Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
Himanshu Bansal...
Certificate
This is to certify that the project work titled
“Clearn – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Lea...
Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Project Report, Design Project 3 - Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses
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Project Report, Design Project 3 - Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses

  1. 1. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses Himanshu Bansal (516) & Mannu Amrit (523) DD 496 Design Project III Project Guide: Prof. (Dr). Pradeep Yammiyavar Head, Center for Educational Technology, IIT Guwahati Course Instructor: Prof. (Dr). Abinash Kumar Swain Department of Design, IIT Guwahati ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  2. 2. Certificate This is to certify that the project work titled “Clearn – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses” is an authentic work carried out by Himanshu Bansal B.Des (Roll No. 10020516) Mannu Amrit B.Des (Roll No. 10020523) at Department of Design Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Guwahati – 781039, Assam, India. Project Guide Examiner 1_______________________________________________ ____________________________ Prof. (Dr). Pradeep Yammiyavar, Head, Center for Educational Technology, IIT Guwahati Examiner 2_______________________________________________ Examiner 3_______________________________________________
  3. 3. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Acknowledgment We would like to express deep gratitude to our guide Prof. (Dr.) Pradeep Yammiyavar and our coordinator Prof. (Dr.) Abinash Kumar Swain for their guidance, encouragement and gracious support throughout the course of our work, for their motivation that encouraged us to work in this area and for their faith in us at every stage of this research. We would like to thank all the students and staff of Department of Design for their help in the brainstorming process and concept generation. Lastly, we would like to extend our sincere thanks to our teachers at Kendriya Vidyalaya, IIT Guwahati, FIITJEE New Delhi, Vidyamandir Classes, New Delhi, Concept Education Guwahati and Oriental Tutorials, Guwahati for their valuable insights and support throughout the project. Himanshu Bansal Mannu Amrit /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 1
  4. 4. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n IPR Declaration We the undersigned declare that in accordance to the IPR norms generally followed in Academics, we have acknowledged appropriately all sources of material / content including visuals / designs / copy rights accessed from others authors / sources /references and used in this project as part of my academic reporting. We declare that the contents of this project report including visuals / designs other than those whose origin / source has been appropriately acknowledged, are a result of our original efforts. Himanshu Bansal Mannu Amrit /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 2
  5. 5. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Acronyms Used AR- Augmented Reality NCERT- National Council of Educational Research and Training GUI - Graphical User Interface 3D - 3 Dimensional CCP- Cubic Closed Packing HCP- Hexagonal Closed Packing FCC- Face Centered Cubic OV – Octahedral Void TV – Tetrahedral Void /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 3
  6. 6. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Figures & Images Used Figure 13: Interview at Kendriya Figure 1: Chemistry + Augmented Reality Vidyalaya, IIT Guwahati + E Learning Figure 14, 15: D Fusion Studio Figure 2: Homepage, www.coursera.org Figure 16: Vuforia by Qualcomm Figure 3: The Johnstone triangle Figure 17: Unity software Figure 4: Connecting Design Project 3 and Design Project 4 Figure 5: The Johnstone triangle Figure 6: 3D structure, tetragonal voids, Page 17, Standard XII NCERT Figure 7: Taxonomy of mixed reality including real to virtual environments Figure 8: An AR system and the physical model [6] Figure 9: NCERT Chemistry Textbook, Standard XII Figure 10: Dependent Variables Figure 18: Sketchup software Figure 19: Virtual Buttons (in blue) and GUI buttons (in black) Figure 20: Task Flow Diagram, Module 1 Figure 21: App Screenshots, Module 1 Figure 22: App Screenshots, Module 1 Figure 23: AppTest Screenshot, Module 1 Figure 24: Task Flow Diagram, Module 2 Figure 25: App Screenshots, Module 2 Figure 26: 3D Models, Module 1 Figure 27: 3D Models, Module 1 and 2 Figure 28: 3D Models, Module 2 Figure 11: Independent Variables Figure 12: Interview at Oriental Tutorials, Guwahati /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 4
  7. 7. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Contents Cle ar n 4.3.3 Insights from Interviews Acknowledgment 1 IPR Declaration 2 Acronyms 3 Figures & Images used 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction 1.1 Abstract 1.2 Motivation 1.3 Objectives 6 7 8 Chapter 2 - Literature Review 2.1 Why Chemistry? 9 2.2 Augmented Reality 10 2.3 Existing Work 12 Chapter 3 - Project Timeline 13 Chapter 4 - Design Methodology 4.1 Case Study Topic 14 4.2 Research Design 15 4.3 User Requirement 16 Analysis 4.3.1 Interview 17 Questionnaire 4.3.2 Summary of 18 Responses Chapter 5 - Development 5.1 D Fusion 5.2 Vuforia & Unity basics 5.3 Virtual Button & GUI 5.4 Application 5.5 App Flow 5.5.1 Module 1 5.5.2 Module 2 5.6 Audio Components 18 21 22 23 24 24 24 27 29 Chapter 6 - Testing 32 Chapter 7 - Conclusion & Discussion 33 Chapter 8 - References 34 Appendix Summary of Responses Connecting Design Project 3 & Design Project 4 Image Tracker /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 5
  8. 8. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Abstract Figure1: Chemistry + Augmented Reality + E Learning Augmented reality is a popular technology which has come into the limelight in the recent years. In layman terms, it is a technology which combines real and virtual imagery at the same time. It is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video and graphics. Being very interactive in real time, its implications and use cases have evolved into different domains: health domain for application of this technology of particular to interest for us in this project is E Learning. E Learning refers to training initiatives which provide learning material, course communications, and the delivery of course content electronically through technology mediation. In this project, both the domains of AR reality and E Learning have been explored in the context of Chemistry for high school students. The project was planned out such that the first phase focused heavily on learning development of this technology and to build a functional prototype based on user insights. The next phase (Design Project IV) would then focus on testing such a solution against conventional teaching methodologies such as print, web, classroom etc. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 6
