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Social, Intellectual and Cultural Thresholds 1914 - PRESENT
Gender <ul><li>Feminism and equal rights  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early century: World War I saw Western women get vote </li...
Social, Reforms, Social Revolutions <ul><li>Feminism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined: Women should enjoy equal rights in  </...
Women around the world <ul><li>East Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communists push women ...
Broad References  <ul><li>19th Century: Era of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>20th C.: Era of Telecommunications </li></...
Early Century <ul><li>Post World War I Pessimism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;lost generation&quot;  </li></ul></ul><ul...
After WW II mostly American <ul><li>Domestic containment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. leaders held families to be best defe...
Cross Cultural Exchanges <ul><li>Global Barbie  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western consumerism becoming a global phenomenon  </...
POP CULTURE <ul><li>Leisure time allowed for development of mass entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology led to syncret...
 
 
 
 
Internet Connections
McDonald’s in Tokyo
 
Brief history of the Internet <ul><li>Worldwide network: A brief history of the internet </li></ul><ul><li>1969  The inter...
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  1. 1. Social, Intellectual and Cultural Thresholds 1914 - PRESENT
  2. 2. Gender <ul><li>Feminism and equal rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early century: World War I saw Western women get vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of women changed dramatically after WWII in industrialized states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women mobilized to support war; some actually fought in war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women demanded full equality with men, access to education and employment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth control enables women to control their bodies and avoid &quot;biology destiny&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.N. Declaration of Women’s Rights officially grant women international rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids discrimination on basis of race or sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Western Europe, US, Oceania women entered politics, board rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender equality in Communist Countries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist states often improved women's legal status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite legal reforms, women have not yet gained true equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In USSR, Eastern Europe many women entered medicine, science but second to men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In China, one-child policy encourages infanticide or abandonment of baby girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Developing World: Africa, SW Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decolonization often as much from colonizing country as husbands, males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domesticity and abuse restricting rights of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in Arab and Muslim societies twice as likely as men to be illiterate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Indian women illiterate (75 perecent in 1980s) and confined at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Dowry deaths&quot; common in India; burning of wives in Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women leaders in South Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective political leaders: Indira Gandhi (India) and Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga became president of Sri Lanka, 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic activist Aung Sang Suu Kyi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 when under house arrest in Myanmar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks democracy in Burma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN launched a Decade for Women program in 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin America, Japan, Little Tigers beginning to follow early 20 th century West </li></ul>
  3. 3. Social, Reforms, Social Revolutions <ul><li>Feminism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined: Women should enjoy equal rights in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society, law, business, government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions about their bodies especially abortion, birth control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 1920s: Women have the vote but this is not equality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 1940s: Latin American women generally have the vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to feminism came from both left, right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left felt women would vote conservative, listen to their husbands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right felt women would be liberals, vote to change society </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Post War Europe saw the rise of feminism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simone de Beauvoir: society oppresses women, creates differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feminism becomes a middle class movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pill, right to work and education helped movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOW: National Organization of Women (USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressed for legislation to end discrimination towards women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1973: Roe v. Wade made abortion legal and strengthened women’s movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presses for equal access to jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs up against the glass ceiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An artificial barrier women cannot pass into management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women not entering the board rooms (CEOs), senior government positions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Women around the world <ul><li>East Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communists push women into society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women are comrades aiding the revolution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True also of USSR, Eastern Europe; to a lesser extend also true in Vietnam, North Korea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1960s Cultural Revolution pushed this idea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1980s economic liberalization seems to have hurt progress </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meiji women entered workforce (2/3 of work force); poor conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women enter into all workforces to free up men for army </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is true of every major combatant in World War II (US, UK, USSR, Germany) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Occupation changed Japanese society beginning in 1945 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US insisted on equal rights, women’s vote, equal pay </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women enter grassroots politics, consumer groups, environmental issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt, Turkey, Morocco, Malaya, Pakistan, Libya saw some positive changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim states ruled by Communists, USSR saw progress but only to a certain level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia so no significant changes and experienced some decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce, ownership of property allowed; control of bodies (birth control, abortion) opposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Catholic societies repeatedly blocked abortion, divorce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to liberalize repeatedly drew intervention of the Church, Pope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True of much of Latin America, African countries, Philippines, Catholic Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant fundamentalist forces in the US, Latin America opposed liberalized women’s rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Broad References <ul><li>19th Century: Era of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>20th C.: Era of Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers: 1890s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radios, Movies, Teletypes: 1920s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News magazines, journals: 1930s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television: 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Computers, Fax: 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, World Wide Web, Email: 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Phones: 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanization of the Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major aspect of consumerism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began with electrification of 1910s, 1920s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home computers, microwaves, advanced entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest sector of Western economies is now service related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service industries are retail, entertainment, sales, technology support </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Early Century <ul><li>Post World War I Pessimism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;lost generation&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Term described pessimism of U.S., European thinkers after the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postwar poetry, fiction reflected disillusionment with western culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholars--Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee--lamented decline of west </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious thought reflected uncertainty and pessimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Barth attacked liberal Christian theology embracing idea of progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older concepts of original sin and human depravity revived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on the ideal of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science tarnished by the technological horrors of World War I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most western societies granted suffrage to all men and women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many intellectuals disillusioned with democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives decried &quot;the rule of inferiors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Revolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, 1906 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space and time relative to the person measuring them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implication: reality or truth merely a set of mental constructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, 1927 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to state position, velocity of a subatomic particle at same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic universe indeterminate; can only speak of probabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged long-held assumptions about truth, cause and effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud's psychoanalytic theory, 1896 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between conscious and unconscious mental processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sought psychological causes of mental illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual repression frequent cause of neuroses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud's ideas shaped psychiatric profession, influenced literature and arts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When photography can reproduce nature, why should painting? