Quality parameters in cucurbits & gourds


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Quality parameters in cucurbits & gourds

  2. 2. Cucurbits • Cucurbits forms an important & a big group of vegetable crops. • Cultivated both in tropical & subtropical countries • Uses: • Salad (cucumber) • Cooking (all the gourds) • Pickling (cucumber) • Dessert fruit (muskmelon & watermelon) • Candies & preserved (ash gourd) • Hard shell of bottle gourd – for making musical instruments • Mostly seed propagated except perennials like chow-chow ivy gourd (coccinia) 2
  3. 3. Cont… • Germplasm: over 400 base collections of cucurbitaceous crops are under long term conservation in NBPGR • Origin: Being a warm season crops, these are tropical in origin (Africa, tropical America & Asia) • Sex forms: 1. Hermaphrodite form: primitive form, eg: Satputia variety of ridge gourd 2. Monoecious form: advanced form, eg: majority of cucurbits 3. Andro-monoecious form (male+bisexual) : muskmelon & some cultivars of watermelon 4. Gyno-monoecious form (female+bisexual) : cucumber 5. Gynoecious form: rarely in cucumber (potential for commercial production) 6. Trimonoecious form (male+female+bisexual) 7. Dioceous form: Parwal, Coccinia & Kakrol 3
  4. 4. Cont… • Cucurbitacin is of a class of biochemical compounds that some plants — notably members of the family Cucurbitaceae, that includes the common pumpkins and gourds — developed in order to defend themselves from herbivores. • Cucurbitacins are chemically classified as steroids, formally derived from cucurbitane • Generally cytotoxic and poisonous to some animals, and some of them are among the bitterest tastes to humans • They and their derivatives have been found in many plant families,some mushrooms (including Russula and Hebeloma) and even in some marine mollusks 4
  5. 5. Some of the cucurbits Common name Botanical name Origin Chromosome no. uses Watermelon Citrulus lanatus Africa 22 Fruit as dessert Muskmelon Cucumis melo Africa 24 Fruit as dessert Cucumber Cucumis sativus India 14 Salad, vegetable, pickle Winter squash Cucurbita maxima S America 40 Fruit & flower as vegetable, seed edible Pumkin Cucurbita muskata C Mexico 40 Carotine rich, vegetable Summer squash Cucurbita pepo C Mexico 40 Vegetable Little/Ivy Coccinia indica Tropical Asia & Africa 22-48 Fruit & young shoot as vegetable 5
  6. 6. Cont… Bottle gourd Laginaria siceraria Africa 22 Vegetable Ridge gourd Luffa acutangula India 26 Vegetable Sponge gourd Luffa cylindrica India 26 Immatre- veg. mature for fibre Bitter gourd Momordica charantia Tropical Africa 22 Fruit – veg., seed condument Snake gourd Trichosanthes anguinia India 22 Vegetable Pointed gourd T. Dioca India 22 vegetable West Indian gherkin Cucumis anguria Africa 24 Vegetable & pickle 6
  7. 7. Cucumber Uses: health & beauty products (perfume, lotions, soap, shampoos) Fruit quality: skin color, spine color, presence/absence of wart & spines, fruit shape & firmness • Fruit firmness controlled by two factors- a) Flesh firmness b) Seed cavity Fruit size: German classification Size 1 – 6-9 cm Size 2 – 9-12 cm Length /diameter ratio 3:1 is desired 7
  8. 8. Cont… two types: a) Slicing cucumber (dark & thin skin with cylindrical shape) b) Pickling cucumber (with white spines are more popular, because they retain green color longer) Formation of bitter principle (cucurbitacin): • It belongs to terpinoid (monogenic dominant, Bi). Conc. of cucurbitacin is highest in placental region than in pericarp of fruits. Testing for cucurbitacin: 1. Tasting of the cotyledon of the seedling is simplest & most rapid method of selection. But requires several people as tastes 2. In large scale chloroform extract of seedling is applied to filter paper & sprayed with antimony chloride (SbCl3) & heated for short time in UV light applied to blots show conspicuous fluorescence varities: Japanese long green, Straight eight, Pusa Sanyog, Himangi, Phule Shubhangi, Sheetal 8
