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  1. 1. Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 28
  2. 2. Africa Becomes Independent ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  3. 3. Freedom (Uhuru) Monument at Dar es-Salaam Located in capital of Tanzania ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  4. 4. The Colonial Legacy <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved sanitation and health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political systems contributed to gradual creation of democratic ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits varied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only South Africa and Algeria developed along modern lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on export crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation agriculture and cash crops </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Rise of Nationalism <ul><li>Goal was independence </li></ul><ul><li>Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (Ghana) </li></ul><ul><li>Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978) formed the Kenya African National Union with a political and economic agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Mau Mau movement among the Kikuyu people of Kenya used terrorism to achieve uhuru (Swahili for freedom) </li></ul><ul><li>African National Congress formed in 1912 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally dominated by Western-educated intellectuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want economic and political reforms including equality for educated Africans </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Rise of Nationalism (cont.’d) <ul><li>Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in mid-1950s -- independence gained in 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle in Algeria affected Tunisia that was given independence in 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco gained independence in 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana (Gold Coast) gained independence in 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by Nigeria, Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika (when joined by Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most French colonies agree to accept independence within the framework of the French Community </li></ul><ul><li>By late 1960s only part of southern Africa and Portuguese Mozambique and Angola remained under European rule </li></ul><ul><li>Why so slow in gaining independence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonialism was established later in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With only a few exception, coherent states with a strong sense of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic unity did not exist </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa <ul><li>Most new African leaders come from the urban middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept the Western model -- capitalism and at least lip service to democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse views on economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly nationalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally accept national boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These were artificial and contained diverse ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of African Unity (1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-Africanism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa <ul><li>Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way to a series of military regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Most African countries dependent on export of a single crop or natural resource </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances, the resources still controlled by foreigners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Neocolonialism” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scarce natural resources spent on military equipment and expensive consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery and corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of urbanization </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present-Day Africa ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  10. 10. The Search for Solutions <ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to restrict foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arusha Declaration, 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations on income and established village collectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption lower at first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism has had mixed results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angola and Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments in Marxism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apartheid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa sense the end of Apartheid </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Search for Solutions (cont.’d) <ul><li>Nigeria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa’s most populous country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic and religious divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rwanda and Burundi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire/Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good News </li></ul><ul><li>The African Union </li></ul>
  12. 12. Continuity and Change in Modern Society <ul><li>Impact of the West </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on vocational training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventual introduction in European languages and Western culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State run schools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First the emphasis was on primary schools then high school and universities in the urban areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding and teachers are scarce in the rural areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Little Western influence outside the cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture and hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrations to plantations, cities, and refugee camps </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Traditional African House Located in Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  14. 14. African Women in Colorful Dress Djibouti, on Red Sea ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  15. 15. African Women <ul><li>Change in relationship between men and women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independence brought the idea of sexual equality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics still dominated mostly by men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women became a labor force, employed in menial tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Education open to all, but women comprise less than 20 percent of the students </li></ul><ul><li>Rural women generally still bound by communalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional practices still found </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. African Culture <ul><li>Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture </li></ul><ul><li>Modern African art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility and ritual have given way to pleasure and decoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional forms of art now more for tourists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern African literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to establish black dignity and purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinua Achebe, first major African novelist to write in English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing from native perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from the brutality of the foreign oppressor to the shortcomings of the new native leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ngugi Wa Thiong’o (b. 1938), A Grain of Wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wole Soyinka (b. 1934), The Interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women writers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ama Ata Aidoo (b. 1942), Changes: A Love Story </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul>
  17. 17. Crescent of Conflict <ul><li>Militant Islam as a sense of community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 11, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Humiliation and disgrace” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern regimes in Turkey and Iran </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More traditional in Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European influence and control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Question of Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab League, 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zionists and an independent Jewish state, 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of West’s betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Israel and Arab Neighbors, 1947-1994 ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  19. 19. Nasser and Pan-Arabism <ul><li>King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy replaced by a republic in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. supports Nasser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pan-Arabism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic,1958 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UAR ends in 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Fatah led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Modern Middle East ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  21. 21. Arab-Israeli Dispute <ul><li>Growing hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Knesset (parliament created) </li></ul><ul><li>June, 1967, Six-Day War </li></ul><ul><li>Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat (1918-1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur War, 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Camp David Agreement, 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Intifada (uprising) by PLO supporters in Israel, 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist attacks by Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>Minister Ehud Barak tried to re-start the peace process </li></ul><ul><li>Peace process broke down by 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard-line prime minister, Ariel Sharon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide attacks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Revolution in Iran <ul><li>Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) </li></ul><ul><li>Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980), 1941-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affluent middle class emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1900-1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’ite cleric exiled to Iraq and then France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah leaves the country in 1979, and the government collapsed shortly thereafter with a new government dominated by Khomeini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American embassy hostages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iranian Revolution moderated slightly, but repression returned in mid-1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Mohammad Khatemi, a moderate cleric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to a more pluralistic society open to the outside world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition from conservative elements </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Crisis in the Gulf <ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979-2003 </li></ul><ul><li>War against Iran, 1980-1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq sends military forces into Kuwait, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations response </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq <ul><li>Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Nation controlled by the Taliban who provided a base for terrorist Osama bin Laden </li></ul><ul><li>After September 11, 2001, coalition overthrows the Taliban </li></ul><ul><li>United States turned its attention to Iraq </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleged that there were weapons of mass destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War began March, 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East <ul><li>Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas traditional authority replaced by one-party rule or military dictatorships </li></ul><ul><li>Other states charismatic rule given way to modernizing bureaucratic regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Israel, democratic institutions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Economics of Oil <ul><li>Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate few are wealthy; the difference is oil </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to developing strong and stable economies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western capitalist model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining Islamic doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthiest hold much of the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage emigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why failure of democratic institutions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness of the West to coddle dictatorships to keep access to oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture of Islam </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Islamic Revival <ul><li>Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may be mutually reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalists are a rational and practical response to destabilizing forces and self-destructive practices </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking a cultural identity </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Western influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a “modernized” set of beliefs such as in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to secularization in Iran where there was a movement to Islamic purity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking purity found in Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trend toward Islamic purity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Modern Islam, 1998 ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  29. 29. Women and Islam <ul><li>Traditional role of women in Islamic societies </li></ul><ul><li>Modernist views that Islamic doctrine not opposed to women’s rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many restrictions due to pre-Islamic folk traditions that were tolerated in the early Islamic era </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More traditional views have prevailed in many Middle Eastern countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of the Iranian Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most conservative nation is Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights extended in some countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote in Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal right to seek a divorce in Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend university, receive military training, vote, practice birth control, and publish fiction in Iran </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Literature and Art <ul><li>Cultural Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Iran one of the most prolific countries </li></ul><ul><li>The veil (chador) a central metaphor in Iranian women’s writing </li></ul><ul><li>In Egypt the most illustrious writer is Naguib Mahfouz who wrote Cairo Trilogy </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Western culture </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have so many African nations moved toward authoritarianism since independence? </li></ul><ul><li>How has Western imperialism contributed to contemporary conflicts in the Middle East? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most important cultural trends in the contemporary Middle East? </li></ul>