  9. 9. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 1.2 Motivation Figure 2: Homepage, www.coursera.org Solid State Chemistry which is taught as the first topic in standard XII in high school chemistry in India involves several concepts with 3 dimensional visualization of atoms and molecules. Having faced difficulties ourselves in this domain in our school days, we explored it further as our topic for addressing an augmented reality based solution. Also, in parallel, with websites such as Coursera, EdX and Udacity gaining immense popularity amongst students in the recent few years, we believe that E Learning is an area wherein lies immense potential for innovation. The current model of teaching in E Learning lies heavily on video lectures, which is a passive means of interaction. and effectiveness in learning in the future. Thus, we worked towards the development of an AR based tool and an experiment to test it versus conventional teaching practices which could potentially throw insights on its feasibility, interactivity, user engagement /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 7
  10. 10. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 1.3 Objectives The key objectives for the project were identified as:   Figure 4: Connecting Design Project 3 and Design Project 4 Identify scope of Augmented Reality in E Learning and in our subject of interest - Solid State Chemistry. Incorporate guidelines for formulating E Learning educational material.  Conduct user study for qualitative feedback about teaching methodologies for Chemistry concepts as well as the existing E Learning model.  Develop an AR based E Learning solution for a specific section in Solid State Chemistry.  Conduct a comparative study of the developed solution with a conventional e learning solution available as of today. (To be done as a continuation in Semester 8) /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 8
  11. 11. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Why Chemistry? Figure 5: The Johnstone triangle Figure 6: 3D structure, tetragonal voids, Page 17, Standard XII NCERT One of the challenges of chemistry education is that it must address multiple levels of representation, from the macro level (tangible and observable) to the sub-micro explanatory level (atoms, molecules, ions) [1]. For novices, understanding these multiple levels and the relationships among them can be challenging. Digital technology, which offers numerous ways to represent information, has come to play an important role in chemistry education, but there are key aspects of interaction and interoperability (i.e. differing operating systems) that still present problems. macroscopic, sub-microscopic, and symbolic domain. If these three domains (including the accompanying levels between the macroscopic and submicroscopic domains) and their interactions are misinterpreted, scientifically unreliable interpretations will necessarily emerge as a result [14]. Modern chemistry is characterized by interdependent, networked thinking in different representational domains. This consideration is in the core of Johnstone’s (1991) famous contribution: ‘Why is science difficult to learn? Johnstone explained that learning and thinking in modern chemistry always take place in a constant shift between three different representational domains: the /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 9
  12. 12. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 2.2 Augmented Reality Figure 7: Taxonomy of mixed reality including real to virtual environments Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows virtual images to be seamlessly mixed with the real world [7, 8, 9]. AR stands between virtual reality and the real environment. In contrast, Augmented Virtuality is a technology that enhances the users’ reality by inserting a real object into a virtual environment. AR and a virtual environment can be divided depending on whether the environment or object in the real world appears or not. Hence, an AR application requires a video input device, e.g. a video camera, to receive an input from the real world, and it should also be made meticulously so that the user cannot distinguish the virtual world from the real world. In addition, AR has real-time properties, since the user should be able to watch the screen. As the screen with the AR is displayed to the user, the user experiences a higher level of immersion with AR as compared to other technologies. Augmented reality technology has been used in several fields [2] as varied as medicine, robotics, manufacturing, machine repair, aircraft simulations, entertainment and gaming [3]. This research presented concentrates on the use of augmented reality in education, more specifically E-Learning. Several authors [4, 5] suggested that virtual reality increases motivation, contributes to better learning, and enhances the educational experience for students. Although AR applications for education have been in place, its impact on learning has only now begun to be explored. AR is a medium which overlays virtual objects on the real world. What features does AR have to help conceptual learning? As a new technology, firstly, AR naturally draws people’s attention. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 10
  13. 13. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Drawing students’ attention is an important factor in instruction [10]. Second, it is a trend to use technology to create a constructivist environment to enhance learning [11]. AR offers an alternative way to see the chemistry world and allows students to interact with the system and discover knowledge by themselves. Thirdly, AR not only creates visual images, but also conveys the spatial cues directly to users [12]. In other words, by using AR users can obtain a sense of spatial feeling. AR has great potential to be applied to the knowledge domain of spatial concepts. Another feature of AR that enhances learning is that AR allows users to interact with the system by using their body, especially the hands, and provides “sensorimotor feedback” [12]. The direct manipulation of AR can supplement the deficiency of mouse-based computer-generated visualization since mouse manipulation is an indirect physical manipulation [12]. Lastly, AR can be a tool which requires users to interact and think carefully [13]. Since users have to concentrate on the Cle ar n AR system and focus on the virtual objects, they may pay more attention to think about what happens next, and thus make them think more deliberately. Overall, AR as an educational medium provides a great alternative environment for students to learn abstract concepts. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 11