  9. 9. Melons 2n=2x=24 • Immature fruit- fresh salad, cooked (soup, stew, curry, stir- fry or pickled) • Mature fruit- dessert fruit, canned or used for syrrup or jam, dehydrated slices or pressed juice can be canned. • Melon nuts are dietary source of unsaturated vegetable oil & protein may be slightly roasted & eaten like nuts. • In ayurveda & Unani states that- these have cooling effect in body system. • Also it’s a dimusculent, diuretic & aphrodiastic. • Applied as lotion in several skin conditions • Melon market- both domesticated & international • Different flesh colors & aromas are preferred in differed in different parts of world 9
  10. 10. Biodiversity (India) – MELONS 10
  11. 11. Biodiversity (India) – MELONS 11
  12. 12. Main quality 1. Yield – earliness & concentration (duration of harvest period). long harvest period is a constraint 2. Appearance: Fruit shape, size, color, smoothness (smooth/netted) & flesh 3. Flesh quality: sweetness, aroma, texture, firmness & color. High quality melon 4. Shipping quality: depends on rind characters (hardness, thickness, netting & firm flesh) These are harvested at maturation (not immature) which is 7-10 days before peak ripeness & eating quality 12
  13. 13. Watermelon Breeding objectives: 1) Yield and quality: Number and total weight, consumer preference - small size fruits (also favors mechanized harvesting) Quality : 10% TSS, deep red flesh few small seed. Higher TSS greater preference, >12% very good, <9% not desirable. Texture of flesh: a. Melting ( or fine grained) flesh preferred . b. Fibrous( or course grained form) 2) Earliness: ( Pistillate/ hermaphrodite flower at early node), from flower setting to maturity require 30-35 days 3) Exploiting dwarfness (Mechanized harvesting). 4) Disease resistance ( Anthracnose, PM,DM and virus) 5) development of F1 hybrids 6) Tough skinned fruits for long transport. 7) Development of seedless water melon 13
  14. 14. Cont… Flavour: (Caramel) Some people will not recognize it: Associated with intense red flesh, heritable and can be eliminated by selection. Bitterness undesirable trait associated with lines derived from C. colosynthis.( gene transfer) Origin: Africa • Primary centers of diversity : south west & central Asia • Secondary centre of diversity : China, Korea, Portugal, Spain Genetic resources: Durgapur and Faizabad centers made responses for collection and evaluation of germplasm of watermelon 14
  15. 15. Accomplishments Seedless watermelon: First reported by Dr. Kihara (1939), in 1951-52 succeeded in producing commercial triploid. Diploid pollen on triploid stigma stimulates parthenocarpy, but ovules fail to develop. 2x cochicine treat 4X x 2X 3X (reciprocal is not successful) But (Citrulus colocynthis) 2X x 4X 3X (possible but bitter) Tetraploid produce less number of seeds than diploids and hence expensive to maintain teraploid Limitations: triploid seed cost is 20 times of that of OP seeds Difficult to germinate (removal of seed coat),require high temperature (86o F ) 15
  16. 16. Varieties • Special No. 1 • Seedless -Betsy & Boobie ARKA MANIK Sugar Baby Arka Jyoti 16
