Indian Institute of Technology, GuwahatiSnibble – Sex education the nibbles’ wayDD 301 Introduction to Interaction DesignSubmitted by:Mannu Amrit (10020523)Minal Jain (10020526)Anvay Meshram (10020508)Under the Guidance of: Asst. Prof. Keyur Sorathia
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 2Fig.17. Wire-frames of the game applicationFig.18. Landing/Main screen on the game.Fig.19. Levels screen of the game.Fig.20. Sub-levels screen of the game.Fig.21. Information provided about sexually transmitted diseases.Fig.22. Instructions about the gameplay.Fig.23. Game screen for level 1.Fig.24. Pause screen for level 1.Fig.25. Information provided at different sub-levels.Fig.26. All screens for level 2- Knowing Yourself.Fig.27. All screens for level 3- Prevention.Fig.28. Usability evaluation being conducted with university students.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 3Chapter 1 – Introduction to the Domain 5 1.1 Abstract 5 1.2 Keywords 6 1.3 Introduction 6Chapter 2 – Research Phase 8 2.1 Secondary Research 8 2.2 Primary Research 12Chapter 3 – Research Analysis 18 3.1 Consolidation and Analysis 18 3.2 Problems Identified 21 3.3 Problem Statement 23 3.4 Vision Statement 23 3.5 Primary Personas 24Chapter 4 -Brainstorming and Design Concept Generation 26Chapter 5 -Proposed Design Solution 31 5.1 Information Architecture 31 5.2 Wireframes 32 5.3 App working and screens 33
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 4Chapter 6 - Prototyping 40Chapter 7 - Usability Evaluation 41Chapter 8 - Conclusion 43 8.1 Summary and learning 43 8.2 About the solution and future work 43Chapter 9 – References 44
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 5Chapter 1 – Introduction to the Domain1.1 AbstractWith the increasing number of sex-related crimes and happenings in every nook andcorner of the country, it is an alarming situation, especially with youth being the mostvulnerable section of the society. The physical exploitation of both young men and womenis everywhere to be seen or heard, whether on news channels, newspapers and sometimeseven in our surroundings, in schools or colleges. According to the National Family HealthSurvey conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and MacroInternational in 2005-06, 12% women aged between 15-19 years are mothers. The scenariois thus in a dire need of a solution.This project aimed at analysing the knowledge levels of the Indian university students whohave through prior exposure information and some knowledge in our field of study. Ouraim is to fill in the information gaps and clear myths / misconceptions in the areas ofSTIs/STDs, bodily changes in the adolescents and prevention techniques.Extensive literature research on the work in this and related fields was done. A survey wasconducted across 96 students (48 male, 48 female) in the age group of 18-22 years toanalyse their knowledge levels. One-to-one interviews with a doctor and a students’counsellor were conducted to understand their perspective into the problem and thecritical areas in this field according to them. Finally a game based solution was finalisedupon and implemented.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 61.2 KeywordsThe keywords focused on during the project were – sex education, sexually transmittedinfections/diseases, contraceptive methods and human anatomy. The goal of the project, asdescribed above is to analysing the knowledge levels of the Indian university students andfill in the information gaps and clear myths / misconceptions in the areas of STIs/STDs,bodily changes in the adolescents and prevention techniques.1.3 IntroductionThe project is based on a combination of the themes – ‘health and wellness’ and‘education’. It focuses on the area of lack of awareness and misconceptions in the mind ofuniversity students in critical areas like of STIs/STDs, bodily changes in the adolescentsand prevention techniques. Government statistics indicate that 40% of new sexuallytransmitted infections are in the 15-29 age groups. More than 31% of all reported AIDScases occur in this age group, which indicates that young Indians are a high-riskdemographic. According to the National Family Health Survey conducted by theInternational Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International in 2005-06,12% women aged between 15-19 years are mothers. This grave situation calls for immediateaction. A game based solution was designed as an intervention in the present scenario.Survey was conducted on the type of technology exposure the university students have andtheir interests and likes.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 7Fig.1 Initial mind-mapping on the topic- sex education
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 8 Chapter 2 – Research Phase 2.1 Secondary Research According to the National Family Health Survey conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International in 2005-06, 12% women aged between 15-19 years are mothers. Government statistics indicate that 40% of new sexually transmitted infections are in the 15-29 age groups. More than 31% of all reported AIDS cases occur in this age group, which indicates that young Indians are a high-risk demographic. According to Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education , young people need to have information on all the following topics: Sexual development & reproduction - the physical and emotional changes associated with puberty and sexual reproduction, including fertilisation and conception, as well as sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Contraception & birth control - what contraceptives there are, how they work, how people use them, how they decide what to