  14. 14. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 2.3 Existing Work Figure 8: An AR system and the physical model [6] A recent study [6] investigated how chemistry students interacted with augmented reality and physical models and evaluated the student perceptions regarding these two representations in learning about amino acids. Although there were students who liked using AR to learn about the amino acids because it was portable and easy to make as well as it allowed the students to observe the structures in more detail others felt uncomfortable using the AR marker because it wouldn’t work if the student flipped the marker since it works on marker recognition. The study suggests that using a cube to convey the AR recognition pattern might be a solution to addressing the issue associated with flipping the marker. This research provides guidelines concerning designing the AR environment for a classroom setting [6]. The application shown in Figure 8 includes both an AR marker and a physical model, which are placed on the desk side by side. They showed ball-andstick models of the acids. Participants could choose from the AR marker or the physical model to learn about the acids. One paper [6] compares the use of AR marker and a physical model to see which one is more effective in helping students learn about the acids. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 12
  15. 15. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 3 Project Timeline 11 The project has been divided into two phases: 12 13 Phase 1 – Design Project III August 2013 – November 2013 This phase would primarily focus on development of the AR tool based on identified content through research. Week Dates 1, 2 Aug 19th Sep 1st 3 Sep 2nd Sep 8th 4 5 6 7 8-10 Work Literature Study + Analysis Need Finding, How our project is unique Sept 9th Testing with D Sept 15th Fusion Studio Sept 16th - Report, PPT Sept 22nd Sept 23rd - Mid Sem Week + Sept 29th User Research Sept 30th - Getting started Oct 6th with building AR interfaces Oct 7th Development Oct 27th 14 Oct 28th Nov 3rd Nov 4th Nov 10th Nov 11th Nov 17th Nov 18th Nov 24th Debugging Finishing Touches User Testing, Report Submission Presentation, Winding Up Phase 2 – Design Project IV January 2014 – April 2014 This phase would focus on testing the developed product in an experiment against existing teaching modalities. This would be followed by drawing inferences from the experiment and arriving at a conclusion about the use of augmented reality in E learning. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 13
  16. 16. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 4 Methodology 4.1 Case Study Topic To study the application of Augmented Reality in E-Learning courses, we chose Solid States, first chapter in Chemistry book of class 12th according to NCERT course curriculum as our case study topic. This chapter mostly deals with 3d arrangement of atoms of crystalline metallic, non-metallic elements and ionic and covalent compounds which need the students to understand the concepts sub-micro and symbolic level at the same time. More importantly, it requires students to visualize the atomic arrangement in 3d space which deals with Visio-spatial thinking capability of the students. Figure 9: NCERT Chemistry Textbook, Standard XII /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 14
  17. 17. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 4.2 Research Design Target Participant Sample: As we chose Solid States as our case-study topic, it became very obvious for us to define our target sample group as chemistry students of class 11th and12th also with the students who drop one year after 12th class for college entrance exams. Figure 10: Dependent Variables Figure 11: Independent Variables Variables: Our single independent variable will be the manner in which content is delivered to the students. Basically, we will try to compare these different manners of content delivery and study the effects of them on dependent variables. We are planning to use Single way Multivariate ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test to analysis purpose. There are four levels of this independent variable: 1) Traditional face-to-face classroom setting in which teacher use either printed NCERT books and physical 3d models (mostly balls) to teach the students Solid State concepts. 2) Video: Videos can also be used to explain the concepts. There can be different types of videos also other than basic camera recorded video: Interactive or Animation videos 3) Mouse controlled 3d navigation web apps 4) Augmented Reality (AR) based solution: 3d rendered objects are projected onto markers which are tracked by the device camera. In contrast with mouse controlled apps, these are easier to learn and also give sensorimotor feedback while using it. Navigation from one view from another is easy and quicker. There is more directness in interaction with 3d object in case of AR based solution. We would study the effects of above different levels on following dependent variables : 1) Course Performance 2) User Perceived Satisfaction 3) User Engagement /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 15
  18. 18. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 4.3 User Requirement Analysis We conducted user research with the aim to identify the problem points and needs of teachers and students. Also, we intended to select few concepts from Solid States chapter for development purpose on the basis of insights from user research. With these objectives in mind, we had semi-structured interviews with five higher secondary class chemistry teachers. Teacher School/ Coaching Current Organization Interview Method City A School Kendriya Vidyalaya Physically Guwahati B School Mount Carmel Virtually Delhi C Coaching Concept Education Physically Guwahati D Coaching Oriental Tutorials Physically Guwahati E Coaching FIITJEE Virtually Delhi /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 16