  17. 17. Muskmelon (Cucumis melo ., 2n = 2x = 24) It encompasses • Netted, salmon – flesh cantaloupe • Smooth – skinned green fleshed ‘Honey Dew’ • Wrinkled, white – fleshed, ‘Golden Beauty’ • Several other dessert melons in USA. Fruit quality: TSS, net type,flesh color, thichness & firmness, flavor, rind thichness & color. Breeding Objectives: • Thick skin, thick flesh and good consistency. • Good flavour, attractive outer colour, flesh colour texture. • Varieties with attractive shape having small seed cavity, small and negligible hollowness. • Varieties with sweet, juicy and flavorsome fruits are preferred: TSS >10 %( Flesh color and texture) 17
  18. 18. Nutritive value Per 100 g of edible portion Moisture 95.2 g Thiamine 0.11 mg Protien 0.3 g Niacin 0.3 mg Fat 0.2 g Vit. C 26 mg Minerals 0.4 g Carotene 169 I. U. Fibre 0.4 g Calories 17 Carbohydrate 3.5 g P 14 mg Ca 32 mg Fe 1.4 mg 18
  19. 19. Varieties ARKA RAJHANS ARKA JEET High yielding Oriental pickling melon variety KAU SAUBHAGYA (CM 8) 19
  20. 20. Loofah 2n=2x=26 • Luffa acutangula- ridge gourd • Luffa cylindrica – smooth gourd • Immature fruits are used as vegetables & mature fruits for fibre (industrial purpose) • Both species contain a gelatinous compound – Luffein • Compared to ridge gourd smooth gourd contain more protein, carotene & fibers Objectives 1. Earliness 2. High female to male sex ratio 3. Uniform thick cylindrical fruits free from bitterness 4. Tender, non fibre fruits for longer time 5. High fruit yield and more fruit number with more fruit weight 6. Resistant to powdery mildew and insects • Varities: • Smooth gourd: Pusa Chikni • Ridge gourd: IIHR 8 20
  21. 21. Pointed gourd parwal (hindi), or potol • It is used as ingredients of soup, stew, curry, sweet, or eaten fried and as potoler dorma or dolma (dolma) with fish, roe or meat stuffing • Good for maintaining healthy heart & brain • Origin: India or Indo-Malayan region • Quality- Bitter principle are found in root, shoot & even in leaf, but generally not in fruit. • Fruit quality – color, smaller, seed content & greater pulp • Germplasm resources: Narendra Deva University of Agril., Faziabad, UP & at Rajendra Agri. Uni., Sabour, Bihar • Good number of local varieties from WB have been assembled 21
  22. 22. nutritional value: pointed gourd (parwal) parameter raw % trans fat 0. 00 % fibre 0. 90 % oil (ether extract) 0. 20 % protein (n*6. 25) 1. 99 % sugar 1. 82 % total mufa 0. 04 % carbohydrate 6. 70 % total saturated f. Acid 0. 09 vitamine c mg/kg 71. 38 calcium mg/kg (as ca) 29. 12 calories kcal/100gm) 36. 56 cholesterol mg/kg 0. 00 iron mg/kg 107. 51 sodium mg/kg (as na) 53. 71 vitamine a mcg/kg 108. 03 % total pufa 0. 06 22
  23. 23. Tondli (coccinia indica) • Fruits are rich source of carbohydrate, protien (12%), vit. A (1.4 I.U.), vit. C (15 mg) per 100 g • Fruits can be shipping long distance or stored for 2 weeks. Snake gourd • Origin: India/Indo-Malaya • Good source of minerals, fibre & other nutrients • Trichosanthus is one the largest genera of cucurbitaceae, includes about 44 sps. Of which 22 in India • Max. genetic variability of snake gourd occurs in south & S- E Asia 23
  24. 24. Bottle Gourd (white flowered gourd, zucca melon) • Hard shell of fruit is used for making musical instruments • Fruits are bottle/crook necked since rate of pollen tube growth may not rapid enough to allow fertilization of ovules over entire length of the ovary • Decoction of leaf is very good for curing jaundice • Pulp is good for overcoming constipation, cough, night blindness & an antidote against certain poison Quality parameters: bitterness, hairiness, fruit shape Objectives: 1. Greater fruit number & weight 2. Earliness (appearance of pistillate flowers at early node) 3. High Female: Male flower ratio 4. Round, long, club shaped fruits 5. Sparse hairs persisting on skin 6. Non-fibrous flesh at edible stage 7. Non- bitter fruits 24
