Chap2 culture
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Chap2 culture Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 2 Culture and Organizational Behavior
  • 2. Case 1: A cultural clash in the entertainment industry
    • Can any nation protect its cultural characteristics and uniqueness?
      • In a world of instant communications via the Internet?
      • World wide distribution of movies?
      • World wide transmission of television?
      • World wide travel?
    • What is the potential of subsidies, trade restrictions, quotas, and governmental control of sustaining a unique national culture?
  • 3. Case 6—A & B Ellen Moore-Living/working in Bahrain
    • Culture in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia
    • Role of professional women
    • Adjustments to stereotypes
    • When to adjust & when to challenge?
  • 4. Cases
    • Case 6: “Ellen Moore:
      • Did Ellen compromise her values (too much) in accepting the Customer Service position?
      • How useful are her tips for women in becoming successful in management?
        • Meeting fellow employees or others?
        • Obtaining recognition?
        • Adjusting to stereotype female roles (when required)?
        • Finding and using a mentor?
        • Adjusting to the culture?
        • Negotiating with her husband on relative roles?
  • 5. Defining Culture: An unbounded definition
    • A way of life of a group of people
    • That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
    • Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society
  • 6. Narrowing the definition: Sathe’s Levels of Culture Water line Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Iceberg Onion
  • 7. How is Culture Learned?
    • Enculturation
      • Non-intentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned
    • Primary Socialization
      • more intentional learning process that occurs in the family and local community
    • Subcultures
      • Develop because a group has an ethnic background, language, or religion that is different from the majority population
    • Secondary Socialization
      • Occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with the knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully
  • 8. Classifications of culture
    • Broad classifications: Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework
    • Detailed classifications:
      • Tonnies and Loomis’s amplification
      • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations
      • Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition
      • Schwartz's classification
      • Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture
  • 9. Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework High-Context Low-Context China Austria Egypt Canada France Denmark Italy England Japan Finland Lebanon Germany Saudi Arabia Norway Spain Switzerland Syria United States
  • 10. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations
    • Framework to describe how different societies cope with various issues or problems
    • Includes 6 Values Orientations
    • A culture is defined by one or more variations of a values orientation
  • 11. Kluckhohn & Strodbeck definition of national culture Type of national culture Traditional-high context Mixed Modern—Low context
    • Relation to nature
    Subjugation Harmony Mastery
    • Time view
    Past Present Future
    • Human nature
    Evil (theory X) Mixed Good (theory Y)
    • Activity
    Being Containing Doing
    • Relationships
    Hierarchical Group Individualistic
    • Spatial
    Public Mixed Private
  • 12. Relation to Nature
    • Subjugation
      • Accept nature; don’t try to change it
    • Harmony
      • Coexist with nature (feng shui)
    • Mastery
      • Change nature through technology when necessary or desirable
  • 13. Time Orientation
    • Past
      • Emphasizes tradition
    • Present
      • Focuses on short-term
    • Future
      • Emphasizes long-term
  • 14. Basic Human Nature
    • Good
      • People trust each other
    • Mixed-Neutral
      • Generally trusting but need to be cautious and protect self
    • Evil
      • Lack of trust
  • 15. Activity Orientation
    • Doing
      • Emphasis on action, achievement, learning
    • Containing/Controlling
      • Emphasis on rationality and logic
    • Being
      • Emphasis on enjoying life and working for the moment
  • 16. Relationships among People
    • Individualistic
      • People define themselves through personal characteristics and achievement
    • Group-oriented
      • People relate to and take responsibility for members of the family, network, or community
    • Hierarchical
      • People value group relationships but also within the society emphasize relative ranking of groups
  • 17. Space Orientation
    • Public
      • Space belongs to all
    • Mixed
      • There is a combination of public and private space
    • Private
      • People consider it important to have their own space
  • 18. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values
    • Focuses specifically on work-related values
    • Developed in 1980 with data over 116,000 employees in 72 countries
    • Average scores for each country used to develop national profiles to explain differences in work behaviors
  • 19. Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition
      • individualism-collectivism
      • uncertainty avoidance
      • power distance
      • masculinity/femininity
      • Confucian work dynamism (time orientation)
  • 20. Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition Type of culture Traditional-High context Mixed Modern- Low context
    • Relationships
    • Collectivism
    Combination Individualism
    • Uncertainty avoidance
    Extensive Combination Limited
    • Power distance
    High Combination Low
    • Activity
    Femininity Combination Masculinity
    • Time orientation
    Long term Combination Short term
  • 21. Individualism/Collectivism
    • Collectivistic
      • People value the overall good of the group
    • Individualistic
      • People have concern for themselves and their immediate families
  • 22. Power Distance
    • The extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept that power is unequally distributed
    • Large
      • Differences among people with different ranks are acceptable
    • Small
      • Less comfortable with power differences
  • 23. Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Indicates preferred amount of structure
    • Weak
      • People prefer unstructured situations
    • Strong
      • People prefer more structure
  • 24. Masculinity/Femininity
    • Extent to which people prefer traditional male or female values
    • Feminine
      • “ Tender” values dominant - personal relationships, care for others, quality of life, service
    • Masculine
      • “ Tough” values dominant - success, money, status, competition
  • 25. The Chinese Value Survey
    • Reaction to the Hofstede study
    • Developed in Chinese based on traditional Chinese values
    • Translated and administered to students in 23 countries
    • 4 dimensions, 3 match Hofstede (PD, I/C, and M/F) plus Confucian Work Dynamism
  • 26. Long-term/Short-term Orientation
    • High Confucian work dynamism/Long-term oriented
      • Concern with future, value thrift and persistence
    • Low Confucian work dynamism/Short-term oriented
      • Oriented toward past and present, respect for tradition but here and now is most important
  • 27. Schwartz's classification
    • Focuses on universal aspects of individual value content and structure
    • Based on issues that confront all societies
      • The nature of boundaries between the individual and the group.