  19. 19. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 4.3.1 Interview Questionnaire We had six subjective questions in our questionnaire as follows: 1) Do you find any relative difference in teaching concepts of Solid States in comparison to other chapters? 2) As a part of your teaching curriculum, what is the standard division of the chapter - could you please divide the chapter into subtopics and modules based on your teaching techniques For example, if you cover the chapter in a span of 3 classes, which topics are broadly covered in which of the classes 5) Is NCERT content sufficient to explain all concepts of Solid States in a concise manner? Is there any other reference material that is recommended to students? 6) Do you feel need of or use any additional visualization tools to explain the Solid States concepts to students more constructively? If yes, what could be they? 3) Within these modules, are there any specific topics which are relatively difficult to explain / teach / make students understand? 4) From a student's perspective, what are the topics within the chapter in which they face maximum difficulties / find hard to grasp? /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 17
  20. 20. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 4.3.3 Insights from Interviews 1. Difference between Solid States and other chapters: Figure 12: Interview at Oriental Tutorials, Guwahati 2. Division of chapters into different modules and sub-topics: Responses to this question are quite consistent for all five teachers. They describe Solid States chapter as more demanding in terms of 3 dimensional visualization and imagination for students. Correlation among views of different teachers can be easily seen in their statements. One teachers said, “As solid states involves 3d concepts, it requires more visualization and imagination skills of the students”. According to another teacher: “It gives help to understand 3-D structures of metals and Ionic Compounds. Visualization in 3-D is required.” These feedback gives support to our assumption that there is need of 3d visualization aiding for students in Solid States and nurture our motivation to design a Augmented Reality based tool for the same. As some teachers are more focused towards teaching school syllabus whereas other are focused towards teaching entrance exam syllabus. Therefore, there are slight differences across teachers in the content and the modules in which the content is divided. Even though, there is similarity in terms in terms of teaching core concepts of the chapter: different layer wise 3dimensional arrangement of atoms, unit cells of Face Centered Cubic (FCC) and Hexagonal Closed Packing (HCP) and tetragonal and octahedral voids. We also asked from some of the teacher’s most important topic in the chapter. These insights helped us to choose spatial arrangement of atoms in unit cells and voids formed inside them as content for AR based pedagogical tool to start with. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 18
  21. 21. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 3. Relatively difficult topics to teach and learn Figure 13: Interview at Kendriya Vidyalaya, IIT Guwahati Teachers find it difficult make student visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of particles in 3d space. One teachers informed, “For students it is difficult to understand 3d crystalline structure and where and how different voids are present inside the structures.” From different structures couple of teachers found Hexagonal cubic packing relatively difficult to visualize and so to teach. A teacher said, “In hexagonal packing, visualization is bit difficult and then voids in hexagonal packing.” Solid States chapter contains other concepts also e.g. Voids, Cation-Anion Ratio, Coordination number. There are numerical problems in these concepts. These concepts are associated with and extension of basic concepts of 3d structure arrangement and unit cells. According to one teacher, “Once 3d arrangement of atoms is clearly understood by student, everything else is easier.” This information motivated us to Cle ar n start with spatial arrangement of atoms in unit cells and voids as instructional content. 4. NCERT is insufficient Most of the teachers admire NCERT text books because of the content and instruction design. It somewhat helps students understand the crystalline structure with the help of colorful 2d figures. But they do not find it sufficient in terms of depth of content and its effectiveness in provide clear 3d visualization of structures and lattices. One teacher stated, “NCERT books are good and there are some diagrams and explanations for 3d concepts but not sufficient.” They generally refer foreign author books or other guide books. 5. Use of additional tools Teachers take help of ball - stick models and animations to show how molecules are arranged in a unit cell and voids are created. One teacher provided us with the details of the tools he has used. He /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 19
  22. 22. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// informed, “I tried the following ball stick models: Deluxe Version Solid State Model Kit (http://ice.chem.wis c.edu/Catalog/SciKi ts.html#Anchor-Solid31140). Currently I am using bits of J3D animation from http://www.chm.davi dson.edu/vce/ which are extremely effective and students just enjoy them.” Cle ar n find that most of the teachers use example of room to teach arrangement of atom in cubic unit cell and sharing among different unit cells. There were opposite views also. 3d physical models could be difficult to make, store or carry. According to one teacher, “It is time consuming to make slides or use 3d models. There is non availability of 3d models in market.” Also, these models are just static 3d representation of one state of lattices. Animations are again dynamic 2d representation of crystalline structure. Another teacher shared his views, “Unfortunately the videos and models are not very useful and user friendly so they also do not provide much help for teachers. If we can have the visualization of the 3-D structure that how a structure is formed step wise it will help. It should be handy and simple to use.” It was interesting to /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 20
  23. 23. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chapter 5: Development 5.1 D’Fusion Figure 14, 15: D Fusion Studio Initially, we did some explorations with D’Fusion studio, a cross platform SDK for building AR applications by Total Immersion. It is more GUI based and one can develop basic AR applications (augmentation of single 3d rendered supplement onto real world by tracking single marker) without much programming. Scenario intelligence programming is done using Lua script. 3D rendered objects can be directly imported from Autodesk 3ds Max and Maya using exporters provided in its developer package. We were successful in augmenting 3d molecular structure over black and white marker. We also tried adding interactivity to it by changing the rendered supplement when two markers are brought nearby. Cle ar n 1) Marker-Tracking is very unstable, a lot of flickering was occurring while tracking. 2) It shows its trademark logo all the time over display screen. 3) Interactive elements like on screen buttons and animations were difficult to add. 4) Weak developer community and support. 5) One have to do a lot of steps just for basic augmentation Due to these issues, we decided not to proceed with D’Fusion and switched to Vuforia. But during the course of our exploration with D’Fusion studio, we found following issues in it: /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 21