use or not, and how they can be obtained. Relationships - what kinds of relationships there are, love and commitment, marriage and partnership and the law relating to sexual behaviour and relationships as well as the range of religious and cultural views on sex and sexuality and sexual diversity. In addition, young people should be provided with information about abortion, sexuality, and confidentiality, as well as about the range of sources of advice and support that is available in the community and nationally. Research Papers were studied and discussed and the following points elicited – Islam believes that parents play an important role in educating their children about sex education. However, it is found that parents are both unaware of the subject and hesitant in discussing such matters. A courseware was thus designed for the parents based on Islamic Sex Education. Detailed methodology was learnt.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 9 A cross-cultural study among the university students in Greece and Scotland on sexual behaviour showed results like Scottish students feel more confident about knowledge and maturity levels in terms of sexual lifestyle, Greeks are more confident in family imparting sex education, Greeks are more in favour of moral principles being a part of relationship, youth demands more utilitarian education rather than ethical, family, friends and media have maximum influence on students in this aspect.  The average age of first sexual encounter in Tanzania is less than 17 for women and 18 for men. It was observed that parents firmly believe that they must not discuss sex related issues with children for they are considered to be indirect encouragement to experiment. As a result, young people get pieces of information in false and exaggerated form from internet, media and gossip which need to be studied and sorted with a design intervention. The solution is to build an interactive flash based storytelling medium, which contains stories children can identify with and hence, relate to. Sex education can help in treating sexuality in its proper perspective and also help in total personality adjustment. It helps in giving a true perspective which can disillusion the distorted view of life gained through the mass media thus reducing many misconceptions. The components of sex education are human development, relationships, marriage and family, interpersonal Skills, sexual health / behaviour, society / culture.  Among the many factors that affect the daily lives of urban sex workers, two areas, microfinance and healthcare reminders were chosen as the focal point for the solution. A phone based broadcasting system was developed for the USWs in collaboration with Pragati and NGO that helps sex workers manage their lives and profession in a better way. A series of programs to teach sex education and related skills to severely handicapped students was presented. Those students involved in several years of training in sex education and related skills have learned to explain the reproductive process, perform self- care tasks, participate in discussions about families and relationships, use sanitary equipment independently, engage in social interactions, and use appropriate social manners.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 10 Fig.2 Discussions of the individual research in the field of sex education. The study led to the conclusion that sex education amongst teenagers can help to - Avoid or decrease the incidence of teenage pregnancies. It makes them aware of the repercussions of teenage pregnancy on their health, education, future, as well as that of the foetus. Stresses on self-restraint Even if they do indulge in sexual intercourse the awareness of contraceptive methods, including the use of condoms helps to decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancies. Prevent or decrease the rate of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, non- gonoccocal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis. It can also help to prevent, control or decrease HIV/AIDS.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 11Also, some research was done on the already existing apps and websites in this domain.Their features were studied thoroughly and inferences drawn.Fig.3 A study of the already existing apps and websites on sex education.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 122.2 Primary ResearchSubject matter expert (SME) interviews were conducted initially. Here is a brief account ofthe same –Fig.4. Interview of the student counsellor, IITG – Dr Lakshmi HaobamName – Dr. Lakshmi HaobamDesignation – Students’ Counsellor, IITG Hospital
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 13Major points of concern according to her as derived from the interview are as follows – Mental repercussions due to lack of knowledge Misconceptions about masturbation. Addiction to it. Issues of self esteem Influence from the west Excessive exposure to pornography. Violence, sex crimes Teachers hesitant about taking up the topic of sex education in class Boys unclear about the concept of menstruation. Knowledge spreads through word of mouth through friends which leads to misconceptions.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 14Fig.5. Interview of the Chief Medical Officer, IITG – Dr Mala BorthakurName – Dr. Mala BorthakurDesignation – Chief Medical Officer, IITG HospitalMajor points of concern according to her as derived from the interview are as follows – NCERT’s initiative to include sex education at a very basic level in its curriculum.