1
[Ref. Page 15, Chemistry NCERT book, 12th Standard]
3D is diffcult to

Teach

Represent

Visualize

in 2 Dimension

Understand
Augmented Reality is a technology
which

• Combines real and virtual imagery
• Is interactive in real time
• Registers the...
Augmented Reality is a technology
which is of relevance in education because it

• Draws attention - critical in instructi...
Image Source: http://www.courser.org/
E Learning
refers to training initiatives which provide learning material,
course communications, and the delivery of cour...
E Learning draws our attention because..
•
•
•
•

Increased flexibility and convenience in taking courses
Time and place co...
If you dont believe us..
• Organizations are currently spending over $16billion on technology-based
training [Industry tra...
+
Chemistry

+

Augmented Reality

E Learning
Introducing Project
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

13
• Identify scope of Augmented Reality
in E Learning and in our subject of
interest - Solid State Chemistry

• Develop an A...
• Case-study Topic
Solid States, Chemistrt, Standard XII – NCERT
• Target participant sample
Chemistry students of class 1...
macro

sub - micro

symbolic

The Johnstone triangle
[Johnstone. A]
• Spatial ability is a prerequisite to the
understanding of three-dimensional
arrangements of molecules [Hyde et al. 1995]...
• The application shown in Figure 1 used AR
markers to represent ball and stick models
of amino acids.[Chen.Y]

Figure 1
D...
• Augmented Chemistry (Figure 2) is a
workbench consisting of a table and a
rear-projection screen. Users interact with
mo...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

20
Need
Finding

Literature
Study

Interviews

Technology
Familiarization

Development

Content
Finalization

Department of D...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

22
Teacher

School/
Coaching

Organization

Interview
Method

City

A

School

Kendriya
Vidyalaya

Physically

Guwahati

B

S...
• Difference b/w Solid States & other chapters
• Different modules in the chapter + Important
Modules
• Difficult modules ...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

25
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

26
•

Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d
visualization and imagination for students (Consistent
feedback f...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

28
•

Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d
visualization and imagination for students (Consistent
feedback f...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

30
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

31
•

Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d
visualization and imagination for students (Consistent
feedback f...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

33
•

Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d
visualization and imagination for students (Consistent
feedback f...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

35
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

36
•

Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d
visualization and imagination for students (Consistent
feedback f...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

38
•
•
•
•
•
•

Unstable Marker-Tracking
Trademark logo
Can only use markers for tracking
Interactive elements are difficult ...
Vuforia SDK
(unityPackage)

Image
Targets
Animation in 3d models
Virtual and GUI Buttons
Logistics in C sharp
Audio

Targe...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

45
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

46
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

47
Image is detected
and Face Centered
Cubic is shown

NCERT page
is shown
to device

Either
Tetragonal/
Octahedral void
Is c...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

49
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

50
NCERT page
is shown
to device

Either
HCP/CCP
Is chosen

Image is detected
and A-B layer
is shown

CCP

‘C’ and ‘A’
layer ...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

52
• Virtual buttons are developer-defined
rectangular regions on image targets that
trigger an event when touched or occlude...
GUI Buttons

Virtual Buttons

Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

54
• The graphical user interface of Augmented
Reality Apps are primarily simple because a
major chunk of screen space is ded...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

56
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

57
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

58
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

59
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

60
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

61
•

Wow factor and non familiarity with technology major
driving force behind initial feedback.

•

Some students pointed t...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

63
• Building is learning & fulfilling.
• To learn making very basic augmented reality
applications would’t need more than a ...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

65
• .apk format working android application
compatible with tablets and mobile phones
(android 4.04 & above)

• Database of ...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

67
Formative assessment [1]

Formal and informal assessment procedures
To modify teaching and learning activities
To improve ...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

69
•
•
•
•

More interaction features
Buttons or gestures for model rotation
Networking among different devices
Fixing bugs

...
Experiments

•
•
•
•

Independent and Dependent Variables
Participant Sample and Procedure of experiment
Data Analysis
Inf...
Web – mouse based