  24. 24. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 5.2 Vuforia, Unity, SketchUp Figure 16: Vuforia by Qualcomm Figure 17: Unity software Figure 18: SketchUp software Vuforia by Qualcomm is an Augmented Reality Software Development Kit (SDK) for mobile devices that enables the creation of Augmented Reality applications. It uses Computer Vision technology to recognize and track planar images (Image Targets) and simple 3D objects, such as boxes, in real-time. This image registration capability enables developers to position and orient virtual objects, such as 3D models and other media, in relation to real world images when these are viewed through the camera of a mobile device. The virtual object then tracks the position and orientation of the image in real-time so that the viewer’s perspective on the object corresponds with their perspective on the Image Target, so that it appears that the virtual object is a part of the real world scene. Apart from providing Image tracking capabilities, Vuforia also gives developers the flexibility to add interactions through buttons, gestures, animation, sound etc. Cle ar n in the mobile application. Tracking is very stable in Vuforia in comparison with D’fusion. Programming in Vuforia is done on C sharp and Java script with unity. SketchUp, marketed officially as Trimble SketchUp, is a 3D modeling program for applications such as architectural, civil and mechanical engineering, film, and video game design. It provides an intuitive graphical user interface to design 3D cad models similar to softwares such as 3DS Max, Rhino etc. Unity is a cross-platform game engine with a built-in IDE developed by Unity Technologies. It is used to develop video games for web plugins, desktop platforms, consoles and mobile devices. Unity is of extreme importance to this project because it provides a base platform to use 3D models generated in Sketchup with the Vuforia plugin. Additional functionalities and interactions such as GUI buttons, audio support and virtual buttons can be built on top of this using Unity. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 22
  25. 25. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 5.3 Virtual Buttons and GUI 5.3.1 Virtual Buttons Figure 19: Virtual Buttons (in blue) and GUI buttons (in black) Virtual buttons are developer-defined rectangular regions on image targets that trigger an event when touched or occluded in the camera view. For example, in the sample picture, pointing the hand or touching the rectangular region triggers an action associated with the button. Such buttons provide an intuitive means of interaction since the users are directly using the content (on paper / surface) to navigate / as a button rather than on screen buttons In this project, we have used two GUI buttons to allow users to navigate / toggle between different views of the same 3D model. The models are placed in a chronological order - i.e, the next view of the model is obtained from the previous view. 5.3.2 GUI The graphical user interface of Augmented Reality Apps are primarily simple because a major chunk of screen space is dedicated to the camera for easy viewing. Any additional content that needs to be shown to the user is subsequently placed on layers above the camera layer. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 23
  26. 26. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 5.4 Application We divided our teaching into two modules, based on the content finalized through feedback from our qualitative research. These modules are: 1. Understanding 3D Closed Packing Structure 1a. Hexagonal Close Packing 1b. Cubic Close Packing 2. Understanding Voids 2a. Tetragonal voids 2b. Octahedral voids 5.5 App Flow The flow of the app can be understood through the following steps: 5.5.1 Module 1 1. User is reading the NCERT book and comes across the concept of 3 Dimensional closed packing. Figure 20: Task Flow Diagram, Module 1 3. The home screen of the application is essentially live feed from the camera of the device. The user points the device to the page of the NCERT book. 4. The 3D model is augmented on the device with audio feedback. Virtual buttons to toggle between hexagonal close packing and cubic close packing are also augmented on the device. This 3D model consists of two layers of atoms in which placement of second layer is shown through animation. The first layer is white in color while the second is in green. Different colors are used to for different orientations of layer and easy understanding. 5. The user points / touches the desired concept to be explored on the NCERT book. 6. Subsequently, the animation and placement of third layer is shown 2. User turns on the application on his mobile / tablet /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 24
  27. 27. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 6. a Hexagonal Close Packing In case of hexagonal close packing, the third layer is positioned exactly the same way as the first layer, forming ABAB structure. The placement of third layer (white in color, same as first layer) is shown through animation upon selection of hexagonal close packing through the virtual button on the book. Figure 21: App Screenshots, Module 1 Also, once the user selects hexagonal close packing, two GUI buttons appear on screen (image here) namely ‘Next’ & ‘Back’. These buttons can be used to navigate back and forth to subsequent views of this packing. In the next view (image here), additional atoms from each layer are removed leaving out just one unit cell, to be able to visualize the hexagon formed through such a packing. In the subsequent view, a a translucent hexagon is augmented over the atoms to show how the unit cell looks. Each of these steps is accompanied with audio feedback explaining the concept and providing concepts. Cle ar n Finally, for effective learning of these concepts, the user is prompted with a question related to the concepts shown in the previous slides in the form of a multiple choice question. In case a user answers correctly, the user is prompted again with a question about reasoning of the correct answer / why other options were incorrect. Only upon correctly answering both these questions is the user shown an explanation about the actual answer of the question. Such a twofold system of testing ensures that the student approaches a problem from different perspectives and identifies different use cases (For example, visualization of layering of atoms in a different fashion / orientation). It also helps complete the learning cycle of the concept being communicated through the application. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 25