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 15 Child’s mentality is dependent on his family’s financial, social and cultural background. It depends on the environment at home (e.g. how the evenings are spent, whether there is restricted internet usage etc.) It depends on the hobbies an individual pursues. There has been a rise on the number of rapes and gang rapes There is a need for sufficient knowledge about the self-defence techniques, preventive measures. Maturity levels in teenagers at the time they have intercourse Knowledge about the helpline numbers and safe practices. Communication gap between children and parents on these topics.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 16A survey was conducted amongst 96 university students (48 male, 48 female) in theage group of 18-22 and their knowledge level in terms of sex education was analysed. Belowis the screen shot of the questionnaire. Fig.6. Questionnaire on knowledge about sex education and technology usage prepared for the university students (ages 18-22)
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 17Fig.7. The questionnaire being filled by 96 university students (48 male, 48 female) across the age group of 18-22 years.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 18Chapter 3 - Research Analysis3.1 Consolidation and AnalysisThe results were compiled and analysed. The analysis is as follows –Fig.8. The analysis of the survey done, all questionnaires were evaluated.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 19Fig.7. The analysis of the survey done, consolidated in the form of stats and figures.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 20Major inferences drawn through the survey were – 62.5% students did not receive sex education at school. Only 35.41% girls are confident in their knowledge about sex education. Major source of knowledge was friends followed by media, school and parents. 50% of the population did not know that masturbation does not have unhealthy consequences. 91.67% of the students did not know that a girl could get pregnant before her first period, 60% of which were girls. 76.05% students knew that birth pills are not meant to prevent STIs. 50% of the students did not know what STIs could also occur without intercourse. 90% of them knew that a healthy looking person could be carrying an STI. 74% said that AIDS is not curable. 83% boys agreed that contraception is not a girls’ responsibility. 76.04% did not know that oral pills can cause breast cancer. 24% thought that prescription was required for buying contraceptives and 10% did not know. 82% of the students had no idea as to whom to contact at the time of emergency. For those who said yes, majority looked upto friends for help. 69.7% students said that they felt free to talk to their children about sex education and 26%were not sure. 66.67% boys said that no method of contraception was 100% effective while only 10% of the girls said so.Here were a few inferences drawn based on the phone usage – 33% of the students said that their phone does not support apps. Of the remaining, 59.3% said that they rarely downloaded apps. 75% of the people with apps had 1-10 apps in their phone. Most popular apps amongst the students were whatsapp, temple run, angry birds, facebook.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 213.2 Problems Identified A significant proportion of students did not receive sex education in school but surprisingly 43.7% were confident in their knowledge about the same. There were information gaps in knowledge of masturbation, STIs, contraception methods, emergency helpline numbers. Crime rate among teenagers including rape is increasing. Misconceptions due to exposure to pornography, influence of west, unreliable sources like media/friends.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 233.3 Problem StatementUniversity students of the age group of 18-22 years are exposed to unreliablesources of knowledge like media, internet and friends which lead to severalmisconceptions and information gaps in the field of Sex Education.3.4 Vision StatementThis project is an intervention that can help in filling the information gaps aboutSex Education in the minds of university students of the age group of 18-22 yearswho have been exposed to unreliable sources of knowledge like media, internet andfriends.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 243.5 Primary Personas Name – Ranvijay Khurana Age – 20 years Institute – Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Degree Pursuing – Bachelors in Computer Science Hometown – Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh Hobbies - programming, hacking, web designingRanvijay belongs to a small village in Uttar Pradesh. He is very shy and doscnt talk much togirls. He spends his entire day learning hacking and watching movies. He is an avis user ofweb. He is also exposed to a lot of pornographic stuff in college. His parents are not veryeducated and felt hesitant in discussing any such topic at home. His school did not offerany course on sex education. He gained some information on this through a few of hisfriends and through media. He believes that condoms can protect him from all STIs andthey are 100% effective. He has never cared to authenticate his knoeledge in this domainand is complacent. He feels very confident about his knowledge and hopes to be able toshare the same with his kids.