      • How to support responsible behavior.
      • How to regulate the relation of people to the social and natural world.
  • 28. Embeddedness Versus Autonomy
    • Embeddedness
      • People view others as inherently part of collectives. Meaning in life comes from social relationships & shared way of life & goals.
    • Autonomy
      • Individuals seen as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their own uniqueness
        • Intellectual autonomy - people follow their own ideas and value curiosity, creativity, and open-mindedness
        • Affective autonomy - individuals independently pursue positive experiences that make them feel good
  • 29. Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism
    • Hierarchy
      • The social system has clearly defined roles to identify obligations & rules of behavior
    • Egalitarianism
      • Think of each other as equals sharing basic human interests that values equality, justice, honesty & responsbility
  • 30. Mastery Versus Harmony
    • Harmony
      • Emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it
    • Mastery
      • Encourages people to master, change, and exploit the natural and social environment for personal or group goals
  • 31. Trompenaars’ Dimensions of Culture
    • Dimensions represent how societies develop approaches to managing problems and difficult situations
    • Over a 14 year period, data collected from over 46,000 managers representing more than 40 national cultures
  • 32. Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture
    • Particularism vs. Universalism
    • Collectivism vs. Individualism
    • Affective vs. Neutral Relationships
    • Diffuse vs. Specific Relationships
    • Ascription vs. Achievement
    • Relationship to Time
    • Relationship to Nature
  • 33. Universalism Versus Particularism
    • Particularist
      • Circumstances and relationships influence judgments of what is good or true
    • Universal
      • Judgment of what is good or true applies to every situation
  • 34. Individualism Versus Communitarianism
    • Communitarian
      • Emphasizes group membership, social responsibility, harmonious relationships, and cooperation
    • Individualist
      • Focus on self, personal freedom, and competitiveness
  • 35. Specificity Versus Diffusion
    • Level of particularity or wholeness used by the culture to define different constructs
    • Diffuse
      • Focus on conceptual wholeness and relationships of all kinds are valued
      • Small public spaces and larger private spaces
    • Specific
      • Objective, break things down into small parts
      • Large public spaces and smaller private spaces
  • 36. Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status
    • Ascription
      • Believe people are born into influence, and who you are, your potential, and your connections are all important
    • Achievement
      • Emphasize attainment of position and influence through a demonstration of expertise
  • 37. Inner Direction Versus Outer Direction
    • Outer-directed
      • Believe virtue is outside the person and located in nature and relationships
    • Inner-directed
      • See virtue as being inside the individual and believe that conscience and convictions are internal
  • 38. Sequential Time Versus Synchronous Time
    • Synchronic
      • Do several activities simultaneously, the time for appointments is approximate, and interpersonal relationships are more important than schedules
    • Sequential
      • Do one thing at a time, make appointments and arrive on time, and generally stick to schedules.
  • 39. The World Values Survey
    • Study of sociocultural and political change
    • Collected data from more than 65 societies
    • Four waves of data collection: 1981, 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 1999-2001
  • 40. Traditional Versus Secular-Rational Orientations Toward Authority
    • Traditional
      • Values reflect preindustrial society and the centrality of the family
    • Secular-Rational
      • Opposite preferences to traditional
  • 41. Survival Versus Self-Expression Values
    • Survival
      • Put priority on economic and physical security over self-expression and quality of life
    • Self-expression
      • Opposite preferences to survival
  • 42. Do the Frameworks Explain Differences?
    • Represent average behavior within a culture
    • Countries classified similarly may still be very different
    • Reliability may vary
    • Range of differences on any dimension exists within the population of a single country
    • Can explain differences in individual people’s behavior within the same country
  • 43. Convergence or Divergence?
    • Closer communication and trade links
    • Worldwide markets and products
    • Different cultural interpretations
    • Need to maintain cultural identity
  • 44. Implications for Managers
    • Understanding culture important even in home country
    • Organization’s stakeholders could be from another culture
    • Need to look for underlying cultural meanings