  28. 28. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 6. b Cubic Close Packing Figure 22: App Screenshots, Module 1 Figure 23: AppTest Screenshots, Module 1 In case of cubic close packing, the third layer is not aligned either with the first layer or the second layer. Thus, the third layer has its own color (blue) the atoms of which are placed such that they fit into the octahedral voids formed by the previous two layers. When the user selects cubic close packing through the virtual button, placement of this layer is shown through animation over the first two layers. Also accompanying the third layer is the fourth layer in white, which is aligned exactly with the first layer, thereby forming ABCABC layering of Cubic close packing. Similar to hexagonal close packing, upon selected of CCP through the virtual button, two GUI buttons appear on screen (image here) namely ‘Next’ & ‘Back’. These buttons can be used to navigate back and forth to subsequent views of this packing. In the next view (image here), additional atoms from each layer are removed leaving out just one Cle ar n unit cell, to be able to visualize the cube formed through such a packing. In the subsequent view, a a translucent cube is augmented over the atoms to show how the unit cell looks. Each of these steps is accompanied with audio feedback explaining the concept and providing concepts. This particular visualization of a cube is of importance to us since it involves rotation of the atoms at an angle which is difficult to visualize. The color coding used layers wise accompanied with freedom to spatially move in 3D helps students correlate this form of ccp to the 1st state (ABCABC) The user can navigate back to any of the previous views through on screen buttons. The user can also navigate to other concept (Cubic Close Packing) through virtual button. Also, these models of CCP are accompanied by a test question, followed by a question on the justification of incorrect options.(Similar to the model followed in hexagonal close packing). /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 26
  29. 29. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 5.5.2 Module 2 Understanding Voids Voids are the empty space created between atoms when they arranged very nearby. For students, understanding different kind of voids, how they are formed, their 3d positions in single unit cells and how they are shared between multiple unit cells are very important. In ionic crystalline solid structures cations are present on voids. Therefore, to calculate cation anion ratio in a molecule, it is important to know above mentioned details about voids. Therefore, in our second module we chose voids in Face Centred Cubic (FCC) as our content material. In a Face Cantered Cubic unit cell, there are atoms at each corner of the cube as well as on the centre of each face. There are two type of voids in FCC: (i) Tetragonal Voids (ii) Octahedral Voids. These voids in FCC unit cell are described on page 17 of 12th class Chemistry NCERT book. There are two diagrams on the page: upper one for tetragonal voids and lower one for octahedral voids. Figure 24: Task Flow Diagram, Module 2 When student starts the Clearn (AR application) and bring the camera in front Cle ar n of the page 3d model of FCC is augmented on the screen. Also, there are two virtual buttons on the page, one on each diagram and so for void type. Student can choose to learn any of the void concept by point towards desired virtual button. Tetragonal voids A tetragonal void is formed by placing fourth atom over the depression among three closely arranged face centred atoms. Initially, all atoms of FCC unit cells are colored grey. When tetragonal void’s virtual button is pressed, the four relevant atoms are colored orange to distinguish them from other molecules. These four atoms are joined and four triangular green translucent faces are shown to form the tetrahedron. Other than these changes in 3d model, ‘Back’ and ‘Next’ are also shown on the screen. Student can toggle between different steps/models using these buttons. By pressing next button small green sphere is shown at exact center of the tetrahedron. This sphere abstractly represent the position of tetrahedral void. So, tetrahedral voids are present on the one-fourth of the body diagonal of /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 27
  30. 30. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// FCC unit cell. In Sodium Oxide, Sodium atoms in green are placed at these tetrahedral voids. On pressing next button, all 8 tetragonal voids are shown as green spheres and all other spheres are turned into orange. Instructional audio related for each mode is also being played. Cle ar n the position of octahedral void. In Sodium Chloride, Sodium atoms in green are placed at these octahedral voids. On pressing next button, all 13 positions of octahedral voids are shown which due to sharing of edge centered atoms are effectively four. Instructional audio related for each mode is also being played. Octahedral voids Figure 25: App Screenshots, Module 2 Whenever three closely packed atoms are placed directly over three oppositely oriented atoms, an octahedral void (OV) is formed within them. There are two types of such voids in fcc unit cell. The first formed at a body center is shown here. When octahedral void’s virtual button is pressed, octahedral void at body center of FCC unit cell is shown with three spheres of same layer as blue and other three as orange. On pressing next button, second type of octahedral void, edge centered void is shown. This time four unit cells are shown and one edge centered OV is shared among these four unit cells. After pressing next button, small red sphere is appeared on the exact center of the octahedron formed by 6 face centered atoms around center of unit cell. This sphere abstractly represent /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 28
