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Schizophrenia changed

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  • 1. What is schizophrenia? • A chronic severe brain disorder; often they hear voices, believe media are broadcasting their thoughts to the world or may believe someone is trying to harm them. • In men it usually develops in teen years and early 20s; in women it usually develops in 20s and 30s.
  • 2. Diagnosis • Currently there is no physical or lab test that can absolutely diagnose schizophrenia. • A psychiatrist usually comes to the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms.
  • 3. Misdiagnosis • This is a common problem since schizophrenia shares a significant number of symptoms with other disorders. • Per the Nat’l Depression & Bipolar Support Alliance there is an average of 10 years from onset to correct diagnosis & tx.
  • 4. Disorders that may appear like Schizophrenia • Schizoid personality • Schizophreniform disorder • Schizotypal personality • Bipolar Disorder • Asperger’s syndrome
  • 5. Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Profound disruption in cognition and emotion, affecting the most fundamental human attributes: – Language – Thought – Perception – Affect – Sense of self
  • 6. Positive Symptoms • Positive symptoms are those that have a positive reaction from some treatment. • In other words, positive symptoms respond to treatment. • Those that appear to reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions.
  • 7. Positive Symptoms • Delusions. Those where the patient thinks he is being followed or watched are common; also the belief that people on TV, radio are directing special messages to him/her. Hallucinations. Distortions or exaggerations of perception in any of the senses. Often they hear voices within their own thoughts followed by visual hallucinations
  • 8. • Disorganized thinking/speech. • AKA loose associations; speech is tangential, loosely associated or incoherent enough to impair communication. • Grossly disorganized behavior. • Difficulty in goal directed behavior (ADLs), unpredictable agitation or silliness, social disinhibition, or bizarre behavior. • There is a purposelessness to behavior
  • 9. • Catatonic behavior. • Marked decrease in reaction to immediate environment, sometimes just unaware of surroundings, rigid or bizarre postures, aimless motor activity. • Other Positive Symptoms: • Inappropriate response to stimuli • Unusual motor behavior (pacing, rocking) • Depersonalization • Derealization • Somatic preoccupations
  • 10. Negative Symptoms • Those that appear to reflect a diminution or loss of normal functions. • May be difficult to evaluate because they are not as grossly abnormal as positive symptoms.
  • 11. • Affective flattening. • Reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact and body language. • Alogia (poverty of speech) • Lessening of speech fluency and productivity, thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts; often manifested as short, empty replies to questions.
  • 12. • Avolition • The reduction, difficulty or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behavior. Often mistaken for apparent disinterest. Examples of Avolition • No longer interested in going out with friends • No longer interested in activities that the person used to show enthusiasm • No longer interested in anything • Sitting in the house for hours or days doing nothing
  • 13. Disorganized Symptoms • This one is somewhat new and may not be considered valid. • It is thought disorder, confusion, disorientation and memory problems. • Summary of Negative Symptoms Lack of emotion Low energy Lack of interest in life Affective flattening Alogia Inappropriate social skills Inability to make friends Social isolation
  • 14. Cognitive Symptoms • Difficulties in concentration and memory: – Disorganized thinking – Slow thinking – Difficulty understanding – Poor concentration – Poor memory – Difficulty expressing thoughts – Difficulty integrating thoughts, feelings, behaviors Currently there is no treatment that has a consistent impact on negative symptoms
  • 15. Types of Schizophrenia • Paranoid • Hebephrenic • Catatonic • Residual • Schizoaffective • Undifferentiated
  • 16. Paranoid Schizophrenia • Persons are very suspicious of others and often have grand schemes of persecution at the root of their behavior. • During this phase they may have hallucinations and frequent delusions.
  • 17. Hebephrenic Schizophrenia • AKA disorganized schizophrenia; characterized by emotionless, incongruous, or silly behavior, intellectual deterioration, frequently beginning insidiously during adolescence. • May be verbally incoherent and may have moods and emotions that are not appropriate to the situation. • Hallucinations not usually present.
  • 18. Catatonic Schizophrenia • Person is extremely withdrawn, negative and isolated. • May have marked psychomotor disturbances.
  • 19. Residual Schizophrenia • Lacks motivation and interest in day-to-day living. • Person is not usually having delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech.
  • 20. Schizoaffective Disorder • There will be symptoms of schizophrenia as well as mood disorder (depression, bipolar, mixed mania).
  • 21. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of the previous types. • Exhibits more than one of the previous types without a clear dominance of one.

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