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Chap2 culture
 

Chap2 culture

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    Chap2 culture Chap2 culture Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Culture and Organizational Behavior
    • Case 1: A cultural clash in the entertainment industry
      • Can any nation protect its cultural characteristics and uniqueness?
        • In a world of instant communications via the Internet?
        • World wide distribution of movies?
        • World wide transmission of television?
        • World wide travel?
      • What is the potential of subsidies, trade restrictions, quotas, and governmental control of sustaining a unique national culture?
    • Case 6—A & B Ellen Moore-Living/working in Bahrain
      • Culture in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia
      • Role of professional women
      • Adjustments to stereotypes
      • When to adjust & when to challenge?
    • Cases
      • Case 6: “Ellen Moore:
        • Did Ellen compromise her values (too much) in accepting the Customer Service position?
        • How useful are her tips for women in becoming successful in management?
          • Meeting fellow employees or others?
          • Obtaining recognition?
          • Adjusting to stereotype female roles (when required)?
          • Finding and using a mentor?
          • Adjusting to the culture?
          • Negotiating with her husband on relative roles?
    • Defining Culture: An unbounded definition
      • A way of life of a group of people
      • That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
      • Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society
    • Narrowing the definition: Sathe’s Levels of Culture Water line Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Iceberg Onion
    • How is Culture Learned?
      • Enculturation
        • Non-intentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned
      • Primary Socialization
        • more intentional learning process that occurs in the family and local community
      • Subcultures
        • Develop because a group has an ethnic background, language, or religion that is different from the majority population
      • Secondary Socialization
        • Occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with the knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully
    • Classifications of culture
      • Broad classifications: Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework
      • Detailed classifications:
        • Tonnies and Loomis’s amplification
        • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations
        • Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition
        • Schwartz's classification
        • Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture
    • Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework High-Context Low-Context China Austria Egypt Canada France Denmark Italy England Japan Finland Lebanon Germany Saudi Arabia Norway Spain Switzerland Syria United States
    • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations
      • Framework to describe how different societies cope with various issues or problems
      • Includes 6 Values Orientations
      • A culture is defined by one or more variations of a values orientation
    • Kluckhohn & Strodbeck definition of national culture Type of national culture Traditional-high context Mixed Modern—Low context
      • Relation to nature
      Subjugation Harmony Mastery
      • Time view
      Past Present Future
      • Human nature
      Evil (theory X) Mixed Good (theory Y)
      • Activity
      Being Containing Doing
      • Relationships
      Hierarchical Group Individualistic
      • Spatial
      Public Mixed Private
    • Relation to Nature
      • Subjugation
        • Accept nature; don’t try to change it
      • Harmony
        • Coexist with nature (feng shui)
      • Mastery
        • Change nature through technology when necessary or desirable
    • Time Orientation
      • Past
        • Emphasizes tradition
      • Present
        • Focuses on short-term
      • Future
        • Emphasizes long-term
    • Basic Human Nature
      • Good
        • People trust each other
      • Mixed-Neutral
        • Generally trusting but need to be cautious and protect self
      • Evil
        • Lack of trust
    • Activity Orientation
      • Doing
        • Emphasis on action, achievement, learning
      • Containing/Controlling
        • Emphasis on rationality and logic
      • Being
        • Emphasis on enjoying life and working for the moment
    • Relationships among People
      • Individualistic
        • People define themselves through personal characteristics and achievement
      • Group-oriented
        • People relate to and take responsibility for members of the family, network, or community
      • Hierarchical
        • People value group relationships but also within the society emphasize relative ranking of groups
    • Space Orientation
      • Public
        • Space belongs to all
      • Mixed
        • There is a combination of public and private space
      • Private
        • People consider it important to have their own space
    • Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values
      • Focuses specifically on work-related values
      • Developed in 1980 with data over 116,000 employees in 72 countries
      • Average scores for each country used to develop national profiles to explain differences in work behaviors
    • Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition
        • individualism-collectivism
        • uncertainty avoidance
        • power distance
        • masculinity/femininity
        • Confucian work dynamism (time orientation)
    • Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition Type of culture Traditional-High context Mixed Modern- Low context
      • Relationships
      • Collectivism
      Combination Individualism
      • Uncertainty avoidance
      Extensive Combination Limited
      • Power distance
      High Combination Low
      • Activity
      Femininity Combination Masculinity
      • Time orientation
      Long term Combination Short term
    • Individualism/Collectivism
      • Collectivistic
        • People value the overall good of the group
      • Individualistic
        • People have concern for themselves and their immediate families
    • Power Distance
      • The extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept that power is unequally distributed
      • Large
        • Differences among people with different ranks are acceptable
      • Small
        • Less comfortable with power differences
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
      • Indicates preferred amount of structure
      • Weak
        • People prefer unstructured situations
      • Strong
        • People prefer more structure
    • Masculinity/Femininity
      • Extent to which people prefer traditional male or female values
      • Feminine
        • “ Tender” values dominant - personal relationships, care for others, quality of life, service
      • Masculine
        • “ Tough” values dominant - success, money, status, competition
    • The Chinese Value Survey
      • Reaction to the Hofstede study
      • Developed in Chinese based on traditional Chinese values
      • Translated and administered to students in 23 countries
      • 4 dimensions, 3 match Hofstede (PD, I/C, and M/F) plus Confucian Work Dynamism
    • Long-term/Short-term Orientation
      • High Confucian work dynamism/Long-term oriented
        • Concern with future, value thrift and persistence
      • Low Confucian work dynamism/Short-term oriented
        • Oriented toward past and present, respect for tradition but here and now is most important
    • Schwartz's classification
      • Focuses on universal aspects of individual value content and structure
      • Based on issues that confront all societies
        • The nature of boundaries between the individual and the group.