  31. 31. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n 5.6 Audio components To assist learning and provide instruction, audio feedback was added into the application to guide users through the flow of the application as well as help in instruction. A mute button to turn of these instructions has also been provided on the GUI. The following is the audio feedback given by the application at respective stages: Module 1 : Understanding 3D Closed Packing Structure Stage 1 (Layer 1 + Animation of Layer 2 on top of it) “3Dimensional close packed structure can be generated by placing layers one over the other. Let us take a two dimensional hexagonal close packed layer ‘A’ colored in white and place a similar layer colored in green above it such that the spheres of the second layer are placed in the depressions of the first layer. Let us call the second layer B. Figure 26: 3D Models, Module 1 finger at either the diagram of hcp or ccp on your NCERT book (Figure 1.18 b)” Stage 2a User selects hcp virtually “In Hexagonal close packing, tetrahedral voids of the second layer in green are covered by the spheres of the third layer in white, which is aligned exactly with the first layer. Thus, the pattern of spheres is repeated in alternate layers and is often written as ABAB. Toggle between different visual modes by on screen buttons.” Stage 2b User toggles to next mode (hcp) “One unit cell of such hexagonal close packing can now be seen after removal of atoms of other cells from each layer.” For placement of the third layer, point your /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 29
  32. 32. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Stage 2c User toggles to final mode (hcp) “The faces of this hexagonal unit cell can now be seen. This sort of arrangement of atoms is found in many metals like magnesium and zinc.” Stage 3b User selects ccp virtually “In Cubic close packing, octahedral voids of the second layer in green are covered by the spheres of the third layer in blue. When placed in this manner, the spheres of the third layer are not aligned with those of either the first or the second layer. Only when fourth layer in white is placed, its spheres are aligned with those of the first layer from which the pattern ABCABC emerges. Toggle between different visual modes by on screen buttons.” Stage 3c User toggles to next mode (ccp) Figure 27: 3D Models, Module 1 and 2 Cle ar n “One unit cell of such cubic close packing can now be seen after removal of atoms of other cells from each layer. “ Stage 3d User toggles to final mode (ccp) “The faces of this cubic unit cell, known as face centred cubic can now be seen. Note how the original layers are oriented within a cubic cell. Metals such as copper and silver crystallise in this structure.” Module 2: Understanding Voids Stage 1: Cubic model “In a Face Centered Cubic arrangement, there are atoms at each corner of the cube as well as on the centre of each face. Point your finger at Figure 1 or Figure 2 to know more about tetrahedral or octahedral voids respectively.” Stage 2a: Tetragonal void is selected “Tetragonal void is selected. A regular tetrahedron is formed connecting three face centred atoms and one atom at the corner of the unit cell /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 30
  33. 33. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// (Orange in color). This tetrahedron is actually the tetragonal void within the four atoms. Toggle between different visual modes by on screen buttons.” Cle ar n “Octahedral voids are formed on the center of the edges as well. It can be seen that one edge centered octahedral void is shared amongst four unit cells.” Stage 3c: Next mode of Octahedral void Stage 2b: Next mode of tetragonal void “Within this tetragonal void formed inside the tetrahedron, an atom can be placed. For example, in Sodium Oxide, Sodium atoms in green are placed at these tetrahedral voids.” “Within this octahedral void formed inside the octahedron, an atom can be placed. For example, in Sodium Chloride, Sodium atoms in red are placed at octahedral voids.” Stage 2c: Final mode of tetragonal void Stage 3d: Final mode of Octahedral void “A total of 8 such tetragonal voids are thus formed in each fcc unit cell, as shown.” “Effectively there are 4 such octahedral voids formed in each fcc unit cell.” Stage 3a: Octahedral void is selected “Whenever three closely packed atoms are placed directly over three oppositely oriented atoms, an octahedral void is formed within them. There are two types of such voids in fcc unit cell. The first formed at a body centre is shown here.” Figure 28: 3D Models, Module 2 Stage 3b: Next mode of Octahedral void /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 31
  34. 34. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 6: Testing The prototype developed so far is being currently tested at Kendriya Vidyalaya, IIT Guwahati amongst class XII children. The testing is expected to complete by November 15th, 2013. Aim of this testing phase is to get the initial feedback of concept and prototype from its primary users i.e. students, identify the major shortcomings in them and then look for the scope for improvement. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 32
  35. 35. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Chapter 7: Conclusion & Discussion The focus of the project for the first phase lied in acquiring sufficient skills to be able to implement and development a working AR tool to aid chemistry teaching. Although this has been achieved, there lies a lot of potential in improvements of this tool to incorporate effective learning. For example, in future, it is likely that text books would be replaced by tablet based devices / new technologies. In such cases, our tool can be used but with a completely different use case. To illustrate this, consider a class of 40 students in near future all of which use tablet PC’s for all of their school / academic tasks. Keeping this in mind, our solution can be designed in a manner in which for a user to correctly view the answer of the question asked in the application, he needs to augment his tablet over his classmates tablet till he finds the correct match. In this case, if our application is used, students can collaborate with each other for effective learning. Several more use cases and scenarios can be developed on these lines to establish the use of this tool in near future. Once these use cases have been developed and feedback from initial testing has been incorporated, we would move towards designing the comparative research experiment to be carried out next semester. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 33
