be difficult to achieve in human centred experiments conducted in the real-world11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 37
    • Real-World Experiments  There are many experiments that can only be carried out in the messy uncontrolled environments of the real- world, so the search for cause and effect will require tradeoffs between real-world contexts and a controlled environment11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 38
    • Developing a data collection plan First write down a statement of your question. Then answer the following questions:11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 39
    • Developing a data collection plan  What do you need to know?  What types of data will provide you with the information that you need?  What types of data are already available to you (existing archival sources and other artifacts)?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 40
    • 11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 41
    • Guidelines and Recommendations forData Collection  Use multiple data sources.  Collect existing archival data immediately, then move to conventional and inventive sources.  Collect data regularly.  Seek technical assistance11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 42
    • Points to keep in mind  Keep it simple;  Pay attention to both quantitative and qualitative data;  Schedule time to organize data;  Discuss the data with “critical friends”; and  Seek technical assistance.11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 43
    • Check of data collection plan  Is there congruence between your question and the data sources that you identified?  Are you using multiple data sources to clarify the picture being developed?  Are you gathering data frequently enough so that it can be used to inform your current practice as well as your future actions?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 44
    • Check of data collection plan  Are you collecting data about how students/faculty/administration/parents feel and perceive their experiences?  Are you collecting data about how you feel and perceive your experiences?11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 45
    • Assignment  Compare the final results of different Institutions of PGDM11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 46
    • For this follow the DATA COLLECTION PLAN…………………………… ……..11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 47
    • References  Research Methodology, C.R. Kothari. Vishwa Prakashan 2002.  Business Research Methods, William G. Zikmund & Thompson, 7/e, 2003.  Business Research Methods, Donald R. Cooper & Pamela, S.Schinder.  Methodology of Research in Social Sciences, O.R. Krishnaswamy,  Marketing Research, Naresh K Malhotra, Person Education, 200711/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 48
    • THANKS11/21/2011 Author: Manohar Prasad 49