        • How to support responsible behavior.
        • How to regulate the relation of people to the social and natural world.
    • Embeddedness Versus Autonomy
      • Embeddedness
        • People view others as inherently part of collectives. Meaning in life comes from social relationships & shared way of life & goals.
      • Autonomy
        • Individuals seen as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their own uniqueness
          • Intellectual autonomy - people follow their own ideas and value curiosity, creativity, and open-mindedness
          • Affective autonomy - individuals independently pursue positive experiences that make them feel good
    • Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism
      • Hierarchy
        • The social system has clearly defined roles to identify obligations & rules of behavior
      • Egalitarianism
        • Think of each other as equals sharing basic human interests that values equality, justice, honesty & responsbility
    • Mastery Versus Harmony
      • Harmony
        • Emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it
      • Mastery
        • Encourages people to master, change, and exploit the natural and social environment for personal or group goals
    • Trompenaars’ Dimensions of Culture
      • Dimensions represent how societies develop approaches to managing problems and difficult situations
      • Over a 14 year period, data collected from over 46,000 managers representing more than 40 national cultures
    • Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture
      • Particularism vs. Universalism
      • Collectivism vs. Individualism
      • Affective vs. Neutral Relationships
      • Diffuse vs. Specific Relationships
      • Ascription vs. Achievement
      • Relationship to Time
      • Relationship to Nature
    • Universalism Versus Particularism
      • Particularist
        • Circumstances and relationships influence judgments of what is good or true
      • Universal
        • Judgment of what is good or true applies to every situation
    • Individualism Versus Communitarianism
      • Communitarian
        • Emphasizes group membership, social responsibility, harmonious relationships, and cooperation
      • Individualist
        • Focus on self, personal freedom, and competitiveness
    • Specificity Versus Diffusion
      • Level of particularity or wholeness used by the culture to define different constructs
      • Diffuse
        • Focus on conceptual wholeness and relationships of all kinds are valued
        • Small public spaces and larger private spaces
      • Specific
        • Objective, break things down into small parts
        • Large public spaces and smaller private spaces
    • Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status
      • Ascription
        • Believe people are born into influence, and who you are, your potential, and your connections are all important
      • Achievement
        • Emphasize attainment of position and influence through a demonstration of expertise
    • Inner Direction Versus Outer Direction
      • Outer-directed
        • Believe virtue is outside the person and located in nature and relationships
      • Inner-directed
        • See virtue as being inside the individual and believe that conscience and convictions are internal
    • Sequential Time Versus Synchronous Time
      • Synchronic
        • Do several activities simultaneously, the time for appointments is approximate, and interpersonal relationships are more important than schedules
      • Sequential
        • Do one thing at a time, make appointments and arrive on time, and generally stick to schedules.
    • The World Values Survey
      • Study of sociocultural and political change
      • Collected data from more than 65 societies
      • Four waves of data collection: 1981, 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 1999-2001
    • Traditional Versus Secular-Rational Orientations Toward Authority
      • Traditional
        • Values reflect preindustrial society and the centrality of the family
      • Secular-Rational
        • Opposite preferences to traditional
    • Survival Versus Self-Expression Values
      • Survival
        • Put priority on economic and physical security over self-expression and quality of life
      • Self-expression
        • Opposite preferences to survival
    • Do the Frameworks Explain Differences?
      • Represent average behavior within a culture
      • Countries classified similarly may still be very different
      • Reliability may vary
      • Range of differences on any dimension exists within the population of a single country
      • Can explain differences in individual people’s behavior within the same country
    • Convergence or Divergence?
      • Closer communication and trade links
      • Worldwide markets and products
      • Different cultural interpretations
      • Need to maintain cultural identity
    • Implications for Managers
      • Understanding culture important even in home country
      • Organization’s stakeholders could be from another culture
      • Need to look for underlying cultural meanings