  36. 36. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n References [2] Azuma, R. “A Survey of Augmented Reality” In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 6, No. 4, August 1997, pp. 355-385. [6] Chen, Y. “A study of comparing the use of augmented reality and physical models in chemistry education”, Proceedings of the 2006 ACM International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Application, Hong Kong, China, June 14- June 17, 2006, pp. 369-372. [3] Oda, O. Lister, L. J. White, S. Feiner, S. “Developing an Augmented Reality Racing Game” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for [7] Bauer M, Brügge B, Klinker G, MacWilliams A, Reicher T, Riß S, Sandor C, Wagner M (2001)Design of a componentbased augmented reality framework. In: Proc. of the ISAR 2001, pp 45–54 Interactive Entertainment. Cancun, Mexico, 2008. [8] Hampshire A, Seichter H, Grasset R, Billinghurst M (2006) Augmented reality authoring: generic context from programmer to designer. In: Proc. of the OZCHI 2006, pp 409–412 [1] Johnstone, A. H. J. of Chem. Educ., 2010, 87, 7, 22-29. [4] Pantelidis, V. S. “Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education” VR in the Schools, Vol. 1. No. 1 June 1995, p. 9. Revised November 2009 and available at http://vr.coe.ecu.edu/reas.html [5] Winn, W. “A Conceptual Basis for Educational Applications of Virtual Reality” Technical Report TR 93-9. Washington: University of Washington, August 1993. [9] Steed A, Slater M (1996) Dataflow representation for defining behaviors within virtual environments. In:Proc. of the Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium 1996, pp 163–167 /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 34
  37. 37. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n [10] Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. and Wager, W. W. 1992. Principles of instructional design. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. [11] Dede, C. 1995. The evolution of constructivist learning environments: Immersion in distributed, virtual worlds. Educational Technology, 35, 5, 46-52. [12] Shelton, B. E., and Hedley, N. R. 2004. Exploring a cognitive basis for learning spatial relationships with augmented reality. Tech., Inst., Cognition and learning, 1, 323-357. [13] Schank, P., and Kozma, R. 2002. Learning chemistry through the use of a representation- based knowledge building environment. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 21, 3, 253-279. [14] Johnstone, A. H. (1991). Why is science difficult to learn? Things are seldom what they seem. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 7(2), 75–83. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 35
  38. 38. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Appendix 1: Summary of Responses Teacher Q1- Difference A B C As solid states involves 3d concepts, it requires more visualization and imagination skills of the students Q2 - Modules Important Topic Q3 - Difficulty (Teacher) 1. Crystal lattice/ Bravis Structure (14) 2.Cubic structure -> Packing Efficiency 3.Defects in crystals Packing efficiency as it involves lots of numericals to solve: density, no. of voids, no. of substituent particles 3d concepts to convey. HCP is Cation, anion difficult ratio. density. relative to CCP. numericals abc layer type is tougher sufficient for 12th board syllabus but not for competitive exams Module 2 and Module 3 Yes. I tried the following ball stick models: Deluxe Version From a simple Solid State Model Kit text book (http://ice.chem.wis perspective, it is c.edu/Catalog/SciKi one of the best. ts.html#Anchor-Solid-31140). It tries to make Currently I am using bits of J3D students animation from visualize quite a http://www.chm.davi bit. dson.edu/vce/ which are extremely effective and students just enjoy them. Module 1: Classification of solids; Module 2: Structure of Crystalline solids-> Unit cells – close packing – voids – rank of Yes, as it requires unit cells – density of quite a bit of cubic unit cell – density visualization. of hexagonal unit cell; Module 3: Structure of simple ionic solids; Module 4 : Defects, Electrical and Magnetic Properties Need to visualize and understand molecular Lattice, Unit cells, structure in 3d Arrangement -> arrangement, voids, space whereas Visualization coordination no. other chapters require lots of calculation In hexagonal packing visualization is bit difficult and then voids in hexagonal packing Q4 - Difficulty Q5- NCERT (Student) sufficient? NCERT is not sufficient in To understand terms of depth 3d of concept. arrangement foreign author and draw it on books can be paper. used for reference Q6- Extra tools videos: to show how molecules are arranged and voids are created. 3d models: in abc-abc both tetrahedral and octahedral voids together. Presentations. Spheres arrangement in reference to room Time consuming to make slides or use 3d models. non availability of 3d models in market /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 1
  39. 39. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Unlike, other chapters Solid states includes 3 dimensional structures and D students need to first understand these 3d structure to grasp the other concepts. 1. crystalline vs. amorphous solids, 2. Basic 7 structure in crystalline solid, 3. Particle position in structures, 4. Different Unit cells, 5. Properties of different crystalline structures 1. Class-1: crystalline and amorphous solid, symmetry elements, Formation of it gives help to unit cell, Bravias lattice, understand 3-D Different types of unit cell; structures of metals Class-2: HCP and CCP E and Ionic structure, Different types Compounds. of structures of ionic Visualization in 3-D crystal, Octahedral and is required. tetrahedral voids; Class-3: Miller indices, Applications defects How particles are shared among Difficulty in understanding 3d multiple unit crystalline structure, voids. cells. voids Imperfection in solids are important for ionic solid Visualization of structures and how to Topics form a 3-D structure. of class Spatial arrangement -1 and understanding on class -2 boards some time become difficult for many students Cle ar n NCERT books are good and there are some diagrams and explanations for 3d concepts but not sufficient. Other guide books are referred. Pictorial representation are very good in comparison with NCERT. Takes help of animation and ball- stick modals. Use example of room to teach arrangement of atom in cubic unit cell and sharing among different unit cells Although it is good but not sufficient. help of teacher is required to interact Unfortunately the videos and models are not very useful and user friendly so they also do not provide much help for teachers. If we can have the visualization of the 3-D structure that how a structure is formed step wise it will help. it should be handy and simple to use. /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 2
  40. 40. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Appendix 2: Connecting Design Project 3 and Design Project 4 /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 3
  41. 41. Final Year Design Project I – Studies in application of augmented reality in E Learning Courses /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cle ar n Appendix 3: Image Trackers, Module 1 and 2 /////////////////////////////////////////////// Department of Design, IIT Guwahati 4

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