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 25 Name – Meera Munjal Age – 19 years Institute – Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Degree pursuing – Bachelors in Chemical Engineering Hometown – Karol Bagh, New Delhi Hobbies - shopping, movies, hanging out with friendsMeera belongs to a posh locality in Delhi. She likes to hang out with friends. Both herparents were working and hence were not able to spend time with her. Currently in her 3rdyear at college, she spends her entire day studying and spends time with friends later in theevening. She does not have much knowledge about sex education. There were sessions onmenstruation held in her school separately for girls. She has a very vague idea abouteverything else through media. She finds watching pornography ethically wrong. She hasno idea about any helpline numbers. Her first port of contact would be her friends shouldan emergency pop-up. She uses a Samsung galaxy S3 and frequently downloadsapplications.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 26Chapter 4 -Brainstorming and Design Concept GenerationBased on the research analysis, different solutions were brainstormed upon and ideas comeup with.Fig.11. Brainstorming after the research analysis.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 27Fig.12. Idea generation through brainstorming.Here are a few design concepts we came up with, as solutions – 1. Information based mobile application – a comprehensive mobile app that gives all information about different segments of sex education. 2. Information based website/chrome extension - A website that comprehensively displays all the information of this field. 3. An information kiosk installed at all hostels/hospitals/any waiting area that gives information on all aspects of sex education. It can be accessed whenever students are waiting and have spare time. 4. A series of posters on the topic displayed all across the campus to impart information. 5. A series of videos creating awareness about the issue that can be screened or shared amongst the student community. 6. An IVRS/Spoken web based system through which students can clear their doubts/misconceptions and also gain information regarding issues they are ignorant about while maintaining their anonymity. 7. A game based solution running on any platform which through fun elements imparts all the information that is essential for that particular age group to know.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 28 8. An interactive installation in the hostels/any waiting areas using elements of physical computing. It could involve basic interactions like bringing certain elements in front of the screen to see information related to that topic. 9. A radio programme broadcast in the campus which could also involve the students clearing their doubts about the issue maintaining their anonymity. 10. Interactive brochures which through simple interactive techniques like pressing different elements can give different outputs.This series of ideas brought out through brainstorming were then further analysed basedon their pros and cons.Fig.13. Ideas sorting and further brainstorming on their pros and cons.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 29Through that basic keypoints in the solution were identified as follows – 1. It should have a personalised use since students might be reluctant or hesitant in using it in public. 2. It should be on a platform that is easily and readily available to students and must be of daily use to them. 3. It should be fun to use and not be a boring exercise. 4. It should be motivating enough for the students to use it.Fig.14. Identification of the key points.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 30A final concept was derived by clubbing the ideas.Fig.15. Concept finalisation using the key words.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 31Chapter 5 -Proposed Design SolutionUsing the insights derived from the research analysis and brainstorming on the solutionsthe final concept was arrived at.Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ wayIt is a game deriving its inspiration from the age-old snake/nibbles game which through afun way provides sex education to the university studentsGame USPs – On lines of a game familiar to almost everyone since their childhood. Educates in a fun way. Can run on a mobile, tablet or PC (web application). Takes care of the issue’s sensitivity and privacy matters.5.1 Information Architecture Fig.16. Information architecture of the game application.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 325.2 WireframesWireframes for the game are as follows – Fig.17. Wire-frames of the game application.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 335.3 App working and screensThe app begins with a landing page with options of play, information and settings. Soundcan be put off or on through this screenFig.18. Landing/Main screen on the game.Selecting play shows the screen which shows the levels. Initially only the first level isunlocked.Fig.19. Levels screen of the game.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 34Selecting level 1 takes one to the sub-levels of the level. Initially only sub-level 1 is active.Other sub-levels get unlocked one proceeds with the game and clears the sub-levels.Thescreen underneath shows a state when level 1.2 is also active.Fig.20. Sub-levels screen of the game.Baba lesson 1.1 gives a lesson/information about sexually transmitted diseases. The userthen taps on the arrow button.Fig.21. Information provided about sexually transmitted diseases.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 35The goal/aim of the next level is explained. The user then taps on the arrow to continue.Fig.22. Instructions about the gameplay.The game screen appears. The user has to control the STI and collect eggs. He can use thegestures of sliding up/down, right/left.Fig.23. Game screen for level 1.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 36Pausing the game leads to the following screen. The user can choose to play, go to themenu and turn the sound on/off.Fig.24. Pause screen for level 1.