Chemistry

Course understanding

Our
Solution

Augmented Reality
Print
User perceived
engagement

E Lea...
Department of Design, IIT Guwahati

73
• [1] Crooks,, T. (2001). The Validity of Formative Assessments. British Educational Research Association Annual
Conferenc...
• Wu,H.-K.,&Shah,P.(2004).Exploringvisuospatialthinkinginchemistrylearning. ScienceEducation, 88,
• 465–492.
•
Yang,E.-M.,...
• Chen, Y. C. (2006, June). A study of comparing the use of augmented reality and physical models in chemistry
education. ...
Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Project Clearn: Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. [Ref. Page 15, Chemistry NCERT book, 12th Standard]
  3. 3. 3D is diffcult to Teach Represent Visualize in 2 Dimension Understand
  4. 4. Augmented Reality is a technology which • Combines real and virtual imagery • Is interactive in real time • Registers the virtual imagery with the real world [Azuma, 1997]
  5. 5. Augmented Reality is a technology which is of relevance in education because it • Draws attention - critical in instruction • Conveys spatial cues directly instead of just visual images • Is used with hands, and provides sensorimotor feedback • Provides constructivist environment to enhance learning • Direct manipulation in comparison with mouse-based computergenerated visualization [Gagne et al., 1992; Dede, 1995; Shelton, 2004; Schank, P., 2002]
  6. 6. Image Source: http://www.courser.org/
  7. 7. E Learning refers to training initiatives which provide learning material, course communications, and the delivery of course content electronically through technology mediation. [Eddy and Tannenbaum, 2003]
  8. 8. E Learning draws our attention because.. • • • • Increased flexibility and convenience in taking courses Time and place constraints are removed Greater grasp over the learning process Greater control in the hands of the learner over paceflow and interactions [Wydra, F.T.,1980]
  9. 9. If you dont believe us.. • Organizations are currently spending over $16billion on technology-based training [Industry training report, 2006] • Millions of students are enrolling in web-based courses [Wirt et al.,2004] • E-learning market has a growth rate of 35.6% [Wu et al., 2006]
  10. 10. + Chemistry + Augmented Reality E Learning
  11. 11. Introducing Project
  12. 12. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 13
  13. 13. • Identify scope of Augmented Reality in E Learning and in our subject of interest - Solid State Chemistry • Develop an AR based E Learning solution for a specific section in Solid State Chemistry • Conduct a comparative study of the developed solution with conventional e learning solutions available as of today Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 14
  14. 14. • Case-study Topic Solid States, Chemistrt, Standard XII – NCERT • Target participant sample Chemistry students of class 11th and 12th • Augmented Reality SDK Total Immersion D’Fusion Studio vs. Qualcomm Vuforia Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 15
  15. 15. macro sub - micro symbolic The Johnstone triangle [Johnstone. A]
  16. 16. • Spatial ability is a prerequisite to the understanding of three-dimensional arrangements of molecules [Hyde et al. 1995] • Spatial ability leads to a deeper understanding of many chemical concepts [Pribyl and Bodner 1987; Yang et al. 2003] • Students often have problems in generating a spatial model from a two-dimensional illustration [Garnett et al.1995; Wu and Shah 2004] Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 17
  17. 17. • The application shown in Figure 1 used AR markers to represent ball and stick models of amino acids.[Chen.Y] Figure 1 Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 18
  18. 18. • Augmented Chemistry (Figure 2) is a workbench consisting of a table and a rear-projection screen. Users interact with models in this virtual environment using a booklet and a cube. Each page in the booklet is used to identify an element of the periodic table. [Morten. F, Benedikt M] Figure 2 Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 19
  19. 19. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 20
  20. 20. Need Finding Literature Study Interviews Technology Familiarization Development Content Finalization Department of Design, IIT Guwahati Alpha Testing Debugging 21
  21. 21. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 22
  22. 22. Teacher School/ Coaching Organization Interview Method City A School Kendriya Vidyalaya Physically Guwahati B School Mount Carmel Virtually Delhi C Coaching Concept Education Physically Guwahati D Coaching Oriental Tutorials Physically Guwahati E Coaching FIITJEE Virtually Delhi Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 23
  23. 23. • Difference b/w Solid States & other chapters • Different modules in the chapter + Important Modules • Difficult modules to teach and learn • NCERT vs. other reference books • Aiding tools or techniques Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 24
  24. 24. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 25
  25. 25. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 26
  26. 26. • Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d visualization and imagination for students (Consistent feedback from teachers) Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 27
  27. 27. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 28
  28. 28. • Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d visualization and imagination for students (Consistent feedback from teachers) • 3d physical models could be difficult to make, store or carry. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 29