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painters like Pablo Picasso sought freedom of expression, emotional expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowed from artistic traditions of Asia, Pacific, and Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No widely accepted standards of good or bad art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern architecture: the Bauhaus school started in Germany, 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An international style for twentieth-century urban buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walter Gropius: form should follow function; combined engineering and art </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple shapes, steel frames, and walls of glass </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. After WW II mostly American <ul><li>Domestic containment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. leaders held families to be best defense against communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women discouraged from working, should stay home and raise kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senator McCarthy led attack against suspected communists in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing pressure to conform, retreat to home and family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female liberation movement a reaction to postwar domesticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working women unhappy with new cult of domesticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writers Simone de Beauvoir ( The Second Sex ) and Betty Friedan ( The Feminine Mystique ) reflected women's dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some feminists used Marxist language, argued for &quot;women's liberation&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black nationalism in United States, Caribbean, and emerging states of Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jamaicans, singer Bob Marley, nationalist Marcus Garvey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. inspired by Gandhi's nonviolent methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. civil rights movement emerged from cold war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR critical of United States for treatment of African-Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans organized in protest of southern segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1954, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated education was unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks started boycott of Montgomery buses, led by M. L. King, 1955 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold war consumerism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist countries could not match United States in material wealth, consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stark contrasts between economies of western and eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan infused western Europe with aid, increased standard of living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The space race exemplified U.S.-Soviet competition in science and technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet gained nuclear weapons, then intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets launched Sputnik, first satellite, 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, first man to orbit the earth, 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American space program followed; John Glenn orbited, 1962 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Kennedy established NASA; United States put man on the moon, 1969 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peaceful coexistence somewhat improved after Stalin's death, 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight relaxation of censorship under Khrushchev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides feared nuclear confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khrushchev visited United States in 1959, put a human face on communism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cross Cultural Exchanges <ul><li>Global Barbie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western consumerism becoming a global phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sara versus Barbie in Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barbie seen as a threat to Islamic values, symbol of cultural imperialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iranian dolls, Sara and her brother Dara (an Islamic cleric), are modest alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbie in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image of Barbie unsettling, Mattel created a younger doll for Japanese market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas Iranians reject image of Barbie, Japanese adjust Barbie to their aesthetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption and cultural interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global culture of consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfies wants and desires rather than needs or necessities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homogenization of global culture: blue jeans, Coca-Cola, McDonalds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western icons often replace local businesses and indigenous cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand names also identify local products, for example, Swiss Rolex, Perrier, Armani </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-American culture competes with United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eva Peon (Evita) has become a pop icon in Argentina and beyond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American societies blended foreign and indigenous cultural practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The age of access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization minimizes social, economic, and political isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preeminence of English language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critics: mass media become a vehicle of cultural imperialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet is an information colony, with English hegemony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China attempts a firewall to control Internet information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations of technology in authoritarian states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire television showed dictator Mobutu Sese Seko walking on clouds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam and Iraq limit access to foreign servers on Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. POP CULTURE <ul><li>Leisure time allowed for development of mass entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology led to syncretic blend of world artistic traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Globalizing Art and Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine art vs. pop(ular) art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinction blurred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National distinctions largely gone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnections, exchanges without war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably greatest aspect of Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncretic World Beat: Classical, African, ethnic influences led to Jazz, Blues, Rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity of Beatles, ABBA, Ladysmith Black Mazembo around world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological wonder born of marriage between photography, art, music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood and Bollywood dominate production of world movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgrowth of British interest in competitive sports, 1895 Olympic revival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1920s/1950s: Baseball, basketball spreads wherever Americans live, stationed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s: Popularity of soccer spreads from Europe to Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today perhaps the primary world wide entertainment: 2 billion watch Olympics </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Internet Connections
  11. 15. McDonald’s in Tokyo
  12. 17. Brief history of the Internet <ul><li>Worldwide network: A brief history of the internet </li></ul><ul><li>1969 The internet is created by the US Department of Defense with the networking of computers at UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute. </li></ul><ul><li>1979 The British Post Office uses the technology to create the first international computer networks. </li></ul><ul><li>1980 Bill Gates's deal to put a Microsoft Operating System on IBM's computers paves the way for almost universal computer ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>1984 Apple launches the first successful 'modern' computer interface using graphics to represent files and folders, drop-down menus and, crucially, mouse control. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 Tim Berners-Lee creates the world wide web – using browsers, pages and links to make communication on the internet simple. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Google begins as a research project at Stanford University. The company is formally founded two years later by Sergey Brin and Larry Page. </li></ul><ul><li>2009 Dr Stephen Wolfram launches Wolfram Alpha. </li></ul>
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