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 37Subsequent sub-levels also give information/facts related to sexually transmitted diseases.The difficulty level increases in these levels with the number of eggs to be collectedincreasing to 15 and 18 in the 2 sub-levels respectively.Fig.25. Information provided at different sub-levels.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 38Clearing all the sub-levels takes the user to the 2nd level where the sperm moves at a faster speed. The correspondingscreens for that level are as follows –Fig.26. All screens for level 2- Knowing Yourself.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 39The speed of the snake increases further in the next level. The corresponding screens for level 3 are as follows –Fig.27. All screens for level 3- Prevention.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 40Chapter 6 - PrototypingA high-fidelity video prototype of one level of the game was made using Adobe Aftereffects. All the screens including the pause screen, baba lessons etc. were included. Itexplains the complete gameplay.Problems encountered were in the inclusion of all the screens in the prototype. There waslearning in terms of the video-prototyping as a method of prototyping as well as softwareskills. Several other methods of prototyping were discussed upon and for this context avideo prototype seemed the most appropriate.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 41Chapter 7 - Usability EvaluationFig.28. Usability evaluation being conducted with university students.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 42 Usability testing was conducted with six users in the hostel (the place they spend most of their time and a possible place of use of the app).Video prototype was shown and feedback was taken. Following that, the screens of the game application were shown on a touch screen phone to give the users an experience of the game on phone. Feedback was taken from each and every user. Suggestions from the users - Creation of a story with the baba - instead of saying collect 10 eggs to unlock lesson 1.2, one can write, collect 10 eggs for me to be pleased to give you more gyaan - it will create more suspense for user to go till the end. The shape of the condom needs to improved . It looks more like a test-tube currently. The insect having a connection with the STI is not self-evident. Instead of having snakes in 3 levels, one can have other games such as bricks, tetris in level 2 and level 3. Apart from giving the user something to collect via the snake, something which he should NOT collect, and conveys a meaning as well can be added. ( Collect what is good for him, not collect what is bad for him ) After 5 eggs, throwing in a bonus for extra points ( exists in majority of snake games ) Options to share scores on social media websites can be provided. Snake movement ( turns ) - Software constraint. The connection between the baba and the game needs to be further established. Positive Points:- The game is bright, vibrant and catches the eye. Using gestures on a touch screen for movement of snake is engrossing, just like temple run. The interface is simplistic, clean and easy to understand. Movement of the snake through arrow keys in a keyboard for a web application would be convenient. Game play sounds are soothing and pleasant to hear.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 43Chapter 8 – Conclusion8.1 Summary and learningWe began with the problem of misconceptions and information gaps in the minds ofuniversity students in the field of sex education. Research led to several possible solutionsbut their further analysis narrowed down the solution to a game based application that isgenerally played by the students and conveys information in a fun way. Inspiration wastaken from the game nibbles and an app - Snibble was designed. After prototyping,usability evaluation was done which brought out new insights into the solution. A lot interms of the interaction design methodology was learnt. Conducting research, researchanalysis, usability evaluation etc were learnt.8.2 About the solution and future workThe solution thus developed in this project, through a fun way imparts sex education to theuniversity students. Students like playing games and this is an attempt to impart themsome useful information through this activity that they are anyway involved in. The futurework for this application would be to incorporate changes based on the usability evaluationand develop the game so that it can be launched.
Snibble – Sex Education the nibbles’ way 44Chapter 9 - ReferencesGuidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education, National Guidelines Task Forcehttp://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwche/Sex%20ed%20class/guidelines.pdf Nurtihah Mohamed Noor, Abdul Nasir Zulkifli, Fadzilah Siraj, The Motivational Designand Development of Interactive Multimedia Learning Courseware for Islamic SexEducation (ISE) - A Parental Guide Alexandros Kakavoulis and Joan Forrest, Attitudes And Values In Sexual BehaviourAnd Sex Education: A Cross-Cultural Study Among University Students In Greece AndScotland Erkki Sutinen, Roman Bednarik, Kati Kemppainen, Marcus Duveskog , Designing aStory-Based Platform for HIV and AIDS Counselling with Tanzanian Children Chan Siew Lee & Azizah Jaafar, Malaysian Sexuality Education (MSE) MultimediaCourseware Approach Animation Nithya Sambasivan , Julie Sage Weber & Edward Cutrell, Designing a PhoneBroadcasting System for Urban Sex Workers in India Susan Hamre-Nietupski ,Alison Ford, Sex Education and Related Skills: A Series ofPrograms Implemented with Severely Handicapped Students