  29. 29. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 30
  30. 30. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 31
  31. 31. • Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d visualization and imagination for students (Consistent feedback from teachers) • 3d physical models could be difficult to make, store or carry. • Numerical problems based concepts e.g. cation-anion ratio are associated with extension of basic concepts of 3d structure arrangement and unit cells. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 32
  32. 32. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 33
  33. 33. • Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d visualization and imagination for students (Consistent feedback from teachers) • 3d physical models could be difficult to make, store or carry. • Numerical problems based concepts e.g. cation-anion ratio are associated with extension of basic concepts of 3d structure arrangement and unit cells. • Couple of teachers found Hexagonal cubic packing relatively difficult to visualize and thus, to teach. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 34
  34. 34. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 35
  35. 35. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 36
  36. 36. • Solid States chapter is more demanding in terms of 3d visualization and imagination for students (Consistent feedback from teachers) • 3d physical models could be difficult to make, store or carry. • Numerical problems based concepts e.g. cation-anion ratio are associated with extension of basic concepts of 3d structure arrangement and unit cells. • Couple of teachers found Hexagonal cubic packing relatively difficult to visualize and thus, to teach. • These models are just static 3d representation of one state of lattices. Animations are again dynamic 2d representation of crystalline structure. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 37
  37. 37. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 38
  38. 38. • • • • • • Unstable Marker-Tracking Trademark logo Can only use markers for tracking Interactive elements are difficult to add Weak developer community Lot of steps just for basic augmentation Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 40
  39. 39. Vuforia SDK (unityPackage) Image Targets Animation in 3d models Virtual and GUI Buttons Logistics in C sharp Audio Target manager Images Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 44
  40. 40. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 45
  41. 41. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 46
  42. 42. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 47
  43. 43. Image is detected and Face Centered Cubic is shown NCERT page is shown to device Either Tetragonal/ Octahedral void Is chosen Tetragonal Body Centered translucent octahedron One translucent tetrahedron Proceed Proceed Quiz Next All OV sites in a FCC Unit cell are shown All TV sites in a FCC Unit cell are shown Next Next Next Sphere at center Of tetrahedron representing TV Octahedral Edge Centered translucent octahedron Next Sphere at center Of octahedron representing OV Quiz Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 48
  44. 44. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 49
  45. 45. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 50
  46. 46. NCERT page is shown to device Either HCP/CCP Is chosen Image is detected and A-B layer is shown CCP ‘C’ and ‘A’ layer is One CCP unit cell is shown ’A’ layer appears Next Next Next One CCP unit cell is shown HCP One HCP unit cell is shown Next Translucent faces are shown Proceed Proceed Quiz Quiz Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 51
  47. 47. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 52
  48. 48. • Virtual buttons are developer-defined rectangular regions on image targets that trigger an event when touched or occluded in the camera view. • For example, in the sample picture, pointing the hand or touching the rectangular region triggers an action associated with the button. • Such buttons provide an intuitive means of interaction since the users are directly using the content (on paper / surface) to navigate / as a button rather than on screen buttons Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 53
  49. 49. GUI Buttons Virtual Buttons Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 54
  50. 50. • The graphical user interface of Augmented Reality Apps are primarily simple because a major chunk of screen space is dedicated to the camera for easy viewing. • In this project, we have used two GUI buttons to allow users to navigate / toggle between different views of the same 3D model. • An additional ‘mute’ GUI button has also been added to control audio feedback. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 55
  51. 51. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 56
  52. 52. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 57
  53. 53. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 58
  54. 54. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 59
  55. 55. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 60
  56. 56. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 61
  57. 57. • Wow factor and non familiarity with technology major driving force behind initial feedback. • Some students pointed that they would have liked to see rotation and movement through touch gestures on phone as well. • One student wanted content to be broken down to even smaller steps (atom joining atom instead of layer joining layer) Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 62
  58. 58. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 63
