Urban Homeless 7.1.10


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Urban Homeless 7.1.10

  1. 1. Urban Homeless A study in Bangalore by Paraspara Trust
  2. 2. Urban Poverty in India <ul><li>Urban poverty in India remains high, at over 25 percent. Over 80 million poor people live in the cities and towns of India. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: National Sample Survey Organisation’s survey report). </li></ul><ul><li>With over 575 million people, India will have 41 percent of its population living in cities and towns by 2030 from the present level of 286 million. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: India: Urban Poverty Report 2009 – Fact sheet) </li></ul><ul><li>As per the 2001 census, the total urban homeless population is 7, 78,599 people. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Urban Slums in Bengaluru <ul><li>Bengaluru is home to around 800 slums. According to BBMP, approximately 600,000 people out of the city’s eight million population live in the slums. </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka, which was granted about Rs400 crore by the Central government under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, has a 2010 deadline to build around 18,000 units for slum dwellers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Homeless is further marginalized <ul><li>The condition of urban homeless is worse than that of urban poor as the distinction between both the sets is to do with ‘roof on the head’. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Study by Paraspara Trust in Bengaluru <ul><li>Study conducted in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>First of its kind in Bengaluru by NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Done with the support of ActionAid & other partners of Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Covered the entire city </li></ul><ul><li>Trained volunteers used for data collection, through surveys </li></ul><ul><li>It was a sample survey (not a comprehensive one) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Findings - demography <ul><li>Identified 250 people without homes (living on streets)- It includes 156 men, 90 women & 4 transgender. </li></ul><ul><li>Caste: 54%- SCs; 7% -ST; 11% -OBC </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: 86% Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 70% uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>117 children out of school (12 in school) </li></ul><ul><li>20% were handicapped </li></ul>
  7. 7. Staying <ul><li>70% of the people living on foot paths, 10% in railway property, 10% under flyovers and 10% in the premises of temples, near drainage, government lands, old buildings, constructing sites, bus stands, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>55% don’t know any friends and relatives, who have a permanent address in the city; but most of them had someone in their native villages with a permanent address. </li></ul><ul><li>60% people are living on the streets since from 5 years. 20% people are living since from 2 to 4 years; other 10% people are living since from more than 5 years. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Unsound sleep <ul><li>75% said they don’t have sound sleep at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Major disturbances are from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound – 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police - 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual assault – 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholics – 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes – 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases – 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger- 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>29% sleep in railway stations and bus stations; 62% sleep on the streets and roads; 17% sleep in open grounds and 15% in parks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reason for homeless <ul><li>70% said ‘poverty’ is the cause </li></ul><ul><li>10% - do not want a home (addicted) </li></ul><ul><li>10% - sent away from home </li></ul><ul><li>26% - have no money to pay rent </li></ul><ul><li>8%- because of unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>7% - due to disease </li></ul>
  10. 10. Employment <ul><li>Major occupations are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66 – daily wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 – rag-picking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 – small business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>99 – begging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33 – domestic work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 – sex work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27 – construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 – sweeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(one does many jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20% get regular work </li></ul><ul><li>42% get work for 15 days in a month </li></ul><ul><li>72% earn less thanRs.50 per day </li></ul><ul><li>80% have no savings </li></ul><ul><li>16% send money to parents occasionally </li></ul><ul><li>70% people are spending 40% of their earnings for food. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Marriage &Sexuality <ul><li>62% are married – but only 56% of them live together. (24% are widowed) </li></ul><ul><li>47 homosexuals </li></ul><ul><li>29 have multiple partners regularly & 19 occasionally </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the people are very happy in their sexual activities except for lack of privacy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Access to facilities <ul><li>68% fetched water from Corporation taps </li></ul><ul><li>Toilets- the major problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>41% use open grounds and behind the parked vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% use public toilets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% pay for using toilets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bathing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1% take bath every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>56% take bath once in 2 or 3 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% pay for bathing (public bath) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>31% hold Voter ID </li></ul><ul><li>But, 0.4% have a ration card here </li></ul>
  13. 13. Health <ul><li>40% reported health problems </li></ul><ul><li>83% faced some health problem during the last month </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 70% visit Government hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is unsatisfactory; sometimes need to bribe and hospital staff ill-treat </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the people have fever, weakness, headache, stomach ache and body pain </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 20% could not work for even 7 days in a month due to health problems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Demands from the people <ul><li>Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Stop harassment from police & goondas </li></ul><ul><li>Safe place to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Ration cards </li></ul><ul><li>Clean drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent work </li></ul><ul><li>Study room for children </li></ul><ul><li>Health facility </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy for girls (bathing, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions – old, handicapped & widow </li></ul><ul><li>Loan </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>