  25. 25. Per 100 g of edible portion Moisture 96.1 g Thiamine 0.03 mg Protien 0.2 g Niacin 0.2 mg Fat 1.00 g Vit. C 6 mg Minerals 0.5 g K 87 mg Fibre 0.6 g Calories 12 mg Carbohydrate 2.5 g P 10 mg Ca 20 mg Fe 0.7 mg Nutritional level Varities: Pusa Manjiri, Pusa Naveen, Kalyanpur long green, Samrat 25
  26. 26. Bittergourd • A natural triploid (2n=3x=33) of cultivated sp. Was reported in India • One of the most nutritious gourds, the plant has medicinal properties (germicidal property) • A compound known as 'charantin' present in the bitter gourd is used in the treatment of diabetes to lower blood sugar levels. • Bitterness due to momordiscosides, increases with age, prevent spoilage of cooked vegetable • Seed injestion should be avoided because they are toxic (alkaloids) Constituents Fruits water (ml) 92.0 calories 25.0 protein (a) 1.2 fat (g) 0.2 carbohydrate (g) 5.0 fiber (a) 1.0 vit. A (ug) 110.0 vit. C (mg) 57.0 iron (mg) 0.2 calcium (mg) 13.0 Per 100 Grams of Edible Portion 26
  27. 27. Cont… • Quality parameters: fruit color, shape & size, seed shape & size • Breeding Objectives 1. Early fruiting 2. High female to male sex ratio 3. Whitish green to glossy green fruit colour depending upon consumer preference 4. Less ridged fruit surface 5. Thick fruit for stuffing 6. Slow seed maturation in the fruit. 7. High yield. 8. Resistant to red pumpkin beetle and fruit fly varities: Pusa Do Mausmi, Pusa Vishesh, Preeti, Priyanka, Arka Harit, Phule green gold 27
  28. 28. Pumpkin & Squash • Among cucurbits pumpkin have excellent keeping quality (3-4 months) • Keeping quality of summer & winter squash is poor, thus it is essential to send fruit for market just after harvesting. Freshness may be maintained by sprinkling of water over fruits for 24-36 hours • Breeding objectives: • Non ridged fruit surface • Thick fruit flesh & small seed cavity • Round/oblong/flat round fruit shape • Orange flesh color rich in beta carotene 28
  29. 29. Varieties • Summer suash: Pusa Alankar, Austrelian green • Snake gourd: Konkan Sweta, CO 1, CO 2, CO 4. • Pumkin: Ambili Arka Suryamukhi ARKA CHANDAN 29
  30. 30. Oxygation improves yield & quality & minimizes internal fruit crack of cucurbits on a heavy a clay soil in the semi-arid tropics • Lack of oxygen due to sustained wetting fronts associated with drip & subsurface drip irrigated crops in heavy clay soil can negatively impacts on the yield, fruit quality & WUE • Effect of aerated irrigated water with subsurface drip irrigation, employing an in-line air injector (mazzi venturi introduce 12% air by vol. of water) • Season long WUE is greater with oxygation compared to normal Crop Yield (t/ha) before oxygation Yield (t/ha) after oxygation TSS (%) Watermelon 14.5 24.6 Increased by 19% Pumkin 26.3 28.9 4% Surya P. Bhattarai,2010, J. agri. Sci.: 2(3) 30
  31. 31. Fruit rotFusarium anthracnose Bacterial wilt Powdry mildew CMV Cucumber scabPhytophthora blight Important Diseases 31
  32. 32. Pests • Red pumkkin beetle • Aphid • Fruit fly • Mites • Root knot nematode 32
  33. 33. References 1. Vegetable breeding: Principles and practices, Hari har Ram 2. Competitive examinations in vegetable science, Dr. M.K. Rana 3. Horticulture at a glance: Bijendra Singh 4. Vegetable Breeding: Kolla 5. Vegetable: T. K. Boss 6. Internet 33
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