  59. 59. • Building is learning & fulfilling. • To learn making very basic augmented reality applications would’t need more than a week • Finding right tool for such an app can take more than one month • Unity 3d with Vuforia SDK • Basic C Sharp • More features you add, more complex would be the code structure • Removing bugs takes much much more time than making the application Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 64
  60. 60. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 65
  61. 61. • .apk format working android application compatible with tablets and mobile phones (android 4.04 & above) • Database of audio content and 3d models • Documentation of all findings, implementation in a work-in-progress research paper • Project Report Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 66
  62. 62. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 67
  63. 63. Formative assessment [1] Formal and informal assessment procedures To modify teaching and learning activities To improve student attainment Commonly contrasted with summative assessment • Exploring scope of formative assessment • • • • Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 68
  64. 64. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 69
  65. 65. • • • • More interaction features Buttons or gestures for model rotation Networking among different devices Fixing bugs Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 70
  66. 66. Experiments • • • • Independent and Dependent Variables Participant Sample and Procedure of experiment Data Analysis Inferences Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 71
  67. 67. Web – mouse based Chemistry Course understanding Our Solution Augmented Reality Print User perceived engagement E Learning DP 3 User Satisfaction Videos DP 4
  68. 68. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 73
  69. 69. • [1] Crooks,, T. (2001). The Validity of Formative Assessments. British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, September 13–15, 2001 • Wydra, F.T.,1980. Learner Controlled Instruction.Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. • Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. and Wager, W. W. 1992. Principles of instructional design. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. • Dede, C. 1995. The evolution of constructivist learning environments: Immersion in distributed, virtual worlds. Educational Technology, 35, 5, 46-52. • Shelton, B. E., and Hedley, N. R. 2004. Exploring a cognitive basis for learning spatial relationships with augmented reality. Tech., Inst., Cognition and learning, 1, 323-357. • Schank, P., and Kozma, R. 2002. Learning chemistry through the use of a representation- based knowledge building environment. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 21, 3, 253-27 • Urhahne, D., Nick, S., & Schanze, S. (2009). The effect of three-dimensional simulations on the understanding of chemical structures and their properties.Research in science education, 39(4), 495-513. • Johnson, R. D., Hornik, S., & Salas, E. (2008). An empirical examination of factors contributing to the creation of successful e-learning environments.International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(5), 356-369. • Hyde, R.T., Shaw, P.N., Jackson, D.E., & Woods, K. (1995). Integration of molecular modelling algorithms with tutorial instruction. Design of an interactive three-dimensional computer-assisted learning environment for exploring molecular structure. Journal of Chemical Education, 72, 699–702 • Pribyl,J.R.,&Bodner,G.M.J.(1987).Spatialabilityanditsroleinorganicchemistry:Astudyoffour • organiccourses. JournalofResearchinScienceTeaching, 24,229–240 • Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 74
  70. 70. • Wu,H.-K.,&Shah,P.(2004).Exploringvisuospatialthinkinginchemistrylearning. ScienceEducation, 88, • 465–492. • Yang,E.-M.,Andre,T.,&Greenbowe,T.J.(2003).Spatialabilityandtheimpactofvisualization/animation • onlearningelectrochemistry. InternationalJournalofScienceEducation, 25,329–349. • Garnett,P.J.,Garnett,P.J.,&Hackling,M.W.(1995).Students’ alternative conceptions in chemistry: • A review of research and implications for teaching and learning. StudiesinScienceEducation, 25, • 69–95. • Anonymous,2006. 2006 industry report.Training 43, 20–32 • R.T. Azuma. A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6:4, 355-385, 1997 • Eddy, E.R., Tannenbaum, S.I.,2003. Transfer in an e-learning context. In: Holton, E.F., Baldwin,T.T.(Eds.), Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco • Kolbasuk McGee, M., 2004.The relearning of e-learning. Information Week • Wirt,J., Choy,S., Rooney,P., Provasnik, S.,Sen, A.,Tobin,R.,2004. The Condition of Education 2004. US Department of Education, Washington, DC • Wu, J.P. , Tsai, R.J., Chen, C.C., & Wu, Y.C. (2006). An integrative model to predict the continuance use of electronic learning systems: hints for teaching. International Journal on E-Learning, 5(2), 287–302 • Fjeld, M., & Voegtli, B. M. (2002). Augmented chemistry: An interactive educational workbench. In Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2002. ISMAR 2002. Proceedings. International Symposium on (pp. 259-321). IEEE. Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 75
  71. 71. • Chen, Y. C. (2006, June). A study of comparing the use of augmented reality and physical models in chemistry education. In Proceedings of the 2006 ACM international conference on Virtual reality continuum and its applications (pp. 369-372). ACM. • Johnstone, A. H. J. of Chem. Educ., 2010, 87, 7, 22-29. • Standard 12 Chemistry Part 1 NCERT Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 76

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